Skip to main content

Full text of "The Complete Diaries Of Theodor Herzl English Volume I-V OCR"

See other formats


The Complete Diaries 
of Theodor Herzl 

The Complete Diaries of 


Edited by 

Raphael Patai 

Translated by 



New York 




© i960 by The Theodor Herzl Foundation, Inc. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 60-8594 

Thomas Yoseloff, Publisher 
11 East 36th Street 
New York 16, N. Y. 

Thomas Yoseloff Ltd. 

123 New Bond Street 
London W. 1, England 

Printed in the United States of America 


A hundred years after his birth, fifty-six years after his death, and twelve years 
after the realization of his dream in the State of Israel, Theodor Herzl is univer- 
sally recognized in Jewish history, and, in fact, in world history, as the founder 
of polidcal Zionism and the father of the Jewish state. His Diaries, published here 
in full for the first time, contain the fascinating record of the eight last years of 
his life during which, practically single-handed and at the sacrifice of his fortune, 
his career, his family and his very life, he created a world movement among the 
Jews and made the rulers and governments of his day accept the idea that the 
Jewish people must have a homeland of its own. 

When Herzl began keeping his Diaries in 1895. he was a leading Viennese 
feuilletonist and playwright. He was celebrated in his home town, and had achieved 
some fame abroad as well. He was a recognized master of the pen who clad his 
philosophical ideas, social criticism, and subtle satire in a sensitive, refined, and 
polished style. In the Diaries, however, he consciously forewent any stylistic sparkle. 
In them his language is generally simple, direct and straightforward, but sometimes 
obscure. The entries were often written hastily, and occasionally even carelessly. 
They were intended to be not literature but a frank account of his day-to-day 
struggle for the movement, of his meetings, plans, and actions, and of the ideas and 
ideals that motivated him. Herzl put his ideas down as they came to him, often 
using expressions in French, English, Yiddish, Hebrew, Italian, Hungarian, Latin, 
Greek, and Turkish, or falling back on the Viennese idiom. 

To translate such a document into English was certainly not an easy undertaking. 
In Professor Harry Zohn we found a translator fully equal to the task. Professor 
Zohn achieved that happy medium between too close an adherence to the original 
and too free a rendering which makes his translation read as if Herzl had written 
in English instead of German. 

The Diaries represent merely a part of Herzl's literary output. He wrote many 
feuilletons, short stories, sketches (some of them collected and edited in separate 
volumes), some thirty plays, a book on the Jewish State, a novel (A Itne island), 
Zionist addresses and other writings, and a great number of letters addressed to 
hundreds of writers— artists, statesmen, scholars, Zionist leaders, etc.— scattered 
in more than a dozen countries. While creating the Zionist movement, this writing 
activity went on unceasingly, as did his work as literary editor of the Neue Freie 

There can be no doubt as to Herzl's exceptional talents in many fields and his 
complete dedication to the Jewish cause. Yet his success among both the simple 
people and in the courts of the high and mighty sprang from yet a third source. 
This was his tremendous personal magnetism which made its impact on everyone 
and which added weight to his arguments and power to his convictions. The 
Diaries contain only occasional reflections of this unique personality, filled as they 
are with details of his unceasing efforts to convince and convert, to motivate and 
activate people as dissimilar as the mighty German Kaiser, the timid Chief Rabbi 




of Vienna the shrewd Oriental expert Arminius VdmWry. and the harden a 
scions of the Rothschild dynasty. Therefore it is recommended that these Diaries 
al *'“■ < "" biosrap1 ”' ot Hmi - «< wh,ch 

Prior to the present edition. less than one third of the text of the n,w;., 
published in English. Even the German edition, printed in the early iq 2 os “ 
Berlin did not contain the entire text. Hundreds of passages, a number covering 
severa pages, were omitted because of political or personal considerations Today 8 
more than half a century after the last entry was made, it is felt that everything 
contained in the original manuscript of Herzl’s Diaries belongs to history and no, 
nly can, but should, be made public. Thus the present edition— published at the 
initiative of Dr. Emanuel Neumann, president of the Theodor Herd Foundation 

b^tThTfiiied. fint t,me every word Herzl entered in the ei 8 h,een c °py- 

The editor has attempted to annotate this edition as fully as possible The first 
four vo umes contain the text of the Diaries, the fifth the notes and the Index 
The notes are arranged alphabetically and cover practically all the names of per- 
addi'tioOTd ! m . t,tut,ons ' organizations mentioned by Herzl as well as supplying 

trn rnn, d r S °" many SUbjeCtS ’ A s P ecial prefatory note to the fifth volumf 
ill contain information on the nature of the annotations and their use as well 
as the acknowledgments to the dozens of individuals and institutions who helped 
,n h "6 <*>'"> Memion however |>e made hereT.he 

Central Archives of Jerusalem in whose safekeeping the original manuscript of 
Herzl-s D.anes is deposited and whose director Dr Alex Bdn a^d staff fi led 
untiringly the innumerable requests called forth by this work. d 

New York 

March 16, i 9 6o Raphael Patai 

Translator’s Foreword 

n is a rare privilege to be associated with the first complete and unabridged 
if S ° str ‘ k,n g ,n ,ts immediacy and directness, does not possess 


Director of Research. Dr. Raphael Patai. who ha, proved SJX S-, lmMu } es 
hi, secretary, Pearl Silver. My Brandeis colleague Dr fohj i Wi^hl h' l ° 

and Ba,bara ' v * bt - J5S ts sz 

dynamdc Jewish leade^brillUn! roa t memory , of Ludvvi g Lewisohn- 

and fatherly friend. maSter ,ransLltor ^m the German. 

Brandeis University 

Waltham, Massachusetts Harry Zoiin 

March, i960 


Volume I 


Preface v 

Translator’s Foreword vi 

Book One 

May-June 17. 1895 1 

Book Two 

June 23. 1895-April ai, 1896 185 

Book Three 

April 22-July 2i, 1896 3 2 5 

Book One 

Of the Jewish Cause 
Begun in Paris 
Around Pentecost, 1895 

For some time past I have been occupied with a work of 
infinite grandeur. At the moment I do not know whether I 
shall carry it through. It looks like a mighty dream. But for 
days and weeks it has possessed me beyond the limits of con- 
sciousness; it accompanies me wherever I go, hovers behind my 
ordinary talk, looks over my shoulder at my comically trivial 
journalistic work, disturbs me and intoxicates me. 

It is still too early to surmise what will come of it. But my 
experience tells me that even as a dream it is something remark- 
able, and that I ought to write it down — if not as a reminder 
to mankind, then at least for my own delight or reflection in 
later years. And perhaps as something between these two possi- 
bilities — that is, as literature. If my conception is not translated 
into reality, at least out of my activity can come a novel. 

Title: The Promised Landl 

To tell the truth, I am no longer sure that it was not actually 
the novel that I first had in mind — although not as something 
“literary” for its own sake, but only as something that would 
serve a purpose. 

And the fact that after such a short time I am no longer sure 
of it is the best proof of how necessary this written record is. 
How much I have regretted that on the day of my arrival in 
Paris I didn t start a diary to preserve the experiences, the 
impressions and visions which cannot get into the newspaper 
because they have an odd way of disappearing too fast. In this 
way a lot has escaped me. 

But what are the experiences of a newspaper correspondent 
compared with what I am now working on! What dreams, 
thoughts, letters, meetings, actions I shall have to live through— 



disappointments if nothing comes of it, terrible struggles if 
things work out. All that must be recorded. 

Stanley interested the world with his little travel book How 
I Found Livingstone. And when he made his way across the 
Dark Continent, the world was enthralled — the entire civilized 
world. Yet how petty are such exploits when compared to mine. 
Today I must still say: compared to my dream. 

When did I actually begin to concern myself with the Jewish 
Question? Probably ever since it arose; certainly from the time 
that I read Duhring’s book. In one of my old notebooks, now 
packed away somewhere in Vienna, are my first observations on 
Duhring’s book and on the Question. At that time I still had 
no newspaper as an outlet for my writings — it was, I believe, 
in 1881 or 1882; but I know that even today I repeatedly say 
some of the things that I wrote down then. As the years went 
on, the Jewish Question bored into me and gnawed at me, tor- 
mented me and made me very miserable. In fact, I kept coming 
back to it whenever my own personal experiences — joys and 
sorrows — permitted me to rise to broader considerations. 

Naturally, each passing year brought a change in my thinking, 
something I was consciously aware of. In the same way, a dif- 
ferent man now looks out at me from a mirror than formerly. 
But despite the altered features, the person is the same. By these 
signs of age I recognize my maturity. 

At first, the Jewish Question grieved me bitterly. There might 
have been a time when I would have liked to get away from 
it — into the Christian fold, anywhere. But in any case, these 
were only vague desires born of youthful weakness. For I can 
say to myself with the honesty inherent in this diary — which 
would be completely worthless if I played the hypocrite with 
myself— that I never seriously thought of becoming baptized 
or changing my name. This latter point is even attested to by 
an incident. When as a green young writer I took a manuscript 
to the Vienna Deutsche Wochenschrift, Dr. Friedjung advised 
me to adopt a pen-name less Jewish than my own. I flatly refused, 
saying that I wanted to continue to bear the name of my father. 


and I offered to withdraw the manuscript. Friedjung accepted 
it anyway. 

I then became a writer of sorts, with little ambition and 
petty vanities. 

The Jewish Question naturally lurked for me around every 
turn and corner. I sighed over it and made fun of it; I felt 
unhappy, but still it never really took hold of me, although even 
before I came here I wanted to write a Jewish novel. I was 
going to write it during my travels in Spain on which I set out 
in the summer of 1891. At that time it was my next literary 
project. The hero was to have been my dear friend Heinrich 
Kana, who had shot himself that February in Berlin. I believe 
that through the novel I wanted to write myself free of his 
ghost. In its first draft the novel was entitled Samuel Kohn, 
and among my loose notes there must be many which have 
reference to it. I wanted in particular to contrast the suffering, 
despised, and decent mass of poor Jews with the rich ones. The 
latter experience nothing of anti-Semitism which they are 
actually and mainly responsible for. The milieu in which Kana 
lived was to be set off against that of his rich relatives. 

The Neue Freie Presse sent me to Paris as its correspondent. 
I took the job because I sensed at once how much I would see 
and learn of the world in that post; but I still regretted the 
abandoned plan of the novel. 

In Paris I was in the midst of politics — at least as an observer. 
I saw how the world is run. I also stood amazed at the phenome- 
non of the crowd — for a long time without comprehending it. 
Here too I reached a higher, more disinterested view of anti- 
Semitism, from which at least I did not have to suffer directly. 
In Austria or in Germany I must constantly fear that someone 
will shout “Hep, hep!” after me. But here I pass through the 
crowd unrecognized. 

In this word “unrecognized” lies a terrible reproach against 
the anti-Semites. 

Up to now I have heard that cry of “Hep, hep!” with my 
own ears only twice. The first time was when I passed through 


Mainz in 1888. One evening I entered a cheap nightclub and 
had a beer. When I got up to leave and made my way to the 
door through the noise and the smoke, a fellow called “Hep, 
hep!” after me. A chorus of horse-laughs arose around him. 

The second time was at Baden near Vienna. Someone shouted 
“Dirty Jew” at me as I was riding by in a carriage, coming from 
Speidel’s home at Hinterbruhl. This shout went deeper, be- 
cause it came as a memorable epilogue to the conversation I 
had had in Hinterbruhl and because it resounded on my “home” 

In Paris, then, I gained a freer attitude toward anti-Semitism 
which I now began to understand historically and make allow- 
ances for. 

Above all, I recognized the emptiness and futility of efforts 
to “combat anti-Semitism.” Declamations made in writing or 
in closed circles do no good whatever; they even have a comical 
effect. It is true that in addition to careerists and simpletons 
there may be very stalwart people serving on such “relief 
committees.” These resemble the “relief committees” formed 
a ^ ter an< ^ before! — floods, and they accomplish about as much. 
The noble Bertha von Suttner is in error — an error, to be sure, 
which does her great honor— when she believes that such a 
committee can be of help. Exactly the case of the peace societies. 
A man who invents a terrible explosive does more for peace 
than a thousand gentle apostles. 

This is roughly what I answered Baron Leitenberger when 
he asked me three years ago what I thought of the Freies Dlatt 
as an organ to “combat etc.” I said I thought nothing of it. 

owever, something could be done through the medium of 
the press, I said, and then I unfolded to him a plan for a 
popular paper for combatting Jew-hatred— a paper to be di- 
rected by a simon-pure Gentile. However, the Baron thought 
my plan too complicated, or too costly. He wanted to fight only 
on a small scale— against anti-Semitism! 

T° d ay, of course, I am of the opinion that what seemed 
adequate to me at that time would be a feeble, foolish gesture. 


Anti-Semitism has grown and continues to grow — and so do I. 

I can still recall two different conceptions of the Question 
and its solution which I had in the course of those years. About 
two years ago I wanted to solve the Jewish Question, at least in 
Austria, with the help of the Catholic Church. I wished to gain 
access to the Pope (not without first assuring myself of the 
support of the Austrian church dignitaries) and say to him: 
Help us against the anti-Semites and I will start a great move- 
ment for the free and honorable conversion of Jews to 

Free and honorable by virtue of the fact that the leaders of 
this movement — myself in particular — would remain Jews and 
as such would propagate conversion to the faith of the majority. 
The conversion was to take place in broad daylight, Sundays 
at noon, in Saint Stephen’s Cathedral, with festive processions 
and amidst the pealing of bells. Not in shame, as individuals 
have converted up to now, but with proud gestures. And be- 
cause the Jewish leaders would remain Jews, escorting the 
people only to the threshold of the church and themselves 
staying outside, the whole performance was to be elevated by 
a touch of great candor. 

We, the steadfast men, would have constituted the last gen- 
eration. We would still have adhered to the faith of our fathers. 
But we would have made Christians of our young sons before 
they reached the age of independent decision, after which con- 
version looks like an act of cowardice or careerism. As is my 
custom, I had thought out the entire plan down to all its minute 
details. I could see myself dealing with the Archbishop of 
Vienna; in imagination I stood before the Pope — both of them 
were very sorry that I wished to do no more than remain part 
of the last generation of Jews — and sent this slogan of mingling 
of the races flying across the world. 

As soon as I had an opportunity to discuss the matter with 
them, I intended to win over to this plan the publishers of the 
Neue Freie Presse. From Paris I had previously given them some 
advice which, to the detriment of the Liberal Party in Austria, 


they did not follow. About a year before the Socialists’ drive 
for electoral reform became acute, I recommended that the 
Christmas editorial should suddenly demand universal suffrage. 
In this way the Liberals could regain the solid ground they had 
lost among the people and the intelligent elements in the work- 
ing-class. Subsequently, the agitation for electoral reform reached 
my publishers from the outside, and their stand on it was not 
a felicitous one. 

It is true that I had no real authority with the editorial 
writers; they regarded me only as a talker and a writer of 

Thus Benedikt, too, rejected my idea about the Pope when 
I spoke with him about it here in Paris, as Bacher had earlier 
rejected my idea concerning universal suffrage. 

But one thing in Benedikt’s response struck me as being true. 
He said: For a hundred generations your line has preserved 
itself within the fold of Judaism. Now you are proposing to set 
yourself up as the terminal point in this process. This you can- 
not do and have no right to do. Besides, the Pope would never 
receive you. 

This, however, did not prevent the Neue Freie Presse and 
the Austrian liberals from seeking the Pope’s intervention 
against the anti-Semites later. This happened last winter, a year 
and a half after my conversation with Benedikt, though under 
circumstances that were unfavorable and even ran counter to 
the principles involved— that is to say, when Cardinal Schonbom 
went to Rome in order to ask the Pope to come out against that 
element among the anti-Semites which the clergy and the 
government were beginning to find troublesome. By such irre- 
vocable actions the Liberals recognized what they had always 
denied previously: the right of the Pope to meddle in the 

internal affairs of Austria. The result of this abdication equalled 
zero. ^ 

I had meant something entirely different: a diplomatic peace 
treaty concluded behind closed doors. 

.... wmtLttt utAKIES OF THEODOR HERZL 9 

WheTwould I C °h ld n °‘ d ° a " ything With0Ut —Paper. 

have been e T 8 °‘ “I aUthorit >’ from? What would I 
have been able to offer in exchange? The services of the leadine 

liberal paper might have induced the clever Pone to h 8 

«hing. issue a declaration or drop a hint On a^trr 

p^TlVd e r d ™ k XIII made atomTe 

After this Dl ,! D* Ar< “* Fme Press ‘ is so well done, 
ter this plan had been abandoned, there ripened in mv 
unconscious, in that nhcmvo . ripened in my 

political bu, more con, emplane, ZrTy 

Le™; ,o h r:r H t' d b s ~ wh ™ 1 — 

- - £ 

have taken on a numbed of anti 7 ^ J* 3110 " 8 *. In the 8 hetto we 
has been corrupted bv on ^ ^ uallties - Our character 

through some other kind 

IS a consequence of the • A «ually, anti-Semitism 
•he Peoples who ^ 

l^ruX^n^Hir hiSt ° riCal Pr0dU "’ - ** victim „° 
no. reality that « « ^ T "'> d ° 

that way amidst tortures because the- cT' ?* y made us 
honorable for Christian,: and 

deal in money. We cling to money because they flune 
money. Moreover, we always had to be prepared to flee 

tkinT-' ° Ur P °' SeSS ' 0nS from P'nndcrers. This is how our" uT 
tionship to money arose. Then, too, as Kammerknechte of the 

Emperor we constituted a kind of indirect taxation We ex 

trac ed money from the people which later was stolen or con- 

tnn f "V" US ' AI1 ‘ heSe sufferin 8s rendered us ugly and 
transformed our character which had in earlier times been 

proud and magnificent. After all. we once were men who knew 


how to defend the state in time of war, and we must have been 
a highly gifted people to have endured two thousand years of 

carnage without being destroyed. 

“Now, it was erroneous on the part of the doctrinaire liber- 
tarians to believe that men can be made equal by publishing an 
edict in the Imperial Gazette. When we emerged from the 
ghetto, we were, and for the time being remained, Ghetto 
Jews. We should have been given time to get accustomed to 
freedom. But the peoples around us have neither the mag- 
nanimity nor the patience. They see only the bad and con- 
spicuous characteristics of a liberated people and have no idea 
that these released men have been unjustly punished. Added 
to this is the prevalent Socialist opposition to mobile private 
capital, the kind with which Jews have been forced to occupy 
themselves exclusively for centuries past. 

“But if the Jews turn from money to professions that were 
previously barred to them, they cause a terrible pressure on 
the area in which the middle classes earn their living, a pressure 
under which the Jews actually suffer most of all. 

“However, anti-Semitism, which is a strong and unconscious 
force among the masses, will not harm the Jews. I consider it 
to be a movement useful to the Jewish character. It represents 
the education of a group by the masses, and will perhaps lead to 
its being absorbed. Education is accomplished only through 
hard knocks. A Darwinian mimicry will set in. The Jews will 
adapt themselves. They are like the seals, which an act of 
nature cast into the water. These animals assume the appearance 
and habits of fish, which they certainly are not. Once they return 
to dry land again and are allowed to remain there for a few 
generations, they will turn their fins into feet again. 

“The traces of one kind of pressure can be effaced only by 
another kind.” 

Speidel said: “This is a universal historical conception.” 

Then I drove out into the falling darkness, in the direction 
of Baden. 

As my fiacre sped through the tunnel behind the Cholera 


Chapel, two young fellows, one of them in cadet uniform, were 
passing by. I believe I was sitting huddled in thought. At that 
point I distinctly heard a cry from behind the carriage: “Dirty 

I started up in anger and, incensed, turned around in the 
direction of the two youths, but they were already far behind. 
A moment later my brief impulse to scuffle with street urchins 
had vanished. Besides, the insult had not been directed at me 
personally, for I was unknown to them, but at my Jewish nose 
and Jewish beard, which they had glimpsed in the semi-darkness 
behind the carriage lanterns. 

But what a curious echo to my "universal historical” con- 
ception! World history is of no use in such a situation. 

A few months later I was sitting for the sculptor Beer who 
was doing my bust. Our conversation resulted in the insight 
that it does a Jew no good to become an artist and free himself 
from the taint of money. The curse still clings. We cannot get 
out of the Ghetto. I became quite heated as I talked, and when 
I left, my excitement still glowed in me. With the swiftness of 
that dream involving a pitcher of water in the Arabian fairy-tale, 
the outline of the play came into being. I believe I hadn’t gone 
from the Rue Descombes to the Place Pereire when the whole 
thing was already finished in my mind. 

The next day I set to work. Three blessed weeks of ardor and 

I had thought that through this eruption of playwriting I 
had written myself free of the matter. On the contrary; I got 
more and more deeply involved with it. The thought grew 
stronger in me that I must do something for the Jews. 

For the first time I went to the synagogue in the Rue de la 
Victoire and once again found the services festive and moving. 
Many things reminded me of my youth and the Tabak Street 
temple at Pest. I took a look at the Paris Jews and saw a family 
likeness in their faces: bold, misshapen noses; furtive and 
cunning eyes. 


Was it then that I conceived the plan of writing on “The 
Situation of the Jews,” or had I conceived it earlier? 

Now I remember that it was earlier. I had already talked 
about it in Vienna the previous fall. I wanted to visit the 
localities where the vagaries of history had strewn Jewish 
communities: particularly Russia, Galicia, Hungary, Bohemia; 
later, the Orient, the new Zion colonies; finally, Western 
Europe again. All my faithful reports were to bring out the 
undeserved misfortune of the Jews and to show that they are 
human beings whom people revile without knowing them. For 
here in Paris I have acquired a reporter’s eyes which are 
needed for such perceptions. 

Some time before Easter I came into contact with Daudet. 
During one conversation we got on the subject of the Jews. 
He confessed himself an anti-Semite. I explained to him my 
own standpoint and once again warmed to my subject (which 
might be proof that, basically, I think best while talking). 
When I told him that I wanted to write a book for and about 
the Jews, he asked: A novel? — No, I said, preferably a man's 
book!— Whereupon he said: A novel reaches farther. Think of 
Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 

I then orated some more and moved even him to such an 
extent that he finally said: “ Comme c’est beau, comme c’est 
beau [How beautiful this is]!” 

That again put doubts in my mind about “The Situation of 
the Jews, and I thought of the novel once more. However 
Samuel Kohn— Heinrich Kana was no longer the central figure! 
n the first draft, the final chapter dealt with the moods that 
preceded Samuel’s suicide. One evening he strolled along Unter 
den Linden, feeling superior to everybody because of his immi- 
nent death. Mockingly he looked at the officers of the guard 
anyone of whom he could take with him into death. When the 
hought of doing something useful with his suicide occurred 
JT' 1 became a c °mmander. He walked in such a proud 

wav TM y n 1 T an , n r, that v inS ' inCtiVe ' y eVeryone 8°' out ° f Ws 
way. This placated him; he went home quietly and shot himself. 


In the present form of the novel, Samuel still was the weaker 
but dearly beloved friend of the hero whom the fortunes of 
his life bring to the point where he discovers, or, rather, founds, 
the Promised Land. 

Shortly before the sailing of the boat which is to take him 
to new shores, together with a staff of officers expert in explora- 
tion, he receives Samuel’s farewell letter. Samuel writes: “My 
dear, dear boy, when you read this letter, I shall be dead.” 

At this point the hero moves his fist, in which he is crumbling 
the paper, to his heart. But the next instant there is only rage 
in him. 

He gives the command for departure. Then he stands at the 
bow of the boat and stares fixedly into the distance where the 
Promised Land lies. 

And he takes the letter, in which there is so much touching 
love and loyalty, and cries into the wind: “You fool you 

scoundrel, you wretch! Oh, for the life that belonged to us 
and is lost! 

* * * 

How I proceeded from the idea of writing a novel to a 
practical program is already a mystery to me, although it 

happened within the last few weeks. It is in the realm of the 

Perhaps these ideas are not practical ones at all and I am 
only making myself the laughing-stock of the people to whom 
I talk about it seriously. Could I be only a figure in my novel? 
But even then it would be worth writing down what I have 

thought about during this period and am continuing to think 

One day I suddenly wrote a letter to Baron Hirsch who has 
taken such a striking millionaire’s interest in the Jews. After 
I had finished this letter, I left it lying there and slept on it 
or fourteen days and nights. When even after this interval the 

etter did not seem devoid of sense to me, I mailed it. This letter 
reads as follows: 


Dear Sir: 

When may I have the honor of calling on you? I should like 
to discuss the Jewish Question. I do not want to interview you 
nor to talk about a disguised or undisguised financial matter. 
It seems that the claims on you are so manifold that one cannot 
guard against the suspicion of unsavory designs soon enough. 
I simply wish to have a discussion with you about Jewish political 
matters, a discussion that may have an effect on times that neither 
you nor I will live to see. 

For this reason I should like you to arrange our meeting on a 
day when you can devote an uninterrupted hour or two to the 
matter. Because of my regular occupation, a Sunday would be 
best for me. It does not have to be this coming Sunday, but any 
date you please. 

What I have in mind will interest you. But even though I am 
not telling you much by saying this, I should not want you to 
show this letter to the people around you— secretaries and others. 
Kindly treat it confidentially. 

Perhaps my name is not unknown to you. In any case, you 
are acquainted with the newspaper which I represent here. 

Respectfully yours. 

Dr. Herzl, 

Correspondent of the Neue Freie Presse 

* * * 

This is a rough draft of the letter, still in my possession. 1 may 
have ma de some changes in the clean copy; at that time I did not 
y t think of saving all these things as documents. 

My mam concern was that this letter might be regarded as 
the beginning of a journalist's feat of extortion. After all I did 
not want to meet the man on account of his money, but because 
he is a very useful force for the cause 

8, Sm y yS Pa “ ed ' Then ' 3 reply *•<>"> London W. 


London, May 20, 1895 

Dr. Theodore Herzl, Paris.* 

I received your letter here where I am going to be for two 
months. I am sorry to be unable, with the best will in the world, 
to arrange the meeting you asked me for. Perhaps you could tell 
me in a letter what you were going to say to me in person, putting 
“Personal” on the envelope. 

I beg your pardon for replying to you in the handwriting of 
my secretary, and in French, but as the result of an old hunting 
injury to my right hand I am unable to hold a pen for any 
length of time. 

Very truly yours, 

M. de Hirsch 

* * # 

To this letter I replied: 

37 rue Cambon, May 24, 1895 

Dear Sir: 

I am deeply sorry that we were not able to meet here. 

It is not easy to write down what I wanted to tell you. I shall 
not dwell on the mishaps that a letter may be subject to. My 
intentions, which are at the service of an important cause, could 
be desecrated by idle curiosity, or spoiled by the lack of under- 
standing of a chance reader. Furthermore, my letter could come 
into your hands at a moment when you are distracted by other 
things and cannot give it your undivided attention. If then you 
had your secretary answer me with some polite formula about 
the matter being under consideration,” I would be through with 
you forever. And in the general interest that might be regrettable. 

Nevertheless I am going to write to you. Only, at the moment 
I am too busy to be brief, as the old saying goes. But in point of 
fact, I do not want to bore you with a grandiloquent presentation. 
As soon as I find the time, I shall submit to you a plan for a 
new Jewish policy. 

The letter is in French in the original. 


What you have undertaken till now has been as magnanimous 
as it has been misapplied, as costly as it has been pointless. You 
have hitherto been only a philanthropist, a Peabody; I want to 
show you the way to become something more. 

Do not get the idea, however, that I am a maker of projects 
or some new species of fool, even though the way in which I am 
writing to you deviates somewhat from the ordinary. Right from 
the start I admit the possibility that I am mistaken and I shall 
accept objections. 

I certainly do not expect to convince you right away, for you 
will have to re-think a number of your present attitudes. Al- 
though I am presumably only an unknown to you, all I desire 
is your fullest attention. In conversation I would probably have 
gained it for myself, but it is harder to do this by correspondence. 
My letter lies on your desk among many others, and I can im- 
agine that you get plenty of letters every day from beggars, 
parasites, fakers, and the professionals of charity. That is why 
my letter will come in a second envelope marked: Letter from 
Dr. Herzl. I ask you to lay this second envelope aside and not 
to open it until you have a completely rested and unoccupied 
mind. That is what I desired for our conversation which did not 
take place. 

Respectfully yours, 

Dr. Herzl. 

# • * 

In this case, too, my rough draft is not reliable. It now seems 
to me that in copying the letter I changed a few phrases. But in 
substance, those were its contents, and again the only fear I had 
was that Hirsch or some third party looking over his shoulder 
might take me for a money-seeker. 

During the following days I prepared a memorandum. I filled 
a great number of slips of paper with my notes. I wrote while 

walking, in the Chamber of Deputies, in the restaurant, in the 

A wealth of details was quickly added. 


In the midst of these preparations Hirsch surprised me with 
another letter: 

London, May 26 

Monsieur Herzl, 37 rue Cambon, Paris.* 

I received your letter of the day before yesterday. If you have 
not already prepared a long report, you can save yourself the 
trouble. In a few days I shall be in Paris for forty-eight hours, and 
on next Sunday, June 2, at 10:30 a.m., you will find me at your 
disposal at 2 rue de l'Elys^e. 

Yours very truly, 

M. de Hirsch. 

This letter gave tne satisfaction, because I saw that I had 
judged the man correctly and had hit him at the locus min oris 
resistentme [place of least resistance]. Apparently my statement 
that he could become more than a Peabody had had an effect on 

Now I began to make notes in earnest, and by the Saturday be- 
IO jI e u' CCOSt ‘ hey had gr ° W " imo a thick bundle. Then I di- 

due, t‘n Ft “ ^"“P 5 accordin S “> ‘heir contents: Intro- 

duction, Elevation of the Jewish Race, Emigration. 

tn „ m H de ? dean C ° PY ° f ‘ hcm thus arran 8 ed - They added up 
to *2 closely wmten pages, although I had only used catchwords 

arfs to my memory during the interview. 1 always was, and still 
am compelled to make allowance for my initial shyness. 

When dealing with famous or well-known people here in 
Paras, I have often made myself ridiculous by my self-conscious- 

Jr,!!!'' " h0 , is CCTtainI V no light (although he did origi- 
nate the esprit nouveau), once overawed me to the point of 

dements when I called on him during his term as a Mincer 

Th° dav hef U 7cT" ing 1 dreSSed m ^ if " id > d — care, 
y ore I had purposely broken in a new pair of gloves 

In French in the original. 


so that they might still look new but not fresh from the shop. One 
must not show rich people too much deference. 

I drove up to the Rue de L’Elys^e. A palace. The grand court- 
yard, the noble side-stairway — to say nothing of the main stair- 
case — made a strong impression on me. Wealth affects me only 
in the guise of beauty. And there everything was of genuine 
beauty. Old pictures, marble, muted gobelins. Donnerwetter! 
One of our sort never thinks of these corollaries of wealth when 
he disparages it. Everything had truly great style, and, a bit dazed, 
I let myself be handed from one attendant to another. 

I was scarcely in the billiard-room when Hirsch stepped out of 
his study, shook hands with me quickly and absently, as though 
I were an acquaintance, asked me to wait a little while, and 
disappeared again. 

I sat down and examined the exquisite Tanagra figurines in a 
glass case. The Baron, I thought to myself, must have hired 
someone to be in charge of good taste. 

Then I heard voices from the adjoining room and recognized 
that of one of his philanthropic functionaries with whom I had 
exchanged a few words in Vienna once, and on two occasions 

I did not like the idea of his seeing me here on his way out. 
Perhaps Hirsch had arranged it that way on purpose. This 
thought made me smile again, for I was not minded to become 
at all dependent on him. Either I would bend him to my will or 
I would leave with my mission unaccomplished. I was even ready 
with an answer if, during our conversation, he should offer me 
a position with the Jewish Association:* “Enter your service? No. 
That of the Jews? Yes!” 

Then the two officials came out. I shook hands with the one 
I knew. To the Baron I said: “Can you spare me an hour? If 
it is not at least an hour, I’d rather not start at all. I need that 
amount of time merely to indicate how much I have to say.” 

He smiled: “Just go ahead.” 

• In English in the original. 

i nj^ ciL/mi LLi l j^ij-kRIES OP I HEODOR HERZL 19 

I pulled out my notes. In order to present the matter lucidly 
I have prepared a few things in advance.” 

I had hardly spoken five minutes when the telephone rang. 
I think it was prearranged. I had even meant to tell him in 
advance that he need not have himself called away on imaginary 
business, that he had only to say right out whether he was un- 
occupied. However, he said over the telephone that he was not 
at home to anybody. By this I knew that I had made an impression 
on him; he had let his guard down. 

I developed my plan as follows: 

“In what I have to say you will find some things too simple 
and others too fantastic. But men are ruled by the simple and 

the fantastic. It is astonishing — and common knowledge with 

what little intelligence the world is governed. 

“I by no means set out deliberately to occupy myself with 
the Jewish question. You too originally did not plan to become 
a patron of the Jews. You were a banker and made big business 
deals; you ended up devoting your time and your fortune to the 
cause of the Jews. Similarly, at the beginning I was a writer and 
a journalist, with no thought of the Jews. But my experiences 
and observations, the growing pressure of anti-Semitism com- 
pelled me to interest myself in the problem. 

“All right. So much for my credentials. 

"I won’t go into the history of the Jews, although I intended 
to start with it. It is well known. There is only one point I must 
emphasize. Throughout our two thousand years of dispersion, 
we have been without unified political leadership. I regard this 
as our chief misfortune. It has done us more harm than all the 
persecutions. This is why we have inwardly gone to rack and ruin. 
For there has been no one to train us to become real men, even 
if only out of imperial selfishness. On the contrary, we were 
pushed into all the inferior occupations, we were locked up in 
g ettos where we caused one another's degeneration. And when 
t ey let us out, they suddenly expected us to have all the attri- 
butes of a people used to freedom. 


“Now, if we had a united political leadership, the necessity 
for which I need not demonstrate further and which should by 
no means constitute a secret society— if we had such leadership, 
we could tackle the solution of the Jewish question— from above, 
from below, from all sides. 

“The aim that we will pursue once we have a center, a head, 
will determine the means. 

“There are two possible aims: either we stay where we are 
or we emigrate somewhere else. 

“For either course we need certain identical measures for the 
education of our people. For even if we emigrate, it will be a 
long time before we arrive in the Promised Land. It took Moses 
forty years. We may require twenty or thirty. At any rate, in the 
meantime new generations will arise whom we must educate for 
our purposes. 

“Now, with regard to education, I propose to employ, from 
the outset, methods quite different from those which you are 

“First of all, there is the principle of philanthropy, which I 
consider completely erroneous. You are breeding shnorrers [beg- 
gars]. It is symptomatic that no other people shows such a great 
incidence of philanthropy and beggary as the Jews. It strikes one 
that there must be a correlation between these two phenomena, 
meaning that philanthropy debases our national character. 

He interrupted me: “You are quite right.” 

I continued: 

“Years ago I heard that your attempts to settle Jews in Ar- 
gentina had had poor results, or none.” 

“Would you like me to reply to you as you go along whenever 
I have an objection?” 

“No, I would prefer that you permit me to give you the whole 
substance of my presentation. I know that some of the things 
I say will not be in accordance with the facts, because I have never 
collected facts and figures. Just let me formulate my principles.” 

From that point on Hirsch jotted down his objections on a 
writing pad. 


I said: “Your Argentinian Jews behave in a disorderly fashion, 
I am told. One item rather shocked me; the house built first was 
one of— ill repute.” 

Hirsch interjected: “Not true. That house was not built by my 

“Very well. But in any case, the whole thing should not have 
been started the way you did it. You drag these would-be Jewish 
fanners overseas. They are bound to believe that they have a 
right to be supported in the future, too, and the last thing in 
the world that will be promoted by this is their eagerness to 
work. Whatever such an exported Jew may cost you, he isn’t worth 
it. And how many specimens can you transport over there any- 
way? Fifteen to twenty thousand! More Jews than that live on one 
street in the Leopoldstadt. No, direct means are altogether un- 
suitable for moving masses of people. You can be effective only 
through indirect means. 

“To attract Jews to rural areas you would have to tell them 
some fairy-tale about how they may strike gold there. In imagina- 
tive terms it might be put like this: Whoever plows, sows, and 
reaps will find gold in every sheaf. After all, it’s almost true. The 
only thing is, the Jews know that it will be a tiny little lump. 
That is why you would be able to tell them, more rationally: the 
man who manages best will receive a bonus, one that might be 
very substantial. 

“However, I do not believe that it is possible to settle the 
Jews in the rural areas of the countries which they now inhabit. 
The peasants would kill them with their flails. One of the strong- 
holds of German anti-Semitism is Hesse, where Jews engage in 
small-scale farming. 

“With twenty thousand of your Argentinian Jews you will 
prove nothing, even if those people do well. But if the experi- 
ment fails, you will have furnished a dreadful bit of evidence 
against the Jews. 

“Enough of criticism. What is to be done? 

“Whether the Jews stay put or whether they emigrate, the 
race must first be improved right on the spot. It must be made 


strong as for war, eager to work, and virtuous. Afterwards, let 
them emigrate — if necessary. 

“To effect this improvement, you can employ your resources 
better than you have done up to now. 

“Instead of buying up the Jews one by one, you could offer 
huge prizes in the chief anti-Semitic countries for actions d’eclat 
[striking deeds], for deeds of great moral beauty, for courage, 
self-sacrifice, ethical conduct, great achievements in art and 
science, for physicians during epidemics, for military men, for 
discoverers of remedies and inventors of other products con- 
tributing to the public welfare, no matter what — in short, for 
anything great. 

“Such prizes will accomplish two things: the improvement 
of everyone, and publicity. You see, because the prize-winning 
feat will be unusual and glorious, it will be talked about every- 
where. Thus people will learn that there are good Jews too, 
and many of them. 

“But the first result is more important: a general improve- 
ment. The individual annual prize-winners do not really matter; 
I am more interested in all the others who try to outdo them- 
selves in order to win a prize. In this way the moral level will be 
raised — ” 

At this point he interrupted me impatiently: 

“No, no, nol I don’t want to raise the general level at all. All 
our misfortune comes from the fact that the Jews want to climb 
too high. We have too many intellectuals. My intention is to 
keep the Jews from pushing ahead. They should not make such 
great strides. All Jew-hatred comes from this. As for my plans 
in Argentina, you are misinformed on that, too. It is true that 
in the beginning some dissolute fellows were sent over, and 
I would just as soon have thrown them into the water. But now 
I have many decent people there. And it is my intention, if the 
colony prospers, to charter a fine English vessel, invite a hundred 
newspaper correspondents — consider yourself already invited — 
and take them across to Argentina. Of course, it all depends upon 
the harvests. After a few good years I could show the world that 


the Jews make good farmers after all. As a result of this, maybe 
jhey will be allowed to till the soil in Russia as well.” 

Now I said: “I didn’t interrupt you although I hadn’t finished. 
I was interested to hear just what you have in mind. But I realize 
that it would be pointless to go on presenting my ideas to you.” 

He then remarked in a benevolent tone, much as if I had asked 
him for a position in his banking house: “I do see that you are 
an intelligent man.” 

I merely smiled to myself. Such things as my undertaking 
are above personal vanity. I am going to see and hear many 
more things of this sort. 

Hirsch now qualified his praise: “But you have such fantastic 

I got up. “Well, didn’t I tell you that it would seem either too 
simple or too fantastic to you? You don’t know what the fantas- 
tic really is and that the great motives of men can be surveyed 
only from the heights.” 

“Emigration would be the only solution,” he said. “There are 
lands enough for sale.” 

I almost shouted: “Well, who told you that I don’t want to 
emigrate? It is all there in these notes. I shall go to the German 
Kaiser; he will understand me, for he has been brought up to 
be a judge of great things . . 

At these words Hirsch blinked perceptibly. Was he impressed 
by my rudeness, or by my intention to speak with the Kaiser? 
Perhaps both. I put my notes in my pocket and concluded. 

“To the Kaiser I shall say: Let our people go! We are strangers 
here; we are not permitted to assimilate with the people, nor 
are we able to do so. Let us go! I will tell you the ways and the 
means which I want to use for our exodus, so that no economic 
crisis or vacuum may follow our departure.” 

Hirsch said: “Where will you get the money? Rothschild will 
subscribe five hundred francs.” 

“The money?” I said with a defiant laugh. “I shall raise a 
Jewish National Loan Fund of ten million marks.” 

“A fantasy!” smiled the Baron. “The rich Jews will give noth- 


ing. Wealthy people are mean and care nothing about the suffer- 
ings of the poor.” 

“You talk like a Socialist, Baron Hirsch!” 

“I am one. I am quite ready to hand over everything, provided 
the others have to do likewise.” 

I did not take his charming notion any more seriously than 
it was meant and took my leave. His final words were: 

“This has not been our last conversation. As soon as I come 
over from London again I shall let you hear from me.” 

“Whenever you wish.” 

Again I passed over the beautiful staircase and the noble 
courtyard. I was not disappointed, but stimulated. All in all, a 

pleasant, intelligent, natural sort of man — vain par exemple! 

but I could have worked with him. He gives the impression of 
being reliable, despite all his wilfulness. 

Once home I immediately rushed to my writing desk. 

• * • 

Vienna, April 16, 1896 

This is where I interrupted the connected presentation at that 
time, for there followed several weeks of unexampled productiv- 
ity, during which I no longer had the peace to make a clean copy 
of my ideas. I wrote walking, standing, lying down, in the street, 
at table, at night when I started up from sleep. 

The slips with my notes are dated. I no longer find the time 
to transcribe them. I began a second book in order to enter the 
noteworthy events each day. Thus the slips remained untouched. 
Now I am asking my good Dad to enter them for me in the 
present book, in the order in which they were written. I know 
now, and knew throughout that whole tempestuous period of 
production, that much of what I wrote down was wild and fan- 
tastic. But I made no self-criticism of any sort, so as not to 
cripple the sweep of these inspirations. There would be time 
later, I thought, for clarifying criticism. 

In these notes the Jewish State is imagined now as something 


real, now as material for a novel, because at the time I had not 
made up my mind whether I should dare to publish it as a seri- 
ous proposal. _ 

This is the rational explanation for the abrupt transitions in 

these notes; what mattered most to me in this respect was to let 
no idea escape. Even in the second notebook the novelistic form 

is reverted to in a few instances. 

Even what is fantastic in these disconnected ideas will one 
day be of interest— certainly to myself and possibly to others as 
well. Today I am giving them to my dear father to be entered, 
though with such necessary reservations as are dictated by reason. 
For today my project has come a step closer to realization, one 
that may be historically memorable. Reverend Hechler, who has 
gone to Karlsruhe to win the Grand Duke and through him 
the Kaiser for the idea, has wired me to be ready to come to 

• • * 

3 rd letter to Baron Hirsch, Paris. 

Whit-Monday, June 3, 1895 

Dear Sir: 

In order to forestall the esprit de V escalier * I had made notes 
before I went to see you. 

On returning home I found that I had stopped on page 6, and 
yet I had 22 pages. Due to your impatience you heard only the 
beginning; where and how my idea begins to blossom you did not 
get to hear. 

No matter. In the first place, I didn’t expect an immediate 
conversion. Furthermore, my plan certainly does not depend on 
you alone. 

True, for the sake of speed I would have liked to use you as 
an available force and a know r n quantity. But you would have 
been only the power I would have started with. There are others. 

• Translator's Note: Literally, "the spirit of the staircase," that is, the bright 
ideas that come too late, while descending the stairs, after a meeting. 


There are, ultimately and above all, the Jewish masses, and I 
shall know how to get across to them. 

This pen is a power. You will be convinced of it if I stay 
alive and healthy — a reservation which you too must make with 
regard to your own activities. 

You are the big Jew of money, I am the Jew of the spirit. 
Hence the divergence between our means and methods. Note 
that you could not have heard of my attempts as yet, because 
the first one just took place in your house, on you. I am on my 

Naturally, your attitude toward me was one of gentle irony. 
That’s what I expected. I told you so in my opening remarks. 
That is the reception new ideas get. Moreover, you didn’t even 
have the patience to hear me out. Nevertheless, I shall say what 
is on my mind. I hope you will live to see the magnificent growth 
of my ideas. You will then recall that Whit-Sunday morning, for 
despite all your irony I believe you to be open-minded and a 
man receptive to great plans. And you have tried to do a great 
deal for the Jews — in your own fashion. But will you understand 
me if I tell you that the entire process of mankind’s development 
gives the lie to your methods? What! you want to hold a large 
group of people on a certain level, in fact, press them down? 
Allons done! [Come, come!] We know, don’t we, what phases 
the human race has passed through, from its primitive to its 
civilized state. The progression is ever upwards, despite every- 
thing and anything, higher and higher, always and ever higher! 
There are setbacks, it is true. This is not a mere phrase. Our 
grandfathers would be dumbfounded if they came back to life; 
but who would want to produce a setback by artificial means — 
quite apart from the fact that it cannot be done. If it were possi- 
ble, don’t you think that the Monarchy, the Church, would bring 
it about? And what influence these forces have over the bodies 
and souls of men! What are your resources by comparison? No, 
at the very most you can impede progress for a little while, and 
then you will be swept away by the great whirlwind. 

Do you realize that you are pursuing a terribly reactionary 


,• worse than that of the most absolute autocracy? For- 

P° icy , your resources are insufficient for it. Your intentions are 
tU tfi ^parbleu, je le sais bien [Heavens, I know it well]. That is 
%° j should like to give them direction. Do not let the fact 
I am a rather young man prejudice you against me. In 
France, at my thirty-five years of age, men are Ministers of State, 
and Napoleon was Emperor. 

You cut me short with your polite derision. It is still possible 
to disconcert me in a conversation. I still lack the aplomb which 
will increase in me with time, because it is necessary to someone 
who wants to break down opposition, stir the indifferent, com- 
fort the distressed, inspire a craven, demoralized people, and 
associate with the lords of the world. 

I spoke of an army, and you already interrupted me when 
I began to speak of the (moral) training necessary for its march. 
I let myself be interrupted. And yet I have already drawn up 
the further details, the entire plan. I know all the things it 
involves: Money, money, and more money; means of transporta- 
tion; the provisioning of great multitudes (which does not 
mean just food and drink, as in the simple days of Moses); the 
maintenance of manly discipline; the organization of depart- 
ments; emigration treaties with the heads of some states, transit 
treaties with others, formal guarantees from all of them; the 
construction of new, splendid dwelling places. Beforehand, 
tremendous propaganda, the popularization of the idea through 
newspapers, books, pamphlets, talks by travelling lecturers, 
pictures, songs. Everything directed from one center with sure- 
ness of purpose and with vision. But I would have had to tell 
you eventually what flag I will unfurl and how. And then you 
would have asked mockingly: A flag, what is that? A stick with 
a rag on it? — No, sir, a flag is more than that. With a flag one can 
lead men wherever one wants to, even into the Promised Land. 

For a flag men will live and die; it is indeed the only thing 
for which they are ready to die in masses, if one trains them 
for it; believe me, the policy of an entire people — particularly 
when it is scattered all over the earth — can be carried out only 

I . 

in HI **- 61 



with imponderables that float in thin air. Do you know what 
went into the making of the German Empire? Dreams, songs, 
fantasies, and black-red-and-gold ribbons — and in short order. 
Bismarck merely shook the tree which the visionaries had 

Whatl You do not understand the imponderable? And what 
is religion? Consider, if you will, what the Jews have endured 
for the sake of this vision over a period of two thousand years. 
Yes, visions alone grip the souls of men. And anyone who has 
no use for them may be an excellent, worthy, sober-minded 
person, even a philanthropist on a large scale; but he will not 
be a leader of men, and no trace of him will remain. 

Nevertheless, a people’s visions must have firm ground under- 
neath. How do you know that I do not have eminently practical 
ideas for individual details? Details which, to be sure, are 
themselves of gigantic dimensions. 

The exodus to the Promised Land constitutes in practical 
terms an enormous job of transportation, unprecedented in 
the modern world. Did I say “transportation”? It is a complex 
of all kinds of human enterprise which will be geared one into 
the other like cog-wheels. And this undertaking will even in 
its first stages provide employment for an aspiring multitude 
of our young people: all the engineers, architects, technologists, 
chemists, physicians, lawyers, who have emerged from the ghetto 
during the last thirty years and who thought that they would 
gain their livelihood and their bit of honor outside the higgling 
and haggling Jewish trades. They must now be getting desperate 
and are beginning to constitute a frightful proletariat of intellec- 
tuals. But all my love belongs to them, and I want to increase 
their numbers even as you wish to decrease them. In them I see 
the future, as yet dormant strength of the Jews. In a word, my 
kind of people. 

Out of this proletariat of intellectuals I shall form the general 
staff and the cadres of the army which is to seek, discover, and 
take over the land. 

Their very departure will create some breathing space for 


the middle classes in anti-Semitic countries and ease the pressure. 

Don't you see that at one stroke I shall get both Jewish 
capital and Jewish labor for our purposes, and their enthusiasm 
as well, once they understand what it is all about? 

These, of course, are only rough outlines. But how do you 
know that I have not already worked out the details involved? 
Did you let me finish? 

It is true the hour was late; perhaps you were being expected 
somewhere else, or had work to do, or whatever. But the progress 
of such a weighty matter must not be made to depend on such 
petty contingencies. Have no fear, it really does not. 

You will wish to continue our conversation, and — without 
waiting for you — I shall always be ready to furnish you with 
the further details. 

If the stimuli I have given you are still active within you 
and you wish to talk with me, then write me: “Venez me voir 
[Come to see me].” That will suffice, and I shall come to London 
for a day. And if on that day I don’t convince you any more than 
I did yesterday, I shall go away just as undismayed and cheerful 
as I went away the first time. Would you like to make a bet 
with me? I am going to raise a national Jewish Loan Fund. 
Will you pledge yourself to contribute fifty million marks when 
I have raised the first hundred million? 

In return, I shall make you the head man. 

What are ten billion marks to the Jews? They are certainly 
richer than the French were in 1871 , and how many Jews were 
among them I As a matter of fact, if need be, we could get under 
way even with one billion. For this will be working capital, 
the foundation for our future railroads, emigration fleet, and 
navy. With it we shall build houses, palaces, workers’ dwellings, 
schools, theaters, museums, government buildings, prisons, 
hospitals, insane asylums — in short, cities — and make the new 
land so fruitful as to turn it into the Promised Land. 

The loan will itself become the main channel for the emigra- 
tion of capital. This is the heart of the matter as far as state 
finances are concerned. It may not be superfluous to remark 

classes - J 


at this point that I am presenting all this as a man of politics. 
/ am no businessman and never want to be one. 

Jewish money is available in huge quantities for a Chinese 
loan, for Negro railroads in Africa, for the most exotic under- 
takings — and would none be found for the deepest, the most 
immediate, the direst need of the Jews themselves? 

I shall stay in Paris until the middle of July. Then I shall 
go away for some length of time. It concerns the cause. I beg 
you, however, to maintain complete silence on this point as 
well as all the others I have touched upon. At present, my 
actions may not seem important to you as yet; this is precisely 
why I am drawing your attention to the value that I attach to 
absolute secrecy. 

For the rest, I assure you in all sincerity that our discussion, 
even in its fragmentary state, has proved interesting to me and 
that you have been no disappointment. 

With a respectful greeting, I am 

Yours sincerely, 
Dr. Herzl 

Here follow fragmentary thoughts, all of which relate to the 
Jewish State and are utilized in my political treatise. The Jewish 


June 5, 1895 

Central Employment Office 

There records will be kept on the fluctuations of the labor 
market, the way that a bank keeps track of bills of exchange. 

A large-scale farmer telegraphs: Request 1000 hands tomorrow. 
(Sent by train, military style.) A tailor needs assistants. An 
apprentice shoemaker seeks training. Every enterprise, the 
largest and the smallest, converges in this department. A reser- 
voir of labor. Unions, employment agencies to be nationalized 
— like railroads, insurance, etc. 

Secretary Goldschmidt. 


Similarly, an advisory center for capital. Money is needed in 
such-and-such a place. In one place there is no sugar factory; 
in another, there is petroleum. And this office will be a clearing 
house for the applications of prospective borrowers and investors. 
This might take the form of an official publication. Forestall 
profiteering everywhere. 

• * * 

Principle: well-tried enterprises, such as banking, railroads, 
insurance, shipping, etc. will be taken charge of by the state 
where there is no doubt that they will prosper. (In return, 
remission of taxes 1) 

Risk will be left to private capital, with the inducement of 
large profits. Successful enterprises later will pay taxes graded 
in direct proportion to the growth of their returns. Clearly draw 
the line where private enterprise is not strangled. 

When eveything is underway over there, the task of the 
Director-General will begin in earnest. The emigration must 
take place respectably. The Jewish Company will make good 
on any fraudulent dealings before emigration and then indemnify 
itself from the swindler over there. 

In this way we shall avoid major crises and prosecutions in 
later phases of the emigration and lay the foundation for respect 
in the eyes of the world. 

We shall also show our gratitude to benevolent governments 
by setting ourselves up as large taxpayers in places where we 
could evade taxes (that is, everywhere, due to the legal sover- 
eignly of foreign countries) and by offering a broad base. 

What we lose in this way and through the devaluation of the 
immovables that are taken over from us we shall amply make up 
for by our enormous earnings through our planned improve- 
ment of the cheap land over there. 

• • • 

Tentative principle for construction: At first decorative, with 
•ght materials (designed for 10-20 years, with the exception of 


monuments), cela attire I’oeil [that attracts the eye], exposition 
style. This will provide for subsequent new construction, thus 
opportunities for employment indefinitely. Then, durable and 

# # # 

The Society of Jews* will proceed in a substantial, financially 
sound, reliable manner. It is, among other things, also a big 
shipping agency (take Leinkauf) and will arrange for special 
passenger and freight rates from the railroads. 

This will also be a sort of appeasement for our exodus. For, 
subsequently people will be sorry and want to follow us, as did 
Pharaoh. But we shall leave no dirty dealings behind. Jewish 
honor begins. 

* * * 

Woe to the swindlers who may try to enrich themselves 
through the Jewish cause. We shall set up the most severe 
punishments for them, involving the loss of civil rights and of 
the right to acquire real estate. 

# # * 

For the Society must not become a Panama. 

* # * 

We shall unite all Zionists. 

* # * 

Health measures prior to departure. Infectious diseases to 
be cured on this side. We shall have embarcation hospitals 
(quarantines), baths, clothing centers before departure. 

• • • 

To breed a peasantry like that of bygone times would be 
like equipping a modem army with bows and arrows. 

* * * 

• In English in the original. 


The idea now absorbs me to such an extent that I relate 
everything to it, as a lover to his beloved. 

Today I went to see Floquet’s secretary about Nemec, a 
member of the Foreign Legion, who was recruited under false 
pretenses. While the secretary read me the War Minister’s 
Official Report — obviously an irregular procedure as far as the 
hierarchy is concerned — all I could think about was our own 
troops; how I could create discipline and yet prevent such 
inhuman acts. 

In the evening, Tannhduser at the Opera. We too will have 
such splendid auditoriums — the gentlemen in full dress, the 
ladies dressed as lavishly as possible. Yes, I want to make use 
of the Jewish love of luxury, in addition to all other resources. 

This again made me think of the phenomenon of the crowd. 

There they sat for hours, tightly packed, motionless, in 
physical discomfort — and for what? For something imponder- 
able, the kind that Hirsch does not understand: for sounds! 
for music and pictures! 

I shall also cultivate majestic processional marches for great 
festive occasions. 

June 6, 1895 

We shall have to go through bitter struggles: with a reluctant 
Pharaoh, with enemies, and especially with ourselves. The 
Golden Calf! 

* * * 

But we shall carry it through, earnest and far-sighted, as long 
as the people always sense and know the loftiness of our aims. 

* • • 

Keep the army well in hand! 

• • • 

All officials in uniform, trim, with military bearing, but not 

ludicrously so. 

• • • 


Gigantic assistance pat le travail [public works]. 

# # * 

On the transport we work out the passage of the destitute. 
But they do not get it free. Over there they will pay by working, 
which is part of their training. 

# # # 

Prizes of all kinds for virtues. 

* # * 

Tobacco plantations, silk factories. 

# # * 

The Wonder Rabbi of Sadagora to be brought over and 
installed as something like the bishop of a province. In fact, 
win over the entire clergy. 

You must convert the algebraic to the numerical. There are 
people who do not understand that (a + b) 2 = a 2 -+- 2ab + b 2 . 
For them you must calculate it in familiar terms. 

# # • 

I fully realize that the most immediate in my outline 
is as sound as the most remote. But precisely in the most 
immediate (which everyone can see) there must be no errors, 
otherwise people will take the whole thing for a fantasy. 

* * * 

Order of procedure: 

1. Money-raising (syndicate). 

2. Start of publicity (which will cost nothing, for the anti- 
Semites will rejoice, and I shall break down the liberal opposition 
by threats of competition). 

3. Enrollment of land-seekers. 


4. More publicity, on the largest scale. Make Europe laugh 
at it, swear at it — in short, talk about it. 

5. Negotiations with Zion. 

6. Agreements on the purchase of land. 

7. Issuing of land priorities (one billion). 

8. Purchase and building of ships. 

9. Continuous enlistment of all who come forward; recruit- 
ment, assignment, training. 

10. Begin to publicize the big subscription. 

11. Sailing of the expedition to take possession of the land, 
with news service for the entire press. 

12. Selection and demarcation of the land and the sites for 
the main cities. 

13. Workers from Russia, etc. will have been building em- 
barcation barracks (on Italian or Dutch coast, first for them- 
selves, then for subsequent contingents). 

14. Fare and freight contracts with railroads. We must make 
a big profit on transportation. 

15. Exchange of old items for new ones begins. 

16. The wheels already in motion will, of course, be kept 
turning; gradually all the other elements in my program will 
be added until the entire machine is running! 

17* To the German Kaiser (request privileges! from him). 

• * * 

On our part, we guarantee good order and provide a base for 
taxation (possibly in return for permission for a public sub- 
scription to a lottery loan). 

June 7, 1895 

Hirsch a week ago he still was the cornerstone of my plans; 
today he has declined to a quantity absolument nSgligeable 
[completely negligible quantity], toward which I even feel 
magnanimous— in thoughts. 




Read Daniel Deronda. Teweles talks about it. I don’t know 
it yet. 

* * * 

To the Family Council. I start with you, because at the be- 
ginning, until my cadres are set up, I cannot use a grand fracas 
[big row], and can more safely lead out the life and property 
of the masses. On the other hand, if I stir up the masses first, 
I endanger the rich. 

# # * 

Thus I can proceed more cautiously. 

# # # 

I am the man who makes aniline dyes out of refuse. I must 
use analogies of different kinds, for this thing is something 

* # # 

One can put it simply and say that I am having a pair of 
boots made. 

• # * 

I have been to Hirsch, I am going to Rothschild, as Moltke 
went from Denmark to Prussia. 

• * * 

Let the cowardly, assimilated, baptized Jews remain. We 
shall benefit even them — they will boast of their kinship with 
us of which they are now ashamed. We faithful Jews, however, 
will once again become great. 

At the same time, if I win over the R’s, I do not want to cast 
off poor Baron Hirsch. 

I shall give him some vice-presidency (in recognition of his 
past services, and because he is acquainted with my plan). 

For the rest, I am not afraid of his divulging my three letters. 


But if he does, I shall smash him, incite popular fanaticism 
against him, and demolish him in print (as I shall inform him 

in due course). 

But I would much prefer to unite him and all the other big 
Tews under one banner. 

First, the administrative council of the Society shall comprise 
les plus “upper" [the uppermost] (for authority’s sake). Then 
I shall install the Camondos and Mendelssohns as heads of the 
daughter institutions. 

I bring to the R’s and the big Jews their historical mission. 

J’accueillerai toutes les bonnes volonUs [I shall gather all 
men of good will]— we must be united— et ecraserai les mau- 
vaises [and shall crush all those of ill will] (this I shall say 
threateningly to the Family Council). 

A letter to Teweles (courage is not enough). I must write 
Beer that I can use his Beerite. 

* * * 

My moving from Vienna to Paris and back was historically 
necessary, so that I might learn what emigration is. 

Giidemann: I will make you the first bishop of the capital. 
I called you to Glion to offer you visible proof of what we are 
already capable of in Nature. 

If the R’s are not willing, I shall take the matter before the 
entire community of Jews. Apart from the delay, this would 
have the additional disadvantage of forcing me to divulge my 
most carefully guarded plans and deliver them to public dis- 
cussion, including that of the anti-Semites. 

The disadvantage to the R’s is the fact that the cause would 
become public knowledge and produce storms of rage (the Jews 
want to move away!); this could lead to serious unrest in the 
streets and to repressive legislation. 

I either safeguard or endanger their property. And I accom- 
plish this because my pen has remained clean and will continue 
to be not for sale. 


Second Sheet from the Bois 

I present the solution of the Jewish Question through safe- 
guarding the R. property, and vice versa. 

But I am not dependent on the R’s — I should merely prefer 
to use them as a focal point, because I could raise the whole 
money in one afternoon, by a simple passage d’ecriture [stroke 
of the pen]. 

They should induce Albert R. to present the matter to the 
Family Council and invite me to address the Council (but not 
in Paris, because the setting might overawe me). 

June 7. In the Palais Royal gardens 

Build something on the order of the Palais Royal or the 
Square of St. Mark. 

* # * 

No Jew to be sent away. Everyone to be used according to 
his ability or lack of it, e.g., to be taught the breeding of horses. 

Introduction at Glion before the clergyman and the layman. 

History. Things cannot improve, but are bound to get worse 
— to the point of massacres. 

Governments can’t prevent it any longer, even if they want 
to. Also, there is Socialism behind it. 

In the twenty years “before it becomes known,” I must train 
the boys to be soldiers. But only a professional army. Strength: 
one-tenth of the male population; less would not suffice 

In fact, I shall educate one and all to be free, strong men, 
ready to serve as volunteers in case of need. Education by means 
of patriotic songs, the Maccabees, religion, heroic stage-plays, 
honor, etc. 

June 7 

The Exodus under Moses bears the same relation to this 
project as a Shrovetide Play by Hans Sachs does to a Wagner 



June 7 

I am prepared for anything: lamenting for the flesh-pots of 
Egypt, the dance around the Golden Calf — also the ingratitude 
of those who are most indebted to us. 

Popular hymns (a Marseillaise of the Jews) to be commissioned 
from Goldmark, Brtill, and other Jewish composers (including 
Mandl). A prize contest unnecessary and ludicrous. The best 
one will become universal. 

We shall probably model the Constitution after that of Venice, 
but profit by her bad experiences by preventing them. If the 
Rothschilds join with us, the first Doge is to be a Rothschild. 
I will not and never shall be a Doge, for I wish to secure the 
state beyond the term of my own life. 

For Glion. — I have asked you to meet here in order to demon- 
strate to you how independent of Nature men have already 

1st main point: I solve the question by either safeguarding 
the R. fortune or the reverse. 

2nd main point: If I cannot do it together with the R’s, I 
shall do it in opposition to them. 

Young people (as well as the poor) will get English games: 
cricket, tennis, etc.; schools in the mountains. 

By offering prizes I shall raise the moral level of our group, 
not of those who stay behind! (viz., prizes that are valuable 
but do not cost us anything, such as landed property, decorations, 

Principle: Every one of my former acquaintances who comes 
will get a job, near or far. 

At first I shall speak with them cordially and examine them; 
but the moment their employment starts, this geniality will stop 
as a matter of principle; I shall tell them this right at the outset, 
for reasons of discipline. 

• * • 


In the Tuileries, before Gambetta’s statue. I hope the Jews 
will put up a more artistic one of me. 

# * * 

After a hundred years, universal military service should be 
introduced; but who knows how far civilization will have pro- 
gressed by then. 

We shall give up the Jewish jargons, Judeo-German, which 
had sense and justification only as the stealthy tongue of 

I think of the seven-hour working day as an international 
publicity scheme, to begin with; perhaps it can even be made 
a permanent feature. If not, the jeu naturel [natural course of 
things] will straighten things out again. 

To everyone, high and low, I say: No narrow-mindedness! 
In a new world there is room for all . . . 

With important people one must be gruff if one wants some- 
thing from them; they see too many smiles. 

It took at least thirteen years for me to conceive this simple 
idea. Only now do I realize how often I went right past it. 

The "public works" system has been very important to me. 

* * * 

Circenses [entertainments] as soon as possible: 

German theatre, international theatre, operas, operettas, 
circuses, caf£-concerts, Caf£ Champs Ely sees. 

* * * 

Send wonderful display material for the Exposition of 1900. 

• * * 

The High Priests will wear impressive robes; our cuirassiers, 
yellow trousers and white tunics; the officers, silver breast-plates. 

• • « 

As soon as we have decided on the land and concluded a 
preliminary treaty with its present sovereign, we shall start 


diplomatic negotiations with all the great powers for guarantees. 
Then, issuance of the Jewish loan. 

* # ♦ 

Rousseau believed that there was such a thing as a contrat 
social. There is not. In the state there is only a negotiorum 


Thus I conduct the affairs of the Jews without their mandate, 
but I become responsible to them for what I do. 

To the Family Council: For you that is un simple passage 
d’ecriture [a stroke of the pen]. 

And yet this safeguarding of your property will yield you 
the biggest profit you have ever made. 

That is why I want the great masses of the Jews to get some 
of it, whether through a second issue for which only the original 
subscribers are eligible or through shares for the first takers of 
land (the latter procedure would be better and more social- 
minded). We shall easily find the proper form. 

That is in your interest as well; otherwise the Jews will bear 
you a great deal of ill-will later. 

June 8, 1895 

Dig out the centers and take them across. Transplant whole 
environments in which the Jews feel comfortable. 

* * * 

Seek out and hire anyone who at any time may have done me 
an injury and therefore hesitates to approach me. Because I must 
be the first to set an example of supreme magnanimity. 

The solution of the Jewish Question must be a mighty final 
chord of reconciliation. We part as friends from our foes — this 
should be the beginning of Jewish honor. 

To the men at Glion and, later, to the Family Council: 

Note that I am not letting my imagination run riot, but 
working with nothing but facts which you can examine for 
yourselves; the imagination is inherent only in their combination. 

* * * 


I firmly believe that I shall win the people over. Only petty 
people take revenge. 

* # # 

The Company will make restitution for dishonest dealings 
that our emigrants leave behind — of course, only what can be 
proven beyond doubt. We shall make up for it over there. That 
is manly discipline. 

# * * 

Let the German Kaiser say to me: I shall be grateful to you 
if you lead these unassimilable people out. (This will lend me 
authority and make a big impression on the Jews.) 

Keep a file of my personal correspondence. Start a file for 
each person with whom I have any dealings. 

To bring the Jews all under one hat will be a miserable job, 
although, or, rather, because, they each have a head. 

The first Senator will be my father. 

The Senate will include all the prominent Jews who go 
with us. 

Among scraps of paper I today found a slip I wrote in San 
Sebastian on the eve of my departure for Paris. It says: “I shall 
have galoshes like a businessman’s.” 

At that time, as usual, I foresaw the whole development — 
except its duration and its end. 

Today I say: I shall associate with the mighty of this earth 
as their equal. 

* * * 

To the men at Glion. 

I am now elaborating for you only on the moral-political and 
the financial aspects, i.e., the goal which I see just as clearly as 
the point of departure. 

The project has many other aspects: technical, military, 
diplomatic, administrative, economic, artistic, etc 

For the moment you must believe me that I know how to 

proceed in these directions as well and have made plans for 

them. • • . J . „ • 

A department of inventions, with correspondents in Pans, 

London, Berlin, etc., who immediately report on all novelties 
which are then tested for their usability. 

The department head must be replaced frequently, lest he 
turn into a routine official. 

• ♦ * 

Popular festivals of an artistic nature, scattered throughout 
the country, in such a manner that masses do not always con- 
verge on one point. For that way crowds only feel unhappy at 

Of course, there will also be national festivals with gigantic 
spectacles, colorful processions, etc. — e.g., on the foundation 
day of the State. Perhaps also on the anniversary of Glion. 

Baron Hirsch (who will appear as the great rebel immediately 
after I have made an agreement with the Rothschilds) I must 
handle with sovereign amiability. Flatter him (all right for 
me to do, because I no longer need him): ‘ You are a clever and 
good person: I liked you extremely well from the start; we must 
reach an understanding. I shall make it up between you and 
Rothschild. We have to stick together now.” 

Then, the sursum corda [lift up your hearts]: Responsibility 
before people and history. 

Finally, threaten him with fanatics to whom I shall denounce 

This exodus is to the earlier one as the present-day scientific 
exploration of the Witwatersrand gold fields is to the adventurous 
exploration of Bret Harte’s Californians. 

Guard against an overestimation of myself, arrogance, and 
folly, if the project succeeds. If it does not, writing will help 
me get it off my chest. 

There are details which I cannot tell you yet, because at this 
moment I do not know if you are going to be my friends. You 



see, you can only be my friends or my foes. There can no longer 
be anything in between. 

* * • 

ist stage: The Rothschilds. 

2nd stage: The midget millionaires. 

3rd stage: The little people (i.e., wide publicity!) If it comes 
to this stage, the first two will rue the day. 

# * # 

I shall take along all beggars, all peddlers. The devil can have 
those who want to stay behind, i.e., refuse to work. 

Once I have pulled out the poor, there will be a sigh of relief. 

Jewish splendor will not be a bother in Europe any more 
either. Because all those who are well advised will build their 
palaces over there. 

Not until later will the relief give way to a sense of loss; but 
by that time we shall be established over there and have our 
army and our diplomatic corps. 

Diplomats will be the hardest to recruit, because in the 
captivity we have lost our style. 

To the men of Glion: 

The Rothschilds have no idea of how endangered their 
property already is. They live in a phony circle of courtiers, 
servants, employees, paupers, and aristocratic spongers. 

It is a solution because I satisfy all: 

Poor men, rich men, workers, intellectuals, governments, and 
anti-Semitic peoples. 

* * * 

To the Family Council: 

You give a poor man 100 francs. I give him work, even if 
I have none; at worst I lose 100 francs on it. But I shall have 
created a useful existence, and you— a pauper. Avec g a [thereby], 
I create a market along with the job! And therefore must make 


what entrepreneurs make — je gagne tout ce que je vieux [I earn 
whatever I want]. 


* * # 

Your property is an increasing calamity. We shall let our- 
selves be cheated in the exchange of old immovables for new 
ones, but shall create a privileged, legal mortgage for dirty 
dealings left behind. 

Study shipping rates with Leinkauf. We must be able to trans- 
port persons at the parcel rate. We shall have our own trains 
like Cook and Schrokl. I shall study Cook’s system as well, in 

order to figure out what concessions he gets. 

* * * 

Jewish capital must make no new undertakings. 

Jewish labor must not compete any more. 

Equal rights are still on the law books, but have actually been 

We produce too much intellect and no longer have a market 
for it. 

To the Family Council: My view is that socialism is a purely 
technological problem. The distribution of Nature’s forces 
through electricity will eliminate it. Meanwhile our model 
state will have come into being. 

• * • 

City construction: First canals, water, gas, etc., then wood 
blocks on top. 

June 8 

We must not only copy Paris, Florence, etc., but seek a 
Jewish style expressive of a sense of relief and liberty. 

Bright, airy halls, supported by pillars. 

Create breathing spaces between towns. Every town like a 
big house located in the middle of a garden. 



In the free areas between the towns there must be only culti- 
vated fields, forests, etc. By this I shall prevent hypertrophic 
cities, and the towns will look inhabited sooner. 

In the evening I dined with the Schiffs. Their in-laws from 
Vienna were visiting them. Well-to-do, educated, depressed 
people. They moaned softly about anti-Semitism, to which I 
continually steered the conversation. 

The husband expects a new St. Bartholomew’s Night. The 
wife believes that conditions could hardly get any worse. They 
argued about whether it was good or bad that Lueger’s election 
as mayor of Vienna had not been ratified. 

Their faintheartedness completely dismayed me. They do 
not suspect it, but they are Ghetto types, quiet, decent, timorous. 

Most of our people are like that. Will they understand the 
call to be free and become human beings? 

When I left I was in a very bad humor. My plan again seemed 
crazy to me. 

But in the middle of my ddfaillance [feeling of depression] 
I said to myself: I’ve started it and now I’ll go through with it. 

The main thing is for me to show determination — at Glion 
and on future occasions. 

A thing like that is only a matter of suggestion. The moment 
I doubt, I am grotesque. 

June 9, 1895 

Salo and Gudemann shall each bring along a memorandum. 
Giidemann s should deal with the number and distribution of 
persecutions that come to his attention, signs as to whether 
anti-Semitism is increasing (and if so, at what rate) or decreasing, 
with official and officious anti-Semitism, anti-Semitism in schools 
and offices, to the extent of his knowledge, etc. — in short, every- 
thing that he knows about the moral and political situation. 

Salo should cover the conditions under which Jews earn a 
lving, the interest rate, the distribution of property (the number 
of large properties, an estimate of the small ones), the state of 


the Jewish entrepreneurial spirit (whether it is growing, and 
if so, at what rate, or declining), the temper in business circles. 

In the morning: Today I am again as hard as iron. The 
faintheartedness of the people yesterday is one more reason for 
taking action. Gentiles in their circumstances would be cheerful 
and enjoy life. Jews are sad. 

The provisioning of the population will probably not be 
handled by the State. 

To avoid being called a "manager" in England, which sounds 
too commercial, I shall perhaps have the title of “Chancellor” 
or something like that. 

The subordinate titles would for the time being remain 
those of regular joint-stock companies. Their conversion into 
state titles will later be regarded as a reward. 

The principle on salaries: grant everyone a noticeable in- 
crement of from one fourth to one half of his present income. 
But retain a margin for advancement, in titles as well as salaries. 

In the beginning, the founding officials would not have a 
proper appreciation of titles; they would even seem ridiculous 
to them. So let them just regard themselves as employees of 
a wealthy joint-stock company. 

Let a newspaper reader (Schiff) every day keep an eye open 
for new charitable institutions, hospitals, etc., and submit extracts 
to me. 

In fact, all department heads have instructions to advise me 
of every important manifestation of progress that the spirit of 
the times produces in their fields and to give me special reports 
on major developments. 

I myself shall not read any newspapers (following Freycinet’s 
principle — words that he told me about Casimir P£rier), and 
shall give orders not to tell me about anything that concerns me, 
be it praise or censure. 

Henceforth I have the right and the duty to disregard personal 
attacks of any kind. 

Only if a courant d’opinion [current of opinion] against the 


undertaking is about to be created, I must be informed of it 
immediately, so that I may break down the opposition. 

I shall completely ignore the attacks of anti-Semites, as long 
as they do not want to impede us (which will happen yet). 

My personal security will be the concern of a well-run Secret 

# # # 

June 9 

It is a military campaign. — 

Adopt immediately the principle of the Caravan of Arcueil 
(La XIX. Caravane d’ Arcueil par Lhermite, obtainable from 
the Dominicans in Paris, Ecole Lacordaire). 

The Leader (perhaps Bachrach) shall profitably read the 
book by the Dominican Priest Lhermite and give me a report 
on it. The very first year we shall send over a caravan (Raoul 
will go along), and then there will be similar contingents at 
regular intervals. 

To establish stock exchanges, brokerages will be auctioned 
off, for one year to begin with. 

But anyone who, while he is still a free agent, commits actions 
which will be proscribed later will be disqualified (and he will 
be warned about this in advance). 

On the other hand, anyone who behaves properly will receive 
priority for the following year without having to bid for it. 
He can retain his position at the highest price offered for an 
additional year. This is how it will go until the fifth or the 
tenth year (we shall determine this according to the circum- 
stances), and then the auctioning will cease and the brokers will 
become a closed corporation. 

Through the grand institution of this stock-exchange monopoly 
I shall also get an astonished Europe to imitate us. This will 
crowd the Jews out of the European stock exchanges, because 
the existing governments certainly will not give these sinecures 
to Jews. That will yield me fresh emigrants. 

I shall insure the alertness and justice of the traveling com- 


plaint commissars by holding them responsible. They will be 
subject to disciplinary measures like salary deductions, transfers, 
etc. if they disregard just complaints or give a bad or biased 


There will be secret chief inspectors, i.e., legates who will 
be traveling about in the area anyway and will have to record 
their observations. 

Local self-assessments could lead to swindling. Therefore the 
emigrants will remain collectively liable until what has been 
left behind has been realized, and the liability will reside in 
a privileged mortgage on their new properties. 

A stock-exchange monopoly of the state seems a brilliant 
solution to me now. 

Brokerage does not require any previous knowledge; it is 
unskilled labor\* 

I shall have the licensed brokers in my hand completely and use 
them for state purposes; I shall direct them according to the re- 
quirements of my policy and be able to prevent abuses. I shall 
tolerate no stock-exchange bucket shops. I want a sound money 
market. Any broker who promotes speculating will be removed. 
Removal involves not only the loss of a fat sinecure, but also of 
civil rights for a graduated period of time. 

A broker will become a person of trust like a notary public. 
1 shall combine the brokers in chambers with a tribunal of 

A hierarchy of offenses is to be devised and a special code 
to be established. 

It is a broker’s duty to take a close look at his clients. He 
can do what I cannot do: tell a speculator from a would-be 

Brokers who have caused someone’s economic ruin with 
demonstrable culpa [blame] (even levis [slight]) will be removed. 
But I can also grade the punishments: e.g., temporary suspension 

• In English in the original. 



(which does not involve loss of political rights and can be 
graduated, from a week to two years; after all, sometimes it is 
hard to establish a broker’s guilt). 

I may relieve the tribunal of honor of making decisions about 
suspension and removal and charge my State Stock-Exchange 
Commission with it. 

Perhaps I shall make this commission only an appellate court, 
because I want to forestall the machinations of professional 

June 9 

The same organization as for the Stock Exchange also for 
grain, cattle, and merchandise exchanges as well as everything 
that is subject to speculation. 

* * * 

The income from this monopoly will give me a substantial 
contribution to the needs of the state. 

• * • 

Brokerages will at first be granted provisionally on the basis 
of redevance [dues] and will gradually be used for pensions for 
deserving officials. Later they can also be divided into quarters 
and eighths (like the agents system in Paris). 

# * # 

The brokerships are not inheritable or saleable. — 

Thus I can safely make the capital city the headquarters of 
the world money-market. 

Certain posts (military, diplomatic, juridical, administrative, 
etc.) will never be compensated out of income from the broker- 
ages, but pensioned directly by the State. That will be only a 
matter of bookkeeping for us, but it will contribute to the 
elevation and honoring of these professions. 


To the Family Council (June 6): 

If I can work with you, I shall have all the advantages of initial 

A^soon as the first cadres are set up, the land is fixed, etc., 
I can go to governments and tell them: R’s are making this 

plus Jews. 

We must use the word “surplus,” otherwise they will not 
let us make propaganda and move away. 

In the beginning it must appear that we want to perform 
the governments a service. We are sacrificing a billion for the 
“solution of the Jewish Question.” 

In return for this we receive the favors that we need: release 
from military service, and the like. 

Above all, toleration of our propaganda and occasionally 
(upon our request) an ungracious word, but with the main- 
tenance of order. 

After ten years the movement will be irresistible, and the 
Jews will come running to us barefoot through fog and darkness. 
Nothing will be able to stop them, at least not in the countries in 
which they are free to move. 

If there should then be attempts to impede the free passage 
of the Jews, we shall know how to mobilize the public opinion 
of the world (liberals, socialists, anti-Semites) against the im- 
prisonment of the Jews. 

Then, too, our diplomats will be at work (we shall make 
financial concessions in the form of loans and special gifts). 

Once we are outside, we shall put our trust in our army, our 
purchased friendships, and a Europe weakened and divided by 
militarism and socialism. 

This is Jewish emancipation. 

To the Family Council: 

You are accustomed to transacting worldwide deals. Perhaps 
you will understand me. 

I may issue the Jewish National Loan from our capital city. 


First I shall negotiate with the Czar (to whom our patron, 
the Prince of Wales, will introduce me) regarding permission 
for the Russian Jews to leave the country. 

He is to give me his imperial word and have it published in 
the official gazette (he will believe that I am able to lead away 
only a few hundred thousand). 

Then I shall negotiate with the German Kaiser. Then with 
Austria. Then with France, regarding the Algerian Jews. Then, 
as need dictates. 

In order to be in high esteem at the European courts, I must 
secure the highest decorations. The English first. 

* # # 

June 9 

I shall frequently make surprise spot inspections. (Highly 
important, so as to prevent gaspillage [waste] and officials lying 
down on the job). 

Also get reports on malpractices from a secret Administrative 

June 9 

At the head of the Jewish paper: 

Complaints about malpractices and arbitrary acts of officials 
are to bear the notation “Complaint to the Director-General” 
on the envelope. 

* # * 

For such complaints I shall establish traveling commissions 
of investigation (which will also appear unannounced). 

Punishment for officials: dismissal only in extreme cases. 

For minor offenses, transfer to more remote areas, more arduous 

But by consistently good conduct such official blemishes will 
be wiped out and will no longer prevent advancement. 

Of course, every official will have his record of conduct in the 


department and a file in the London headquarters ( en attendant 
que cela soit dans notre capitale [until we have one in our 

* # • 

The acceptance of gifts will be followed by dismissal in all 
cases, but the dismissed official will be allowed to settle in the 
country and live as a free man. Also, his blameless family will 
be guarded against privation. 

One form of buying our release from the states is a double 
fee for the transfer of immovable properties which are sold by 
their present owners to the Society, and by the Society to others. 

To be sure, we shall not admit this in advance, but shall at 
first have the Society only act as an agent. 

Only when public opinion begins to calm down regarding 
the removal of property, we shall “after careful deliberation 
and to show our good will” find the expedient of this double 
transfer, pledging ourselves to deprive the tax swindlers over 
there of certain benefits enjoyed by the honest emigrants, e.g., 
to give reduced rates of transportation and shipping only to 
those who can produce an official statement from their former 
place of residence certifying that they have “moved away in 
good order.” 

We shall of course recognize the validity of any legal claims 
made by the previous places of residence (even when our own 
laws are already in force). Such suits shall be decided with all 
possible speed and all conceivable expedition and according 
to the law of the original place of residence. 

In return for that, they will have to let us take the Jewish 
deserters (something that I shall settle in a form not offensive 
to us). Because of the fact that we shall have a homeland of our 
own, we shall no longer be obligated to serve in the armed 
orces of our erstwhile host nations (here I accept the viewpoint 
of the anti-Semites). 

Make the leader of the Youth Caravans (after the pattern 


of the Dominicans of Arcueil) responsible for moral discipline, 
seriousness, and studies of the young men. These are not pleasure 
tours, but study and work trips, an ambulatory school with daily 
lessons and lectures, a botanical field trip through the world. 
I shall get special reports on this each time. Very important. 

Once we are over there, the dancers around the Golden Calf 
will be furious at my barring them from the Stock Exchange. 

I shall have them dispersed in the street and tell the 

“That was all right in the time of our captivity. Now we 
have the duties of freedom. We must be a people of inventors, 
warriors, artists, scholars, honest merchants, up-and-coming 
workmen, etc.” 

In the old days there was an excuse for stock-market gambling. 
Our intellects were shackled, and we had to traffic in money. 
Now we are free. Now any Jew can get any office in the state, in 
our State. Anyone can become a general, a minister, a chief 
justice, a scholar — in short, anything. 

Now only the idlers want freedom to gamble on the stock- 
market, and this is something that we must overcome, otherwise 
we shall again be ruined and pitifully dispersed throughout 
the world. 

Far be it from me to say a word against the old-time stock 
traders. My dear father, after his lumber business had gone 
to ruin, was obliged to earn his bread as a stock agent, in order 
not to starve and to give me a decent education. But that was 
in the days gone by. In those days a Jew had no other way out. 
Now this is no longer necessary and therefore will no longer 
be tolerated. 

I too could have made a fortune while directing this vast 
enterprise, just as I made millionaires of men around me. It was 
I who determined the location of our cities — what real estate 
deals I could have made in the process! 

No! I have only my salary, which I need to keep up a decent 
front, and the house which I built out of my savings. I know 
that the nation will never let my posterity suffer want. 


June 9 

When this book is published, the prescriptions for the organ- 
ization of the government will be omitted. The people must 
be guided to the good according to principles unknown to them. 

Therefore the editors of the book — if I am no longer alive — 
shall extract the administrative maxims and keep them in the 
secret State Archives. 

Only the Doge and the Chancellor may read them. To be 
omitted are also those remarks which could annoy foreign 

But the course the negotiations took shall be retained, so that 
our people may see how I led the Jews home. 

June 9 

When someone comes to ask for a job: 

Am I going to take you? I take everyone who has some 
ability and wants to work — your brother, your friends, your 
relatives and acquaintances, all of them, all, all! Got that? And 
now, go. 

June 9 

A crop of professional politicans must be prevented in any 
way possible. 

I must study this problem with the utmost care when the 
time comes. 

• * * 

The Senators will in any case get a salary which will at the 
same time constitute an honorary pension for our great minds. 

As stipends for my brave warriors, ambitious artists, and loyal, 
gifted officials I shall use the dowries of our wealthy girls. 

I must carry on marriage politics. 


To the big bankers, who will look up to me, I shall say: I 
should like to see you give your daughters to up-and-cominr 
vigorous young men. 

I need this for the State. 

It is the self-fertilization of the nation. 

June 9 

In Palestine’s disfavor is its proximity to Russia and Eurooe, 
its lack of room for expansion as well as its climate, which we 
are no longer accustomed to. 

In its favor is the mighty legend. 

In the beginning we shall be supported by anti-Semites through 
a recrudescence* of persecution (for I am convinced that they 
do not expect success and will want to exploit their “conquest.”) 

* # # 

June 9 

A possible further concession for the removal of property. 

The states concerned shall acquire the immovable oroperty 
of the Jews. 1 

The price, regardless of what has been paid by us, will be set 
by a regulatory commission on which we shall also be represented. 

* * * 

June 9 

Language will present no obstacle. Switzerland too is a federal 
state of various nationalities. 

We recognize ourselves as a nation by our faith. 

Actually, German is, par la force des choses [of necessityl, likely 
to become the official language. Judendeutsch [the German 

ribbon! ^ J ews J* ^e yellow badge is to become our blue 
nothing against French or English, either! I shall steer 

In French in the original. 

the jeunesse dorie [gilded youth] toward English sports and in 
this way prepare them for the army. 

# # * 

June 9 

On the trip to the Grand Prix— outside and on the way back, 
the main features of the Doge’s coronation and of duelling oc- 
curred to me. 

When I thought that someday I might crown Hans as Doge 
and address him in the Temple in front of the country’s great 
men as “Your Highness! My beloved son!” I had tears in my 

^The procession, which starts from the Doge’s palace, will be 
opened by Herzl Cuirassiers. Then come the artillery and the 

infantry. . . , 

The officials of all ministries, deputations from the cities, the 

clergy, finally the High Priest of the capital city. The flag with 
a guard of honor composed of generals. The Doge! And here the 

procession attains its symbolic splendor. 

For, while all are marching in gold-studded gala dress, the 
high priests under canopies, the Doge will wear the garb of shame 
of a medieval Jew, the pointed Jew’s hat and the yellow badge! 
(The procession might move through the Ghetto which wi in 
any case be constructed as a reminder and a memorial.) 

Behind the Doge there will be the Chancellor, the potentates 
representing foreign countries, the ministers, generals, etc., the 

diplomatic corps (provided one already exists), the Counci o n 

dents (Senate), the Parliament, freely-chosen deputations from 
the professions, the chambers of commerce, the attorneys, the 
physicians, etc. The artillery and infantry will bring up the rear. 

June 9 

My punishments for suicide: for an unsuccessful attempt per- 
manent confinement in an insane asylum; for accomplished sui- 
cide, refusal of an honorable burial. 


June 9 

I need duelling in order to have real officers and to impart a 
tone of French refinement to good society. 

Duelling with sabres is permitted and will not be punished, 
no matter what the outcome, provided that the seconds have done 
their share toward an honorable settlement. 

Every sabre duel will be investigated by the duelling tribunal 
only afterwards. 

A matamore, a braggart who seeks an easy mark and picks out 
weaker opponents, may be declared as ineligible for further duel- 
ling by the tribunal if it can be proved that he was the offender; 
if he has inflicted serious injury, he may be referred to the 
regular criminal courts and sentenced according to the common 
criminal code. 

* # * 

Pistol duelling (or the American type, if it really exists) must 
be taken to the tribunal before the duel by the witnesses on 
both sides; otherwise those concerned will be punished and for- 
feit the right ever again to appear before the duelling tribunal. 

The duelling tribunal may decide on a sabre duel; or, if one 
party is physically inferior, on no duel at all; or, finally, it may 
give a secret verdict. Such a verdict is heard only by the two 
duellers; the seconds have to withdraw. The secret verdict (for 
which I shall compose secret instructions) decrees a duel in a 
form no less dangerous, but useful to the state. Since only men 
of honor can fight a duel, the loser in any case would be the 
state, and for a long time to come it will need every able-bodied 

Therefore these duellers will be sent out on dangerous missions 
which the state happens to require. It may be cholera vaccination, 
or at other times the fighting of a national enemy. In this way the 
risk of death of the duel will be retained, and we shall derive 
wonderful benefit from it. 


June 9 

City construction: 

The difficulty: a margin for expansion, and yet with an ap- 
pearance of being inhabited. May be solved by the construction 
of garden cities. 

• * * 

In all local groups, plans and pictures of the homes* which we 
have drawn up by our young architects (prizes). 

Selection, methods of payment, scales of rates. 

* * * 

Prizes for fertility and good patriarchal education of children. 

* * • 

We immediately have unskilled labor* for hundreds of thou- 
sands, namely streets, highways. 

A Bois de Boulogne near the capital city, or, rather, the other 

way around. — 

To the Family Council and, earlier, at Glion: The R. fortune. 
That is what I am talking about. What business of yours is it, 
the R’s will interpose. After all, we do not worry about the Herzl 

Just a minute! It is my business. Every politician must regard 
its increase as a public menace. 

But I worry about it because it is the most frightful menace 
to the Jews and because I am setting myself up as the gestor 
of the Jews. 

More gently, before the Family Council: 

In the course of the discussion I shall have to speak about your 
fortune. Will you concede me this right or shall I first explain 
that, too? 

• In English in the original. 



The cryptogam is the plant of Jewry; it has both sexes: capital 
and labor. (One sees only the capital.) 

June 9 

Since I want to establish garden cities, I face a dilemma: either 
to build the cities in forest clearings (possibly quicker, but the 
experts will tell me the objections to that), or plant trees between 
the houses, whereby I would lose the advertising appeal, the 
magic quality, but then I can develop the cities the way I want 
to; to be sure, they would look as if they were attending a tree 

• * * 

In any case, take landscape gardeners, horticultural experts 
along on my expedition to take possession of the land. 

* * * 

On the boat and in all places, work must be done, gentlemen 
of the General Staff. 

« * * 

June 9 

Schiff’s brother-in-law, after only two weeks, is home-sick for 
the Vienna coffee-houses. Consequently, I shall faithfully trans- 
plant Viennese cafes to the other side. With such little expedients 
I shall achieve the desired illusion of the old environment. 

Have an ear for such small needs. They are very important. 

# * * 

To the Family Council: 

There are two categories of Jews: those with and those with- 
out locomotion. 

The latter I shall dig up and transport across — they will 
hardly notice it. The others, those able to move about, such as 
you and I, will continue to be mobile and will be respected. 

* # • 

Our belonging togetherl Do you want me to give you an ex- 

^thbleni aU right]: Today I, a stranger, come to you and tell 
vou in confidence my most secret intentions. 

It is possible that we shall wind up fighting each other but 
like hostile brothers—; that way it is quite possible that we shall 

kill each other. 

* * * 

June 9 

1 am talking about your fortune— not because your name has 
become synonymous with money, for I have no feeling for it. 
I am not a money man. Haven’t got a nose for it! 

* * * 

The man who pointed to the cover of a teakettle lifted by 
steam and said, “This is how I shall move people, animals, and 
freight, and give the world a new appearance,” was derided as 

a lunatic. 

* * • 

Well, I shall not only demonstrate the principle to you with a 
teakettle, but show you the entire finished locomotive. 

• * * 

My analogies are too dazzling, disconcert you. 

Now just imagine: if I dazzle you, from whom I want 1000 
million— albeit not for myself— how I shall dazzle those whom 
I am going to make wealthy, free, and happy. 

June 9 

For Glion: The R’s are to make an immediate decision, Yes or 
No. I have no time to lose. It has taken me thirteen years. 
Family Council: I choose an aristocracy because I need an 


elastic form of government for the future. A monarchy would 
lead to a revolution. 

For a republic we are not virtuous enough, Montesquieu. 

* * * 

Family Council: 

If not with you, then in opposition to you! What do I mean by 
that? I am not going to call your fortune an ill-gotten one. It 
would be a lie to say that. 

I am not an extortioner and not a pamphleteer (but a states- 
man, and a Jewish one at that) . 

All I shall say is: it is too big! And injurious to the people, 
because private property increases faster than national prosperity. 
Coming from an unprejudiced Jew, this will create a stir. 

June 10 

To the German Kaiser: 

If Jews emigrate, this must result in a decrease in emigration 
to America. You thereby gain, or, rather, preserve, genuine Ger- 
man citizens, forestall a revolution which might be hard to con- 
tain, weaken socialism which the oppressed Jews must flock to 
because they are cast out by other parties, and gain time for the 
solution of social problems. 

* * * 

My first secretary (E. Schiff) will recruit the naturalist investi- 
gators — geographers, geologists, chemists, technologists, botanists, 
zoologists, etc. 

* # * 

June 10 

Political agitation which can lead to the downfall of the State 
is punishable by exile or, if the individual could do harm there, 
by death. 

But even exile from the enchanting homeland will be a terrible 


June 10 

My constant concern must be the soundness of the economy. 
No dissipation, no waste. It is not a curee [quarry] for the covet- 
ous and the idle. It shall not become a Panama, but a Suez. 

* # # 

June 10 


All crimes committed in captivity, including those involving 
property, will be forgiven politically and will not affect civil 
rights (of course, the sound common sense of the population will 
bar notorious swindlers from positions of honor, et au besoin j’y 
veillerai [and if necessary I shall see to it]). A new life shall 
begin for Jews. But severe punishments for fresh crimes com- 
mitted over there! Crimes on the eve of departure (dirty dealings 
left behind) I shall deal with only civiliter [under civil law], 
through the above-mentioned privileged mortgage. 

June 10 

As long as possible no taxes, or at most indirect ones which do 
not affect the belongings of the little man. 

• * • 

No luxury tax either, for I need luxury items for the market. 
I shall gladly take French officers (Jews) , but they must not 
be Gallic chauvinists. 


From the army of unskilled laborers* it will be possible to 
rise through industry, intelligence, efficiency, as in the Napo- 
leonic army. 

Anyone can become a marshal of labor. I shall frequently tell 
them so, or have them told, in popular addresses. 

• • • 

' In English in the original. 


For special accomplishments which I notice, I shall immedi- 
ately promote the worker and increase his salary. This bit of 
drama will have an effect on the masses. 

As soon as actions d’dclat [striking deeds], which will be 
watched for according to my special instructions, are reported 
to me, I shall immediately reward them. 

« * # 

Organize the labor battalions along military lines, as far as 

# # * 

Service in the labor battalions leads to a pension, as in the 

# # * 

I must save only the badges of honor for those who risk their 

Through bestowing patents of nobility I shall draw great 
personal sacrifices from people. 

Neither patents of nobility nor decorations must be obtainable 
for money. I shall validate those acquired elsewhere prior to the 
founding of the State, regardless of how they were obtained. 

Later even foreign ones will be recognized only if they were 
acquired in a truly meritorious manner. A Jew will not be able 
to buy the title of a Portuguese Marquis and have it recognized 
by us. But if he is made a nobleman by Portugal for shining 
deeds (which, after all, will reflect glory on us as well), I shall 
recognize him at home. 

All this will have to be closely examined by the Office of 
Nobility on an individual basis. 

June 10 

To the Family Council: 

I am taking up once again the torn thread of the tradition of 
our people. I am leading it to the Promised Land. Do not think 


this is a fantasy. I am not an architect of castles in the air. I am 
building a real house, with materials that you can see, touch, 
examine. Here are the blue prints. 

# # * 

Note that the next European war cannot harm our enterprise, 
but only benefit it, because all Jews will transport all their be- 
longings across, to safety. 

Cowards will want to shirk military duty in our State if it 
comes to war. But just as I want to favor desertion to our side in 
peacetime, I shall impede it in wartime, on account of Jewish 

Let anyone who has delayed his adherence until then do his 
old duty and fight, and when the war is over we shall receive 
him with all honors, much greater ones than his former father- 
land accorded him. In this way our fighting forces will get 
experienced warriors who have faced death and will enhance 
the prestige of our Army. 

• * * 

Incidentally, when peace is concluded we shall already have 
a say as money-givers and achieve advantages of recognition 
through diplomatic channels. 

June 10 

Draw limits of freedom of the press wisely. The pillory for 
slanderers, and substantial fines. 

* * * 

A House of Lords for the aristocracy, but not inheritable. First 
there must be an examination as to merit. 

I must give more thought to ways of guarding against the 
absurd heirs of other countries. 

• * * 




Today is Hansi’s birthday. He is four years old. I sent him a 
telegram to Vienna: “Love and kisses to my father-king." That is 
what my mother calls him. And I think of my dream. 

# # * 

The House of Lords will perhaps consist of three groups: one 
chosen by the aristocracy; one named by the government (Doges); 
the third elected indirectly, as in France. I have the same feel- 
ing as I did once in the Protestant Gymnasium [high school] at 
Pest in the senior grade: that I should soon leave school. At that 
time the death of my poor sister made it happen even sooner 
than I had thoughtl 

Now I have a presentiment that I am going to leave the 
school of journalism. 

# # * 

By amnesty I mean only the restoration of honor after the 
crimes have been atoned for. Fugitives from justice (Jews) we 
shall extradite on a reciprocal basis. 

* # # 

Extradition treaties to exclude deserters in peacetime. 

* * # 

Literary copyright agreements! At first we shall pay, afterward 
receive payment, because we shall be a nation of thinkers and 

* * * 

To the Family Council: The loan will perhaps not even have 
to be publicly floated; this would save concessions to govern- 
ments in return for their permission. 

Movable property will flock to us if we so much as pass the 
word in confidence. We shall simply start an account book and 
enter loans with no limit; and with this we shall acquire land, 
make foreign loans, etc. 



In addition to transportation, industry, etc., it is also a huge 
financial transaction. 

• • • 

Come to think of it, in all this I am still the dramatist. I pick 
poor people in rags off the streets, put gorgeous costumes on 
them, and have them perform for the world a wonderful pageant 
of my composition. 

I no longer operate with individuals, but with masses: the 
clergy, the army, the administration, the academy, etc., all of 
them mass units to me. 

• # * 

To the Family Council: I must call a spade a spade. This 
should not make you think that I am a rude person. But at the 
moment I do not know whether I shall proceed with you or in 
opposition to you. That is why the flourishes of courtesy might 
compromise me and give my later actions the appearance of 

June n, 1895 

Labor units will march off to work like an army amidst the 
sounds of a fanfare and return home the same way. 

• * • 

June 11, 1895 

No women or children shall work in our factories. We need 
a sturdy race. Needy women and children will be taken care 
of by the State. 

“Old maids” will be employed in kindergartens and as nurses 
for the orphans of the working class, etc. 

I shall organize these girls who have been passed over by 
suitors into a corps of governesses for the poor. They will be 
given housing by the State, enjoy due honors (just as every 
gentleman treats a governess courteously), and eventually will 


be pensioned. But they can rise in the ranks in the same way that 
men can. 

Moral conduct is a prerequisite. This makes the head of the 
Personnel Department an important person. For this position 
I must select a gentle, just, worldly-wise, elderly man and super- 
vise him constantly, for any mistakes he might make could do 
a lot of harm and arouse dissatisfaction and bitterness. 

But I want a happy nation. 

A lot of toasts will be drunk to me. On important occasions 
I shall accept them and say: I like to see a leader being honored. 
That is necessary for his work and shows him that he enjoys 
the confidence of the people (unless self-seeking is part of it). 
But too much of it might do me harm. I want to be honored, 
but not flattered, otherwise I shall lose the naturalness and sim- 
plicity of my make-up. 

The ship on which my parents, wife, and children make the 
crossing will also bring over all our relatives, near and distant. 
No one will feel violently uprooted, for the entire soil will go 

A company of actors, singers, and musicians will help while 
away the passage; in fact, provision will be made on every ship 
for entertainment as well as instruction. 

But games of chance will not be tolerated. 

My officials will not be allowed to gamble at all. Such diversion 
of the intellect is no longer necessary. We need, and can use, 
all our intellectual resources. The love of adventure, which 
finds an outlet in gambling, shall now fertilize the soil of our 
new homeland. 

As a young man I myself was a gambler — like Lessing, Laube, 
and many others who later became respectable men after all — 
but only because my craving for action had no other outlet. 

This I shall at first tell the gamblers as a gentle warning. 

However, anyone who does not obey I shall dismiss from my 

Only children and old people will be allowed to play. How- 
ever, the games of the children must serve their physical develop- 


ment: Running and ball games, cricket for boys, tennis for girls. 

The inactive games must be designed to prepare the future 
development of the intellect. Drawing, painting, reading signifi- 
cant fairy-tales, games of construction for increasing the pleasure 
in synthesis, and the like. 

Old men may play cards, but not for money, because this 
might tempt the onlookers and is unseemly for patriarchs. I want 
to have a patriarchal spirit in families. 

However, I shall permit refined card-clubs, but with no mem- 
bers under forty years of age and with a stiff tax on playing cards 
for State revenue. 

June 11 

The Jews who have hitherto been in the consular service of 
various powers can be taken over into our diplomatic service. 
Of course, each individual will be tested for his qualifications. 

There may be among them capable men who have acquired the 
polish and the forms of diplomacy. But no one has an a priori 
right to be appointed; the decisive factor is his usefulness to us. 

But since for the time being we shall not be able to afford 
them any protection, we shall not give them any ringing titles, 
but call them agents, something that they can combine with 
their current consular assignments. Thus they will be covered 
by the respect they have at present. 

We must not let our diplomatic titles, which will later attain 
high prestige, be made ridiculous at the outset. 

• * * 

Yacht owners can become our professional seamen and pre- 
pare to take command of our future Navy. 

* * * 

Should we go to South America, which would have a lot in 
its favor on account of its distance from militarized and seedy 
Europe, our first state treaties will have to be with South Ameri- 
can republics. 


We shall grant them loans in return for territorial privileges 
and guarantees. One of the most important concessions they will 
have to make to us is to allow us to have defensive troops. 

In the beginning we shall need their permission. Gradually 
we shall get strong, grant ourselves everything that we need, 
and be able to defy everyone. 

For the time being we must get protection from the troops of 
the state that receives us. Later we shall make an independent 
alliance with it. 

We must have a South American and a European policy. 

If we are in South America, the establishment of our State will 
not come to Europe’s notice for a considerable period of time. 

In South America we could at first live according to the laws, 
extradition treaties, etc. of the receiving state (vis-i-vis Europe)! 

Our defensive troops will always comprise ten percent of the 
male emigrants. In this way we shall get an Army together un- 
observed, but will for a long time proceed cautiously, exploiting 
the enmities of the republics and preserving their friendship 
through presents, bribes, loans, etc. 

The crossing is to take place by local groups and social units. 
There will be first-class, second-class, and third-class ships, each 
with instruction and entertainment appropriate to it. 

In this way the inciting example of class differences (observed 
at close proximity over many days) will be avoided. 

Everyone will pay for his passage himself. I want luxury, but 
not fruitless envy. 

* * • 

1 wan. luxury as a patron of the arts, as goal and prize. To see 

hr„Tr emS ?V h *. emh and to k "°« [h « are attainable 
through honest labor is a spur to great effort. 

n °i S ““f ed winnin S over the Rs or the midget 
Z , publish the entire plan in book form: The 

0, ! he { ew ‘ sh Quest, on, Duncker and Humblot, pub- 
shers, to whom I shall give only the first five editions underlie 



same conditions as my Palais Bourbon. They will only get an 
option on subsequent editions. 

In my book The Solution etc., I shall tell about all my steps, 
from Hirsch via Rothschild to the midget millionaires. 

Preface: They came to Rothschild with the electric light, too. 
He did not understand what it was all about. 

I must eliminate all Venetian political elements from the 


# • # 

The danger of the R. fortune will, of course, not be presented 
in the manner of a pamphleteer, but with my own customary 

All polemics will be omitted. After all, I am concerned with 
the cause. And it will be of enormous benefit to the Jews that 
this will be said by a Jew who is above doubt, who has never 
made any deals, least of all with his pen. 

June 1 1 

S. C.’s answer was due yesterday and is not here even today. 
This directs my thoughts to the book. I am getting accustomed 
to the idea that it will not materialize. 

June 11 

In the Palais Royal (while standing up): 

We are bad soldiers, because we are devoid of honor, because 
there is nothing for us beyond death. And yet there is no lack 
of examples to show that we know how to die well (Naquet s 
speech). But we cannot become leaders, and in this the states are 
right; otherwise we would be brigadier-generals everywhere 
within two generations, especially since war has become an intel- 
lectual affair. And certainly the nations cannot admit defeat by 
making the members of an unassimilated and unassimilable 
group the leaders of their armies. 


June n 

The worth of my plan obviously lies in the facts that I am 
using only available resources, making unutilized or unutilizable 
things fruitful by combining them, that I have regard for all 
suffering (certainly including the hurts inflicted by Jews on 
Gentiles), protect all acquired rights, take all human impulses 
into account, balance world supply and world demand, use the 
progress of technology, and hold tradition sacred. 

Make this correction above: The prudent immediately recog- 
nize the safe cobble-stones. 

# * * 

Yes, we have become a scourge for the peoples which once 
tormented us. The sins of their fathers are now visited on them. 
Europe is being punished for the ghettos now. To be sure, we are 
suffering under the sufferings that we are causing. It is a scourg- 
ing with scorpions, live scorpions which are not to blame that 
they did not become lions, tigers, or sheep. After all, in the scourg- 
ing the scorpions suffer most of all. 

I could accept a mass request from the little Jews to lead them 
out only if all the governments concerned asked me to, promised 
me their sympathetic cooperation, and gave me guarantees for 
the peaceful completion of the enormous task, just as I would 
give them guarantees for an exodus without economic ill-effects. 
(I don’t know whether I should have this printed in Roman type). 

• * * 

(Addendum to Teweles’ letter): I must read Daniel Deronda. 
Perhaps it contains ideas similar to mine. They cannot be iden- 
tical ones, because it took a concatenation of many specific cir- 
cumstances to bring my plan into being. 

If we have not yet emigrated by the outbreak of the next war, 
all Jews of quality must go to the front, regardless of whether they 
were fit for active service” when they reached the draft age, 
whether they are still of military age, whether they are healthy 


or sick. They must drag themselves to the army of their present 
fatherland, and if they are on opposite sides, they must shoot 
at one another. 

Some may regard this as paying a debt of honor, others as 
a down-payment on our future honor. But all will have to do it. 

* * # 

June 11 

Schiff came to see me today. I asked him to substitute for 
me for a few days. Was I starting a newspaper? he asked when 
I dropped a few vague hints. 

A newspaper! II y a belle lurette que je n’y pense plus [I 
haven’t thought of that for a long time]. 

True enough, I first sought the practical ideas with the found- 
ing of the “Neue Zeitung” in mind. 

Like Saul, who went forth. . . ! 

* * # 

June i i 

Schiff’s brother-in-law said the other day: Emigrate? Yes, I’d 
like to, all right. But where to? Switzerland? The first country 
to make laws against the Jews! 

Where to? This question made me inwardly very happy. 

* * * 

June 1 1 

About the assistance par le travail [public works] I had some 
correspondence with Chlumecky two years ago. He did not get 
the idea. 

• • • 

Today I dined at a brasserie [small restaurant] near the 
Chatelet. I am shunning all my acquaintances. They tread on 


my toes, having no idea of the world I come from, this makes 
daily living terribly irritating. 

# * * 

Tard au danger, tard aux honneurs [late to danger, late to 

Anyone who has not joined us during the first twenty years 
of our existence (although he has turned thirty or more during 
this period), cannot hold office nor be eligible for it. 

But he can be naturalized. 

• # * 

A museum of technical trades. 

# # * 

The R’s did not understand Jablochkow’s “candles,” but they 
did understand the Guttmanns’ coal proposals. Thus they may 
not comprehend the luminous side of my idea, but they will 
understand the coal side of the matter. 

To the Family Council: Every day you grant financial favors 
for minimal gestures of tolerance or even to governments that 
do nothing for you. 

Put that under your own management — and in twenty years’ 
time we shall be recognized by the whole world! 

June 1 1 

Hungarians will be the hussars of Judea; they could make 
splendid cavalry generals. 

* * * 

June 1 1 

Every worker who makes a complaint will be transferred to 
another company, so that the foreman cannot take revenge. Or 
the foreman will be transferred. 



June 11 

Daudet asked me whether I wanted to carry on my Jewish 
campaign in a novel. He reminded me of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 

I told him then and there that 1 desired a more manly form 
of announcement. At that time I was still thinking of the 
Enquete [treatise] to be entitled The Situation of the Jews. 

Today, the more I think about it the more it seems to me 
that it would really be beneath my dignity to make my plan 
palatable to the masses through love affairs and little jests, as 
Bellamy did in his utopian novel. 

It would be easy for me, because I am an experienced writer of 
belles-lettres. Yet I must take care not to let the book become 
unreadable. After all, it is to make a deep impression on the 
people, on the nations. 

Let it have a bit of literary fascination, then. It consists in the 
free-flowing sequence of ideas as they moved through my mind 
during these sunny days of the world dream in serene profusion, 
with all their accidents [imperfections], as the sculptors put it 
(“finger marks in the clay”). 

This will also prevent leafing through this book in search of 
chapter headings. Whoever wants to know what is in it will 
have to read it. 

# * # 

The assistance par le travail, which has been so important to 
me, I am going to insert somewhere — namely, in my article in 
the Neue Freie Presse. 

The book will be “dedicated to my parents, Herr Jacob and 
Frau Jeanette Herzl.” 

• * * 

The ship of coffins! We shall also take our dead along with us. 

• • • 

Much in these notes will seem ludicrous, exaggerated, crazy. 
But if I had exercised self-criticism, as I do in my literary work. 


my ideas would have been stunted. However, the gigantic serves 
the purpose better than the dwarfed, because anyone can do the 
trimming easily enough. 

Artists will understand why I, otherwise of rather clear intelli- 
gence, have let exaggerations and dreams proliferate among my 
practical, political, and legislative ideas, as green grass sprouts 
among cobble-stones. I could not permit myself to be forced into 
the straitjacket of sober facts. This mild intoxication has been 

Yes, artists will understand this fully. But there are so few 

June 1 1 

In the book I may bring out typographically the distinction 
between the two intermingling dream worlds, by having the 
fantasy printed in a different type. That way the initiates will 
immediately see where and how the grass grows — others will 
hear it grow — and the rest will recognize the solid cobble-stones. 

# # # 

The little parallel folds of the epidermis of an artist in bronze. 

* # * 

Letter to Giidemann of June i i, 1895. 

Dear Doctor Giidemann: 

This letter will be a surprise to you in every respect: both in 
what it says and what it does not say. 

I have decided to take the lead in an action on behalf of the 
Jews and am asking you whether you would like to be of assist- 
ance to me. 

Your first task would be to draw up an accurate report of 
everything that you know about the present moral and political 
situation of the Jews, not only in Vienna and Austria-Hungary, 
but also in Germany, Russia, Rumania, etc. I don’t think it 
should be a report with certified statistics, because that would 



take too much of your time and the report would have to be 
finished in two or three days. The exact figures and documenta- 
tion we can obtain at a later date. As a start I want only a general 
and faithful presentation from you. The loftier the vantage point 
that you choose, the fewer the details you go into, the more suit- 
able it will be. Naturally you will use your own judgment in 
selecting illustrations for your assertions. These, then, are the 
things to be covered: vital statistics of the Jews in the above- 
mentioned countries (births, marriages, deaths, listed by occupa- 
tion); observable trends in change of residence (e.g., from Galicia 
to Lower Austria); whether and to what extent these changes of 
locality were caused or impeded by anti-Semitism; a brief survey 
of typical major and minor persecutions of Jews that have come 
to your attention (persecution in parliaments, newspapers, at 
rallies, on the street); signs of the increase or decrease of anti- 
Semitism, and in what proportion; official and unofficial anti- 
Semitism; hostility toward Jews in schools, offices, closed and 
open professions. 

This looks as though I were asking a very exhaustive memo- 
randum of you. On the contrary, please put down only what 
is known to you about all these matters at the moment. 

It cannot be difficult for a man as skilled in words and with 
the pen as you are and who has surely given this matter so much 
deep thought to write this down or dictate it in a few hours. 
But if you dictate it, your secretary must not find out for what 
purpose it is being done. 

Let me right at this point request you most earnestly to keep 
our correspondence as well as all succeeding steps a complete 
secret. The matter is an infinitely serious one. You can see this 
from the fact that I am not telling a word even to my parents and 
closest relatives. I am relying on your discretion. 

Please bring me the report detailed above to Caux, overlook- 
ing Territet on Lake Geneva. If I may have your kind assistance, 
that is where we shall meet in a week, i.e., on Tuesday, June 18th. 
Why that place was chosen you will learn there. In case you are 
unable to finish the entire report, you can complete it verbally 


then and there. However, you will not want to come all by your- 
self, but with a capable, serious-minded man who can supplement 
your statements from other aspects. \ ou see, at Caux I shall need 
one spiritual and one worldly Jew. My first choice was Herr Salo 
Cohn who, I believe, is well known to you. I wrote him last 
Thursday, June 6. His reply was due yesterday. It has not arrived 
today. I cannot wait any longer. 

I first wanted to make sure of his cooperation, but did not 
tell him that I wanted to approach you as well — afterwards, be- 
cause (and I hope I was not mistaken) your assistance seemed 
assured from the outset. You probably know me better from my 
newspaper work than from personal acquaintance; and I imagine 
that you take me as seriously as I really am. 

And I may receive an answer from S. C. after I mail this letter 
and before you receive it. In that case I shall ask you by tele- 
gram to get in touch with him. 

In return I ask you to be so kind as to send me one of two 
telegrams as soon as you have made your decision, if possible on 
the same day you receive this letter: “Agreed” or “Sorry, impossi- 
ble.” Also include your present address (probably Baden?), so 
that I could send you a telegram. 

If S. C. does not take on the serious and great assignment with 
which I wanted to honor him, we shall have to look for another 
man. I leave the choice to you. I don’t want any of my relatives, 
otherwise I should have asked my father, first of all. The second 
gentleman should be a businessman. He, too, must take a report 
to Caux, to cover the following: an approximate description of 
how Jews earn a living in the above-mentioned countries; the 
distribution of property (an estimate of the number of large, 
medium-sized, and small fortunes — I know that this can only 
be a very vague estimate, but even that will do); in what coun- 
tries do the Jews own a lot of immovable property; the state of 
the Jewish enterprising spirit (is it increasing — and if so, at what 
rate — or decreasing); the mood in business circles; the situation 
of Jewish small businessmen and manufacturers (on the Franz- 
Josefs-Quai, etc.) 


This report too, should not be timidly statistical, but should, 
as far as possible, be rather free, lively, unconstrained, and idio- 
matic. It will gain by being dictated. 

From the foregoing you will see what sort of man we need- 
a calm superior, unaffected man, not too young; he must, in any 
Le be a respected man of self-assured bearing, because of the 
task l w hich he will face later on. Unfortunately I must add that 
I should prefer a well-to-do man, for our propertyless Jews are 
rather put-upon and lack bearing. But the aim which you will 
find out about at Caux requires, too, the second man to have 
a dignified, independent comportment. The person you select 
will presumably know me by name and will perhaps give me his 
confidence. For I know well that a certain amount of confidence 
is required in face of the presumptuous request to take a major 
trip the purpose of which is not clearly enough stated. 

Since it is absolutely impossible for me to express myself any 
more clearly than this in writing, I can only pledge myself to pay 
a fine if I should trifle. If you two gentlemen should find at 
Caux that I have troubled you to no purpose, 1 shall han you 
there one thousand francs which you will be good enough to 
give to your favorite charities. 

And now, dear doctor, I ask you to come. A great project or 

our poor, unfortunate brethren is at stake. You are a spmtua 

adviser. At Caux a duty awaits you. That is all I can te you. 

With expressions of my cordial esteem, I am 

Yours sincerely, 

Theodor Herzl, 

37, rue Cambon. 

* • * 

June i i 

In my letter to Hirsch 1 wrote: "In France, at my age of 
thirty-five, men are Ministers of State, and Napo eon v\as 

Tnow find that in my haste I formulated my meaning badly. 


As it stands, it smacks of megalomania. I merely meant that I 
too have a right to ponder political affairs and that at my age 
it is possible to have the maturity associated with a statesman. 

June 1 1 

The idea of having a meeting with those two Jews at Caux on 
Lake Geneva is a good one in many respects. 

There they will be lifted out of their everyday, narrow, re- 
stricted concepts. 

They will see a victory of mind over matter. And I shall be 
thinking of Rousseau, who saw a social contract where I dis- 
covered the negotiorum gestio. 

* * * 

June i i 

The little Jews will perhaps band together in local groups 
and raise the money that the R’s did not want to give. But will 
I be able to take it after I have disclosed my entire program to 
the world? 

The big Jews will have frustrated the project through their 
refusal; of course, they will probably be the first to suffer for 

• • # 

Yet the publication will be of indirect benefit to the Jews. — 
Many of my thoughts, such as those about duelling, suicide, sup- 
port of inventors, a stock exchange monopoly, traveling complaint 
commissions, are good for all nations. Therefore people may 
treat the Jews more gently because these suggestions were bom 
of their sufferings and their spirit. 

June 12, 1895 

It is not enough for me to run a work project, but I must have 
it conducted by a permanent commission. The head of this com- 
mission must have a systematic mind. 

• * 


June 12 

Short-sighted people will refuse when I ask them to transplant 
their pension institutes, etc. The good example must carry the 
day here. There are three kinds of pension institutes that I have 
in mind: 

1) those with an all-Jewish membership ( Hevras and the 
like); they are the easiest to transplant, for they can be dug up 
with all their roots. 

2) those with a majority of Jewish members (an example is 
the Vienna Concordia): There a general meeting may decide to 
divide up the property, or the minority can be given a cash settle- 
ment and the rest can be transplanted as above. A very effective 
move would also be to leave the immovables to the minority 
(which would cost less than it appears, because this would save 
a twofold transfer). 

3) those with only a scattering of Jews (like an association of 
civil servants). In such cases we must either waive our claims to 
the sums due us (after all, we compensate all our people who 
have sustained any losses, on the principle of solidarity), or, if 
the statutes permit it, the pension can be made over to some- 
body else, or we may request that the income be forwarded 

• • • 

June 12 

The boat sailing to occupy the land can carry, in addition to 
the officers of the Company, representatives of the Local Groups 
(possibly as non-paying passengers) who may occupy sites for 
their establishments over there. These representatives must have 
the authorization to enter into agreements binding on their Local 
Groups; and they, rather than the Company, will be responsible 
to their groups for the choice of sites and the like. 

• • • 


June 12 

The distribution of this new world will be handled equitably! 

* * * 

I shall determine the time of my tour of the Local Groups 

This tour will take place about two months before the sailing 
of the land-taking expedition, one month before it at the latest. 

Of course, I shall be able to visit only the largest cities. 

The method of this centralization is something still to be 
considered. Shall I send my missionaries out into districts? For 
this the two Schiffs would be quite suitable; this could be com- 
pleted in two months if Europe were divided into two or four 
districts. Or shall I give lectures to a group of traveling scholars 
and then spread the fellows out over the countries? Perhaps the 
first plan should be adopted at the beginning, when everything 
still has to be done cautiously and secretly, and the second one 

• # # 

On my main tour I shall everywhere invite a small number 
of the most respectable (not the wealthiest) men to come to 
see me, make them take an oath of secrecy, and reveal to them 
the plan which I am going to announce to the Family Council. 
Then will follow a second, bigger meeting, the composition of 
which will be suggested to me by the first group. To this meeting 
I shall announce the “outflow” plan — there is no mention in it 
as yet of the State — , telling them only that we are seeking 
security for our capital and new soil for our labor. But I must 
take care in every country not to get involved in any “secret 
society” business. Perhaps I shall call in the first confidants one 
by one and have them take oaths individually. 

Carefully avoid the danger of “secret societies” everywhere. 
That is why our official propaganda must be made by the most 
circumspect people. We shall cover ourselves by submitting our 
“secret instructions” to the governments for their approval. 


After all, we want to proceed with the consent of the governments, 
but undisturbed by the mobs of parliament and press. 

• * * 

June 12 

It will, incidentally, spread like wildfire. One of my dreams 
during the period of uncertainty was to force Alois Lichtenstein, 
Schonerer or Lueger to a duel. If I had been shot, a letter left 
behind by me would have told the world that I fell a victim to 
this most unjust movement. Thus my death might at least have 
improved the heads and hearts of men. But if I had shot my 
opponent, I wanted to make a magnificent speech before the 
assize court, first expressing my regrets at “the death of an 
honorable man,” like Mores who had stabbed Captain Mayer 
to death. Then I would have gone into the Jewish Question, 
making a powerful, Lassalle-like speech which would have shaken 
and moved the jury and inspired respect from the court, leading 
to my acquittal. Thereupon the Jews would have offered to 
make me a member of parliament. But I would have been obliged 
to decline that, because I did not want to become a representative 
of the people over the dead body of a human being. — And now! 
I find that the anti-Semites are fully within their rights. 

* * • 

It would be an excellent idea to call in respectable, accredited 
anti-Semites as liquidators of property. 

To the people they would vouch for the fact that we do not 
wish to bring about the impoverishment of the countries that 
we leave. 

At first they must not be given large fees for this; otherwise 
we shall spoil our instruments and make them despicable as 
“stooges of the Jews.” 

Later their fees will increase, and in the end we shall have 
only Gentile officials in the countries from which we have emi- 


The anti-Semites will become our most dependable friends, 
the anti-Semitic countries our allies. 

We want to emigrate as respected people. 

June 12 

No Jewish paper! 

Jewish papers! I will induce the publishers of the biggest 
Jewish papers ( Neue Freie Presse, Berliner Tageblatt, Frank- 
furter Zeitung , etc.) to publish editions over there, as the New 
York Herald does in Paris. 

The transplantation of habits includes one’s favorite paper at 

The newspapers will keep their readers, satisfy the needs 
(which will soon be enormous) of those who have stayed behind, 
and exchange news by telegraph. At first the overseas editions 
will be the smaller ones. Then the old editions will shrink and 
the new ones become big. 

The Gentile editors will stay here and feel liberated and 
comfortable; the Jewish ones will go overseas and become rich 
and respected, taking an active part in politics; in fact, at present 
the journalists are the only Jews who know anything about poli- 

I am the best proof of this. 

Amnesty for moral misdemeanors of the press, too. All shall 
start a new life. But let everyone be respectable over there from 
the outset! Tribunals of honor, like those of the lawyers. The 
press must be free, but let it have and preserve the priestly 
honor of its opinions. In this way we shall also have the most 
decent press in the world. 

# * * 

The insurance business! 

It will become a big department, probably requiring a ministry 
of its own. We shall start with a Director of Insurance. 

The capital is contained in the State (at first in the Society*). 

* In English in the original. 


We shall make use of all Jewish officials of private insurance 
companies (that Viennese named P. who was sentenced will get 
a good position); they will be State officials, of course, and can 
advance to high positions. 

Insurance is a tested, well-known enterprise in all its branches, 
like banking, railroads, telephone, etc. Private capital no longer 
has any right to make profits here, because there is no risk any 

The determining factor for the promotion or impediment of 
a private enterprise is the element of risk. Where there is no 
risk, there must be no entrepreneurial profit. On the other hand, 
we shall magnanimously tolerate any untried enterprise. 

• « • 

Induce the Hirsch brothers to build a “Louvre” over there. 

• * * 

June 12 

My Russian Jews, who constitute the great reservoir of un- 
skilled labourers* will be organized into labor batallions. 

They will be given labor ranks, as in the army, perhaps even 
badges to indicate them, and advance according to their efficiency 
and seniority. Everyone has a marshal’s baton in his pack. I do 
not want a horde of helots who eternally remain in misery. For 
workers’ pensions I shall gradually use all institutions similar 
to the Tabaktrafik; these permit grading, according to local dif- 

June 12 

Should there be a tobacco monopoly? 

Probably yes. It is the most bearable form of indirect taxation; 
it is known to most people from their present countries; it makes 
bigger claims on the big consumers than on the small ones; it 
will give me the opportunity to start tobacco plantations (on a 

• In English in the original. 


franchise basis, with the penalty of cancellation in case of tax 
fraud) and to give business to tobacco factories, and I shall have 
state-licensed tobacco shops to give to workers as a pension. 

* * * 

June 12 

Induce all big Jewish-owned factories, businesses, etc. to estab- 
lish branches over there (analogous to the overseas editions of 
the newspapers). In this way they will be able gradually to trans- 
fer their plant and inventory as well as their business experience 
to the other side. 

This is the transplanting of businesses; it will immediately 
produce employment, commerce, etc., and meet needs in the 
usual manner. 

In the transplanting of businesses, too, those left behind will 
gradually pass over into the hands of Gentiles. Crises will be 

A lot of people will become wealthy in the countries that we 

At our departure, people will gratefully and cordially shake 
the hands of the Jews whose business acumen has arranged 
everything so ingeniously. Here, too, the beginning of Jewish 
honor 1 

# # • 

Quite generally, I should like to pay all pensions in the form 
of such easy occupations, if possible. 

Homes for the aged and infirm are places of cruelty to the 
human soul. Old people are cut off from life there, buried be- 
fore their time. A man’s old age becomes his prison, and that is 
considered the reward for a good life. Through my tobacco-shop 
pensions I shall preserve freedom for old people, too, as well as 
their participation in life, giving them the comforting illusion of 
usefulness, an easy occupation which will keep them from brood- 
ing. And when such an old person gets little treats for himself, 
he need not look about timidly. 


The tobacco-shops will at the same time be the exclusive out- 
lets for the sale of newspapers. This will increase the pensioners’ 
income. It will be welcome to the newspapers — and should they 
ever endanger the external or internal security of the state, they 
can be confiscated at these central points. 

No state stamp for newspapers. But a bond for safeguarding 
against wantonness, malice, baseness, irresponsibility, and prof- 
iteering manoeuvres. 

Those newspaper owners who are known to be ethical may be 
exempted from this bond. The money can later be returned when 
a newspaper has proved itself to be clean. But it can be imposed 
again or even increased if the newspaper concerned is found 
guilty of abusing the power of the press. 

But I should like to submit this abuse of power of the press (a 
new offense) to the verdict of a jury. Under no circumstances 
must a paper be prosecuted on account of a hostile attitude, as 
long as it does not use reprehensible methods. The question of 
how to preserve a healthy freedom of the press and prevent in- 
solence is worthy of very serious consideration. Possibly through 
courts of delegated jurors? 

# • * 

June 12 

A monopoly on hard liquor, in any event. 

Some privileges, similar to those of the tobacco monopoly, 
manufacture, and state-licensed shops. The latter will also serve 
to fight drunkenness, just as brokerages fight the gambling mania. 
For it will be possible to impose graded fines, culminating in the 
revocation of the license, for encouraging drinking by giving 
credit, etc. 

• • • 

June 12 

The transition from Society * to State is a complicated prob- 

• In English in the original, here and passim. 


This will have to be recognized conclusively in the drawing 
up of the Company contract and the statutes. For the Society will 
have enormous profits with which the stockholders will be re- 
luctant to part. 

From the moment at which the State comes into being the 
Society will be placed under public ownership — probably in such 
a way that the State acquires all shares at a stipulated price, but 
leaves the Society in its present legal status, subject to British 
law; for it will be some time before we ourselves shall have the 
power to push through the claims of our citizens or of the State 

June 12 

When we occupy the land, we shall bring immediate benefits 
to the state that receives us. We must expropriate gently the 
private property on the estates assigned to us. 

We shall try to spirit the penniless population across the 
border by procuring employment for it in the transit countries, 
while denying it any employment in our own country. 

The property-owners will come over to our side. Both the 
process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be 
carried out discreetly and circumspectly. 

Let the owners of immovable property believe that they are 
cheating us, selling us things for more than they are worth. 

But we are not going to sell them anything back. 

• * * 

June 12 

It goes without saying that we shall respectfully tolerate per- 
sons of other faiths and protect their property, their honor, and 
their freedom with the harshest means of coercion. This is an- 
other area in which we shall set the entire old world a wonderful 

At first, incidentally, people will avoid us. We are in bad odor. 

By the time the reshaping of world opinion in our favor has 


been completed, we shall be firmly established in our country, 
no longer fearing the influx of foreigners, and receiving our visi- 
tors with aristocratic benevolence and proud amiability. 

# * • 

June 12 

The voluntary expropriation will be accomplished through 
our secret agents. The Company would pay excessive prices. 

We shall then sell only to Jews, and all real estate will be 
traded only among Jews. To be sure, we shall not be able to do 
this by declaring other sales invalid. Even if this did not run 
counter to the modem world’s sense of justice, our power would 
not suffice to force it through. 

Therefore we must safeguard each of our sales of immovables 
through an option of re purchase on the part of the Company. 
That is, if the owner wants to sell the property, we shall have 
the right to buy it back at our original sale price. However, we 
shall add a compensation, to be fixed by a board of experts, for 
any improvements that have been made. The owner will name 
an expert and we shall name one of our own. If these two cannot 
agree, they will choose a disinterested third to make a decision. 

This option of re-purchase will be a special privilege that can- 
not be revoked by a mortgage. 

• • • 

The Society will have a department for the granting of 
mortgage credit. This will be a branch bank, nationalized, of 
course, like all other subsidiary institutions “over there.” 

The employees of private banks on this side will gradually 
become state employees on the other side, with bigger salaries, 
honors, etc. 

For the voluntary expropriation we shall have to use local 
sub-agents who must not know that their employer is himself 
a secret agent who takes instructions from the centralized “Com- 
mission for Property Purchases.” 

These secret purchases must be carried out simultaneously, 


as upon the pressing of an electric button. Our secret agents, 
who will appear over there as purchasers on their own account, 
will receive the signal: Marchez [go ahead]! 

Within a week all sales must have been completed. Otherwise 
the prices will increase exorbitantly. 

Of course, this will have to be preceded by painstaking pre- 
liminary research in land registers (where they exist), through 
discreet inquiries and investigation of specific situations, etc. 

Estate owners who are attached to their soil because of old 
age, habit, etc., will be offered a complete transplantation — to 
any place they wish, like our own people. This offer will be made 
only when all others have been rejected. 

If this offer is not accepted either, no harm will be done. 
Such close attachment to the soil is found only with small 
properties. Big ones are to be had for a price. 

Should there be many such immovable owners in individual 
areas, we shall simply leave them there and develop our com- 
merce in the direction of other areas which belong to us. 

# * # 

The secret land buyers will not be free agents, but our 

They will be told in advance that any attempt to engage 
directly or indirectly in land speculation on this particular 
occasion will bring about their immediate dismissal with 
permanent loss of honor. 

But, like all our employees, they will have special privileges 
in the choice of location of their houses which we shall build for 
them inexpensively, making deductions from their salaries on 
the principle of amortization. 

June 12 

Special note: 

If I have to do it in book form, everything that looks like 
a prospectus must be avoided. 

I must suggest to the little Jews and the governments to 


request it from me; but if I don’t do it d’un air absolument 
dttacht [with an air of absolute detachment], I shall become 
ludicrous and an instrument unfit for the magnificent purpose. 

June 12, 1895 

As soon as we sight the new shores from the pioneering ship, 
the flag of the Society (which will later become the national 
flag) will be hoisted. 

All will bare their heads. Let us salute our flag! 

The first man ashore will carry a cheap, shoddy flag in his 
hand. It will later be preserved in the National Museum. 

June 12 

For the future legend, have a distinctive cap designed, a la 
Stanley. Wear the yellow badge while occupying the land, and 
all pioneers are to receive a little yellow ribbon. 

June 12 

The novel. Its hero: 

One of his table talks on the boat will be on the subject of 
Jewish Honor. 

Afterwards the little yellow ribbons will be passed out to 
all those present. At that moment he may not be able to tell as 
yet that it will become a decoration. 

He is only distributing it as a souvenir. He has had a list 
made in advance. Everyone acknowledges receipt of the little 
silver mark on the yellow ribbon. 

This list is preserved. It contains the first knights of Jewish 

• t * 

Over there the ribbon is worn from the beginning. He does 
not prescribe it — “simply looks upon it with favor.” Unauthor- 
ized persons are not allowed to wear it. 

• • # 


A juridical difficulty presents itself: how is the State, as yet 
non-existent, to secure for itself the purchase of the Society’s 
shares? Incidentally, the change-over can perhaps take place 
only under moral guarantees. 

June 12 

Those South American republics must be obtainable for 
money. We can give them annual subsidies. But only for about 
twenty years, i.e., until we are strong enough to protect our- 
selves; otherwise this would become a tribute which would be 
incompatible with our future dignity and the stoppage of which 
could lead to war. 

The duration of these subsidies should be determined by the 
length of time indicated by our military head as sufficient for 
us to become a match for all these republics together. 

But at the start, before they even know that we are coming 
over, we could get big concessions in return for the mere 
prospect of loaning them money at one percent lessl 

June 12 

Discreet, delicate investigations should first be carried on 
regarding the financial needs, the internal political situation, 
and currents in these South American republics. 

On the whole, it will be a voluntary parting with the land. 

* # # 

But especially for these things do I need the Rothschilds. 

And what if they refuse? 

Well, then they will simply take the consequences. 

* * * 

Since my plan is now dependent on the Rothschilds, I 
naturally think about them a lot. I only know a few of them 
by sight. I know something about only two. Albert in Vienna 
seems to be an industrious banker and a clear thinker. At the 


same time, a court snob. I am told that someone came to him 
with the idea of a Palais de Glace [Ice Palace]. He said: “Vienna 
has no patronage for that,” and gave intelligent reasons for it. 

I frequently see Alphonse, the Parisian, in the street, also 
saw him at court in the Burdeau-Drumont trial, where he had 
a modest, trembling appearance. He cringes in a refined way. 
I last saw him at the Grand Prix and had a peculiar feeling 
then. For this sorry, wobbly figure of a man possesses the 
means to turn an enormous stream of happiness on humanity 

if he goes along with my plan. I followed him through the 

crowd for a while and looked at him with my thoughts. 

June 12 

I shall write Bacher a very cordial letter of farewell. He has 
been my friend; that I have felt. 

• # * 

Julius Bauer, the director of the National Theater, crosses 
over on the same boat with my family, in order to entertain 
my parents during the voyage . . . (Oh Heavens, this would 
be a pretty chapter for the novel — but if it becomes reality, 
who of the passengers I am now dreaming of will still be alive?) 

June 12 

For me these notes are not work, but only relief. I am writing 
myself free of the ideas which rise like bubbles in a retort and 
would finally burst the container if they found no outlet. 

My God, after this confession Lombroso might consider me 
mad. And my friend Nordau will conceal from me the appre- 
hension I cause him. But they are wrong. I know that two and 
two is four. 

June 12 

These notes prevent me from putting earlier things in my 


In my clean copy I am still on my conversation with Hirsch. 

But the growth of the new ideas is more important. Who 
knows how soon it is going to stop? 

Through it all I have the fear described by Heyse in that 
wonderful little poem about the artist: 

Ich bebe: 

Dass ich hinfahren kbnnte iiber Nacht, 

Hinfahren, ehe ich dies Werk vollbracht. 

[I shudder to think that I could depart over night, 
depart before I have completed this work.] 

Ah, once I have things in order and have deposited my papers 
with the local Academy under lock and key, while I have the 
book copied, the property will be secured and will be an 
imperishable treasure of mankind. 

Of all mankind, not merely of the Jews. 

* * # 

On the basis of these candid notes, some people will think 
me a megalomaniac. Others will say or believe that I want to 
do some business or advertise myself. 

But my peers, the artists and philosophers, will understand 
how genuine all this is, and they will stand up for me. 

* # * 

June 12 

To the architects: 

Typical designs of workshops for shoemakers, tailors, carpen- 
ters, etc.; these can be printed in large quantities and distributed 

This will be publicity for emigration! 

It will be a joy to work. Everyone to attain a little house of 
his own, wherever possible. 



A conference of architects to discuss workers’ dwellings; I 
shall preside, as with the jurists’ conference. 

Other mass designs for the "own house” of the middle class, 
"Cottage” system. Distribute this also as advertising. 

* * * 

Rental and amortization for these houses. In the construction 
industry (whether for housing, railways, roads, etc.) we will 
greatly favor private enterprise by granting it sound construction 
credits (which must be given careful study). 

The Society will profit only through the increase in land 
values. Construction is to be inexpensive, because building 
increases the general value of the land. 

* # * 

June 12 

Pawnbroker’s Office: 

Name and address must be given when something is pawned. 
The pawner will not be told the reason for this. The names of 
those who have pawned beds, tools, items of utter necessity will 
be turned in directly to the Central Welfare Office. This office 
makes equally discreet investigations and then takes whatever 
action it wishes. By keeping alphabetical lists it will soon 
recognize habitual pawners and swindlers. 

# • * 

June 12 

At the present time we are stepchildren in all countries. I am 
even today filled with unshakable confidence that I shall succeed. 

If I had any thought of making some profit on this, I should 
get a loan today with no qualms. 

* * • 

June 12 

Am I working it out? 

No! It is working itself out in me. 


It would be an obsession if it were not so rational from 
beginning to end. 

An earlier term for such a condition was “inspiration.” 

June 12 

Today the thought arises in me that I may be solving much 
more than the Jewish Question. 

Namely, tout bonnement [very neatly], the social question! 
I don’t know, I doubt it, because in all these matters I have the 
creation of new conditions in mind; and the difficulty in the 
social question is precisely that everywhere men are bogged 
down in ancient abuses, lengthy stagnation, and inherited oi 
acquired wrong. Whereas I presuppose a virginal soil. But if 
it turns out to be true, what a gift of God to the Jews! 

• * # 

When I say “God” I do not mean to offend the free-thinkers. 
As far as I am concerned, they can use “World Spirit” or some 
other term in place of this dear old wonderful abbreviation by 
means of which I get across to the simple intelligences. In our 
academic battle of words, we still mean one and the same thing. 
In fact, in belief as well as in doubt we mean the very same 
thing: that it is inexplicable! 

Send a circumspect man over as housing officer even before 
the sailing of the pioneering expedition. The pioneers, especially 
the representatives of the Local Groups, must find things 

The Housing Officer will later have bigger and bigger tasks 
and head a department when workers arrive. 

June 12 


There is not likely to be any immediate solution. (In any 
case, a conference of politicians will have to be convened on this. 


Poets will be called in because of their continual preoccupation 
with love.) Long-range solutions are the following: 

Patriarchal families; the encouragement of early marriages, 
which, incidentally, will come about par la force des choses 
[by itself], because we shall give employment to great num- 
bers of young men, pay them well, and thus give them an early 
opportunity to establish households of their own. Then, too, 
in the early stages of our settlement they will want to have a 
house, because there will as yet be no big-city entertainments, 
no easy attractions, and no market of females. 

# • « 

Also, we shall give salary allowances to married men and 
mass-produce inexpensive wedding outfits for different classes 
"as premiums for industry, efficiency, etc.” Our purpose in 
this will be the encouragement of marriage. 

* • « 

Allowances for children. 

• * * 

June 12 

We Jews are a vain people. We supply the biggest quota of 
the snobs of “good” society. An aristocratic sponger can get 
whatever he wants from the bankers if he dines at their homes 
where others can see him. 

But I believe we are vain only because we have no access to 
honor. Once we have regained our honor, we shall not be vain, 
but ambitious. Good, clever Montesquieu with his ressorts [com- 

* • * 

I shall probably make enemies of the big Jews. Well, this is 
going to be apparent from the attacks or the silence of the servile 
part of the press. 

• # # 


June 12 

If we move into a region where there are wild animals to 
which the Jews are not accustomed — big snakes, etc. — I shall 
use the natives, prior to giving them employment in the transit 
countries, for the extermination of these animals. High premiums 
for snake skins, etc., as well as their spawn. 

# * * 


June 12 

I shall inform my unskilled* laborers from Russia that they 
can advance and later at least get tobacco shops and the like (if 
they are not fitted to become officers of the labor batallions). 

Therefore they will properly use the rest of the seven-hour 
day for self-improvement in workers’ and trade schools. 

For this, again, I shall need a new corps of educators: the 
trade instructors. A workman can become such an instructor, 

* * * 

The Seven-Hour Dayl 

Of course, work will be carried on not just during seven hours 
of a day, but during fourteen. 

Two shifts or four? This will depend on the proximity of 
homes and schools. For if I make the workers travel long 
distances twice a day, I shall do them great harm. 

• • • 

June 12 

In the Palais Royal, amidst the strains of military music, to 
my subordinates who want to flatter me: 

One must not praise me because one must not censure me 
either. For I am the Leader. I am saying this not only on account 
of discipline, but also because my mind must remain sound 

• In English in the original. 


and simple if I am to carry it through. I shall recognize by the 
quality of your obedience and the warmth of your enthusiasm 
to what extent I can count on you. 

* # * 

What an example I am to the poor, aspiring Jews, such as 

I used to be myself! 

If my object had been money, I should never have been able 
to come face to face with the biggest financial power on earth, 
the Rothschilds, the way I am going to do. 

* * • 

Even if Gudemann fails me, I shall send Baron Jacobs to the 
Palestine Rothschild — Edmond, I think — and have him arrange 
an interview for me. 

# # * 

I shall be reproached with practising state socialism — no 
reproach, even if it were true, provided the State aims at the 
right things. That is, not the advantage of one group or caste, 
but the gradual ascent of everyone to the distant lofty goals of 

But only the narrow-minded and the malevolent can overlook 
the fact that I want to make the individual free, great, rich, and 

• it 

I merely eliminate the entrepreneur’s profit on safe under- 

• • * 

I owe to Drumont a great deal of the present freedom of my 
concepts, because he is an artist. 


I did not want to write another utopian novel. All this is 
true, reasonable, possible. 

Why should I not tell it straightforwardly? 

* * * 

Should not the dowries of wealthy girls be taxed? 

The proceeds could be used to provide for penniless “old 
maids,” just as there must always be a moral adjustment between 
the joys of some and the sorrows of others, by means of taxation. 
(A good thing in France is the amusement tax which benefits 
the assistance publique [public welfare]. We shall have one too.) 

Actually, the Jews are already observing this principle, on 
a small scale and in the haphazard, fatuous manner of all “philan- 
thropy” up to now. At big weddings a lot of money is donated 
to the poor. 

But I want not only to bring this under firm, sound regula- 
tions, but also to call on the hard-hearted people who do not 
remember the needy. — Certainly I don’t have to spare the 
matrimonial fortune-hunters. (In this connection it is a droll 
thought that the tax can also be slapped on the father-in-law.) 

I shall prevent or punish tax fraud by invalidating fake 
contracts, giving big rewards to informers, imposing heavy fines, 
and making the swindler permanently ineligible to be elected 
to office, to receive a decoration, or to be raised to the nobility. 

* * • 

June 14, 1895 

Today a severe headache. — In order to divert the blood from 
my head, today I will start learning to ride a bicycle. Otherwise 
I shall not be able to carry the task through. 

* * # 


June 14 

The moral blessings and physical bliss of labor. 


Yesterday I dined with a wealthy Viennese bachelor, a useless 
playboy. He groaned about the anti-Semites, about the blood- 
libel. I got him to talk. That way I confirmed my opinion of 
the temper of the rich. For a moment I even took this man 
seriously. I asked him if he was prepared to do something for 
the Jewish cause. He seemed to suspect a financial sacrifice and 
drawled, “Naw!” I hastened to rectify this misconception and 
said: “For instance, a journey to Constantinople?” “No,” he 
said, “I am no good at such things. I am too lazy.” Yes indeedl 
It will be a long time before I arouse, before I shake, the Jews 
out of the indolence of their prison life. 

June 14 

The Promised Land, where it is all right for us to have 
hooked noses, black or red beards, and bandy legs without being 
despised for these things alone. Where at last we can live as 
free men on our own soil and die in peace in our own home- 
land. Where we, too, can expect honor as a reward for great 
deeds; where we shall live at peace with all the world, which 
we shall have freed through our own freedom, enriched by 
our wealth, and made greater by our greatness. 

So that the derisive cry “Jew!” may become an honorable 
appellation, like “German,” “Englishman,” “Frenchman” — in 
short, like that of all civilized peoples. So that by means of our 
State we can educate our people for tasks which still lie beyond 
our horizon. For God would not have preserved our people for 
so long if we did not have another role to play in the history 
of mankind. 

* # * 

The flag occurs to me. Perhaps a white flag with seven gold 
stars. And the white field will signify our new, clean life. Just 
as the stars are the working hours. Under the banner of labor 
we shall enter the Promised Land. 

• • • 


It is a great good fortune for me and will gild my parents’ 
old age and be to the lasting honor of my descendants that I 
have devised this great project. 

# * * 

June 14 

Gudemann telegraphs me today: 

“Unable to make trip. Salo at North Cape. Letter follows. 
Going to Baden Sunday afternoon. Gudemann.” 

Oh yes, it will be hard to get the Jews interested in it. But 
get them I shall. I feel a gigantic strength for the glorious task 
gathering in me. A man grows with greater purposes!* 

* # # 

To the Family Council: 

I should gain greater glory if I moved to the Promised Land 
only with the poor and the wretched and made a proud and 
respected people out of them. But I shall renounce this glory, 
just as I should be ready to recede into the background entirely. 
The only thing is that a master builder must, as long as he is 
alive, supervise the building himself, no matter how great the 
worry, the toil, and the responsibility. 

* * * 

Our entire youth, all those who are now between twenty and 
thirty years of age, will abandon their vague socialistic leanings 
and turn to me. They will go forth as itinerant preachers to 
their own families and into the world — without my having to 
urge them. 

For the land is to be theirs! 

June 15, 1895 

The non-Jewish expropriates over there will, after the pur- 
chase has been made, be given the choice between payment 

• Translator’s Note: This is a line, slightly misquoted, from Friedrich Schiller s 
Prologue to his Wallensteins Lager. 


in cash or in shares (according to the face value). No outwitting, 
only self-protection. 

After all, through us the world shall be acquainted with some- 
thing that has not been considered possible in 2000 years: 
Jewish honor. 

* # * 

To the Family Council: 

Your older men will assist us with their advice as to finances, 
banking, railroads, and politics, perform diplomatic services 
for us, etc. 

Your sons, and I would want you to have as many of them 
as possible, will be in positions of leadership in the army, the 
diplomatic corps, etc., according to their abilities — but strictly 
according to their abilities — , govern provinces, etc.! 

With your daughters you will reward our best officers, our 
finest artists and most brilliant officials. Or continue to marry 
them off in Europe, as the Americans do, something that I con- 
sider rather useful. The main thing is that your money be 
scattered far and wide. 

June 15 

Today I am an isolated and lonely man, tomorrow perhaps 
the intellectual leader of hundreds of thousands — in any case, 
the discoverer and proclaimer of a mighty idea. 

• * • 

To the midget millionaires I shall send my representatives: 

Schiff, Goldmann, Wolf Schulmann. 

I shall ask the millionaires who still have Jewishness in their 
hearts to meet with a rabbi who will read my address to them. 

The rabbis who do not want to come along will be shunted 
aside. There is no stopping the procession. 

• * • 




But the rabbis will be pillars of my organization and I shall 
honor them for it. They will arouse the people, instruct them 
on the boats, and enlighten them on the other side. As a reward 
they will be formed into a fine, proud hierarchy which, to be 
sure, will always remain subordinated to the State. 

* # * 

While I have been writing, and especially when I have seen 
in my mind’s eye the solemn, festive mood on the boats and the 
arrival, the gala reception on the other side, I have often wept 
over the misfortunes of my people. 

But if I am to lead my people, I must not show any tears. 
The leader must have an impassive face. 

June 15 

I do not believe there is a mania for speculation among our 
people. These people are good providers. And a solicitous pater 
familias [family man] approaches the stock exchange with 

But what other place is there for him to go under present 

* * # 

June 16, 1895 

During these days I have more than once been afraid I was 
losing my mind. This is how tempestuously the trains of thought 
have raced through my soul. 

A lifetime will not suffice to carry it all out. 

But I shall leave behind a spiritual legacy. To whom? To 
all men. 

I believe I shall be named among the greatest benefactors 
of mankind. 

Or is this belief already megalomania? 





June 16 

I must, above all. keep myself under control. 

As Kant noted down for himself: No more thoughts about 

J °MyJohann is the Jewish Question. 1 must be able to summon 
it and dismiss it. 

* • • 

June 16 

No one ever thought of looking for the Promised Land where 

it actually is— and yet it lies so near. 

This is where it is: within ourselves! 

I am not misleading anyone. Everyone can satisfy himself 
that I am telling the truth. For everyone will take across, m 
himself a piece of the Promised Land-one in his head, another 
his hands, a third in his savings. The Prom.sed Land rs 

where we carry it! 

* * • 

I believe that for me life has ended and world history has 

* • * 

June 16 

At first we shall only work on and for ourselves maUsecrecy. 
But the Jewish State will become something remarkable 
The land of the seven-hour working day will e 
model country for social experiments and a treas 
works of art, but a miracle country in all mvttouom U w.U 
be a destination for the c.viUzed world which T “ 

visit us the way it now visits Lourdes, Mecca. . a »g • 

at last understand me? But I shall be at my ^ ro j 

third stage. There 1 shall have the whole world on mysule^ 
Jews, Christians, the common people, the middle c as , 
the clergy of all denominations, kings and e in per 



No pressure will be exerted on anyone’s conscience; the 
subtle suasions of civilization will have an effect on all. 

# * # 

I shall take in the pieds crottes [men with filth on their shoes] 
outside the stock exchange, all lost and wrecked existences, 
and give them a new lifel These will be our best co-workers. 

* * * 

June 16 

Goethe, Goethel 

For three hours I tramped around the Bois in order to walk 
off the pangs of new trains of thought. It grew worse and worse. 
Now I am sitting at Pousset’s, writing them down and feeling 
relieved. It is true that I am also drinking beer. 

The Jewish State is a world necessity. 

They will pray for me in the synagogues. But in the churches 
as well. 

If you force me into opposition to you, I shall in the second 
stage — which I do not quite believe in, although it is certainly 
possible — gather about me all medium and smaller millionaires. 
A second formidable Jewish financial force will march up. For 
in the initial period, when I have no use as yet for the fully 
deposited billion, I shall have to engage in banking transactions. 

I have no more aversion to banking, if the cause requires it, 
than I have to transportation, construction, etc. 

But will Europe bear both you and us? 

The earth is already trembling here. 

* # * 

One of the major battles I shall have to fight will be against 
the self-mockery of the Jews. 

This readiness to scoff represents, at bottom, the feeble 


attempt of prisoners to look like free men. That is why this 
mockery actually touches me. 

* * # 

June 16 

As soon as we have established ourselves and all diplomatic 
moves and land purchases have been completed, I shall give my 
speech (with the changes desired by the R’s) to the Neue Freie 
Presse, because I discovered this thing as their correspondent. 

I want the Neue Freie Presse to make extracts available to the 
other papers, including the anti-Semitic ones. To the Berliner 
Tageblatt as well. 

# # * 

June 16 

A more beautiful Sadagora! 

One of the things, perhaps the main thing, that we shall 
have learned from the civilized nations will be tolerance. 

They did have the good will to emancipate us. It no longer 
worked, in the old surroundings. 

• * * 

The Stock-Exchange Monopoly will probably be the first 
thing in which Europe will imitate us. And that will push the 
vacillating, cowardly Jews my way. They will follow us a bit 

In this, too, the procession will ride over the reluctant. 

• * * 

June 15 

Family Council: 

You see that we are not hoodwinking anybody. Nor are we 
doing violence to anyone — except to ourselves, our habits, our 
evil inclinations, and our faults. But he who wants to do great 
things must first conquer himself. 


June 15 

Anyone who cares to wear a kaftan may continue to do so 

We shall only observe the principles of modern hygiene, for 
the well-being of all. 

Insert: To the Family Council: 

Through amicable expropriation the State will be able to 
acquire factories, etc., which Ministers of Finance never dared 
to think about. 

* • • 


Shares for the expropriated. Right of repurchase on the part 
of the Society. 

* # • 

June 16 

Schiff was here today and teased me, saying that I looked as 
if I had invented the dirigible airship. 

Hm, perhaps I didl I thought to myself, and kept silent. 

June 16, 1895 

Second letter to Giidemann. 

Dear Doctor Giidemann: 

Your letter made amends for the impression which your 
telegram gave me. It had made me think, a bit angrily: Just 
try to help the Jewsl Which, to be sure, did not stop me from 
proceeding vigorously with the project itself, just as I shall, 
heedless of everything, march on to my goal! Anyone who wants 
to help me is most welcome; he will be doing nothing for me, 

everything for himself. I shall pass over those who are recalcitrant 
or indifferent. 

Thus even the first impact of your telegram did not dismay 


me but only annoyed me. The next moment I said to myself: 

I probably did not make it sufficiently clear to him how des- 
nerately serious things are. My plan is actually as serious as 
the situation of the Jews itself, and I feel that the Jews in their 
^por do not realize this seriousness clearly enough. 

I further said to myself: the man does not know me, that is, 
knows me only very slightly; we have exchanged a few unim- 
portant phrases or jokes, and in the newspaper he reads articles 
of the lightest kind from my pen. But your letter appeased me. 
It is written in a tone that pleases me, the kind that I need 
for my purpose. I can see that you will be the right kind of 
helper to me, one of my helpers, for I shall need many. 

You are surprised at my warm interest in “our cause.” At 
the moment you cannot even suspect the degree of heat which 
this interest has reached. Of course, I did not have it before. I 
was indifferent to my Jewishness; let us say that it was beneath 
the level of my awareness. But just as anti-Semitism forces the 
half-hearted, cowardly, and self-seeking Jews into the arms of 
Christianity, it powerfully forced my Jewishness to the surface. 
This has nothing to do with affected religiosity. Despite all my 
piety for the faith of our fathers I am not a bigot and shall never 
be one. 

That I am not planning anything contrary to religion, but 
just the opposite, is shown by the fact that I want to work with 
the rabbis, with all rabbis. 

I called you and the businessman to Caux for two reasons. 
First, because I wanted to take both of you out of your ac- 
customed surroundings and place you in the lofty freedom of 
the mountains where everyday life fades away, where a glacier 
railway would offer you visible proof of the extent to which 
the human inventive faculty has already conquered Nature, and 
this would have put you in a sufficiently serious and yet uncon- 
strained mood for my unusual message. 

The second reason was that for weeks I have toiled over 
written work and shall have to continue to toil for an indefinite 




period of time, and thus desired a respite of two or three days 
from the enormous work which I would not have abandoned 
thereby, because I must not abandon it any longer. 

I should have given you a verbal explanation of everything, 
observed the impression it made on you, dispelled your doubts, 
and constantly appealed from one to the other. For on those 
points, spiritual or secular, where one of you might not have 
understood me, the other disinterested man would have certified 
that I was proceeding constantly on the basis of solid fact. 

Your companion need not have been a wealthy man or a 
philanthropist, for my project is dependent neither on the rich 
nor on the charitable. It would really be bad if it were. The 
only requirement was that he be an independent Jew. 

You two were intended to be my first helpers. Since 1 cannot 
have you right away, I do not need the other man either. 

I should immediately have approached other men if, as I have 
already said, I had not recognized from the contents of your 
letter that you are the right helper after all. I should have 
found others; and if not, I should simply have gone by myself. 
For I have the solution of the Jewish Question. I know it sounds 
mad; but in the initial period people will often think me mad 
until they realize with deep emotion the truth of all I have been 
saying. I have found the solution, and it no longer belongs to 
me; it belongs to the world. 

As I have said, you two would have been my first assistants, 
or, more correctly, my messengers, for the time being. Your first 
joint mission would have been to Albert Rothschild to whom 
you would have given my message, and again the spiritual man 
would have been supported by the worldly man in the clarifica- 
tion of questionable points. Albert Rothschild would have taken 
the matter before his family council, and they would have asked 
me to appear there and give them a talk about my project. 

Let me hasten to clear up a misconception that may arise in 
your mind. I am as little dependent on the Rothschilds’ coopera- 
tion as I am on that of the other wealthy Jews. But the special 

character of my plan involves the necessity of notifying the 

Rothschilds. ... . 

Once you know the plan, you will see why. 

Today I cannot tell you what it consists of. I would mutilate 
thoughts if I sought to crowd them into a letter. 

For weeks I have been writing from morning to midnight just 
to get the main features down on paper. It would be torture if 
it were not such bliss. I am the first one to be made happy by the 
solution. That is my reward, and it shall be my only reward. 

How did I discover it? I do not know. Probably because I 
pondered it all the time and felt so unhappy about anti-Semitism. 
Thirteen years is my estimate of the period during which this 
idea took shape in my mind. For my first notes date from 1882, 
the year in which I read Duhring’s book. Now that everything 
is so clear in my mind I marvel at how close to it I frequently 
was and how often I passed by the solution. I consider it a great 
good fortune that I have found it. It will gild the old age of my 
parents and be the lasting honor of my descendants. 

I confess to you that I have tears in my eyes as I write this; but 
I shall carry it through with all rigor. 

Perhaps you still believe that I am daydreaming. You will 
change your mind when you know everything. For my solution 
is a strictly scientific one, and this you must not take for academic 
socialism or congressional twaddle. 

Enough of this! I am going to write down the address which 
I was going to make here before the Rothschild Family Council. 
It is a very long speech and yet it contains only the main features. 

On this stationery and with this close handwriting it amounts 
to sixty-eight pages so far, and I am not nearly finished yet. It 
will take you a few hours to read it off. For your first mission, 
dear Doctor Giidemann, will be to read this speech to Albert 
Rothschild. Don’t give it to him to read; you read it to him. 

I believe that he will, as a matter of course, have enough re- 
spect for you and confidence in you to listen to you for as long 
as you deem necessary. You will, of course, have read the speech 


beforehand and will tell him in advance what decision his family 
will be faced with. 

According to a newspaper report I have read, Albert Rothschild 
is on his country estate at Gaming-Waidhofen. Let me know by 
telegram if you are ready to go there. 

Since you were going to come to Caux if I had given you an 
indication of what it was all about, you will certainly make that 
short trip to Gaming. Then I request you to ask Albert Rothschild 
by letter when he can receive you without interruption. He must 
make himself free for a whole day. He will be just as deeply 
moved and just as happy as you are, because I have been told 
that he is a serious, good Jew. He will immediately come to 
Paris to see me. You see, for the time being I have to stay here 
because of the discussion with all the Rothschilds. 

After receipt of my letter, you send me a telegram and write 
him immediately. I hope to finish my address the day after 
tomorrow. Then it will take me at least three days to make a clean 

So the speech will be sent off from here on Saturday and be 
in your hands on Monday. You can have your meeting with 
Rothschild at Gaming on Tuesday, the 25th, or Wednesday, the 

All the rest is contained in the speech. But even now you can 
indicate to Albert Rothschild in the same serious tone which you, 
as a Bible expert, surely sense in my letter that a most important 
matter of Jewish life is involved. I shall make the greatest effort 
to finish it quickly. I shall not put up with a genteelly dilatory 
treatment of the matter. The Jews are waiting. 

Everything must be done immediately! That, too, is part of my 

I could probably have saved myself the delay of this corre- 
spondence, etc., if I had procured an introduction to some mem- 
ber of the Rothschild family here, which would have been an 
easy matter. But I have valid reasons, which you will learn, for 
not entering into any personal contact with the Rothschilds be- 


fore they have voiced their agreement in principle. And they will 
not have much time to deliberate, either. 

Now I greet you in trusiing admiration as my first associate. 


Th. Herzl. 

Third letter to Giidemann. 

June 17, 1895 

Dear Doctor Giidemann: 

I sent you a registered letter today. It is possible that it will 
be delivered in Baden at a time when you are out walking in 
the fields toward Soos where in my youth I also used to take 
philosophical walks by myself, or across the meadow to the 
Kramerhiitte where it must be such a lovely early summer now. 
When you come home you might learn that someone attempted 
to deliver a registered letter to you. You are expecting the letter 
which I told you of in my telegram and you are a bit impatient, 
though not very much as yet, because, after all, you do not know 
yet. Perhaps you will go to the Weikersdorf post office or even 
the one in Baden. I don’t know whether I have already aroused 
your interest, nor do I know from which post office registered 
letters are delivered there. Perhaps you will sit down and wait for 
the postman to return. Or you haven’t been out at all and re- 
ceived my first letter promptly: in that case this one will strike 
you as superfluous, peculiar, long-winded. 

Why do I write you a separate letter, then? 

Because in the main letter there is, as yet without further de- 
tails, the sentence: “I have the solution of the Jewish Question.’ 
And I can see the worried expression with which you are mutter- 
ing into your fine patriarch’s beard: "Completely cracked! His 
poor family!” 

No, I am not cracked, neither completely nor partially, not 
cracked at all. 

And that is why I am sending you these lines in addition to 


that letter, as a sign that I never lose sight of the actual situation 
and take into account the smallest things just as accurately as 
the biggest ones. 

Oh yes, even in my most exalted expositions I shall, here and 
there, have to mention casually, as though accidentally, that two 
times two is four, two times three is six, and 17 X 7 = 1 ! 9- And 
I shall say that I quite distinctly remember what you or some- 
body else said to me, or must have thought about me, at some 
earlier point in my life — just so people will see that I still have 
my wits about me rather nicely. 

A task in which things of this sort have to be faced is not a 
comfortable one — but great things are not done with comfort. 

Again, my most cordial greetings. 

Sincerely yours, 
Th. Herzl 
37 rue Cambon. 

* # # 

June 17, 1895 

Schiff says: It is something that a man tried to do in the last 
century. Sabbatail 

Well, in the last century it was impossible. Now it is possible 
— because we have machines. 

• * * 

Telegram to Doctor Giidemann, Baden near Vienna. 

“Must request you return unopened my non-registered letter 
sent yesterday. One of friends involved whose consent had like- 
wise been presupposed raises absolute objections. Must comply.” 

June 18, 1895 

Gardens of the Tuileries: 

I was overstrained with thought. So I came here and re- 
cuperated by looking at the statues. 

Outdoor art is the source of much happiness. The bowl- 


haped green lawn with the charming “Runners” of Coustou 
(,712) should be copied without delay. 

# # * 

June 18, 1895 

Have been to the same place again with Schiff. He “cured” 
me . For I accept the negative part of his observations, namely, 
that through this undertaking I would make myself “either 
ridiculous or tragic.” It’s that business of Jewish mockery. The 
negative part 1 do accept — and thereby differ from Don Quixote. 
The positive side (talk about socialism, face slapping, etc.) I 
re j ec t and herein differ from Sancho Panza. 

# * # 

Fourth letter to Baron Hirsch. 

June 18 

Dear Sir: 

My last letter requires a postscript. Here it is: I have given 
the matter up. Why? My plan would be more likely to be 
wrecked by the opposition of the poor Jews than that of the rich. 

You told me as much on that Pentecost morning, it is true. 
But I was in no position to believe you, for you had not let me 
finish what I had to say. 

But recently I expounded my entire plan to a sensible friend 
(who is not a financier). I softened him completely, he swam 
in tears; I convinced his reason and wrung his heart. 

Then he slowly got control of himself and said to me: 
“Through this undertaking you will make yourself either ridicu- 
lous or tragic.” Becoming a tragic figure would not scare me; as 
for ridicule, it would ruin not me but the cause. The worst that 
people could say about me is that I am a poet. This is why I am 
giving the matter up. 

For the present there is no helping the Jews yet. If someone 
were to show them the Promised Land, they would scoff at him. 
For they are demoralized. 


Still, I know where that land lies; within ourselves! In our 
capital, in our labor, and in the peculiar combination of the 
two which I have devised. But we shall have to sink still lower 
we shall have to be even more insulted, spat upon, mocked 
whipped, plundered, and slain before we are ripe for this idea. 

For the time being we shall have to endure affronts in high 
society where we try to push our way, an economic squeeze among 
the middle classes, and the most frightful misery in the lower 

We are still not desperate enough. That is why a rescuer would 
be greeted with laughter. Laughter? No, only with smiles; people 
no longer have the strength to laugh. 

There is a wall — namely, the demoralization of the Jews. I 
know that beyond it lie freedom and greatness. 

But I cannot break through this wall, not with my head alone. 
Therefore I am giving it up. 

I merely repeat once more: the only way out is to weld all 
the smaller Jewish bankers into a second formidable financial 
power, fight the Rothschilds, pull them with us or pull them 
down — and then over and across. 

If we meet again sometime, soon or late, and you ask me how 
this can be done without plunging Europe into the most horrible 
stock-market crisis, how anti-Semitism everywhere can, by this 
very expedient, be brought to an immediate standstill, I shall give 
you the explanation. 

As a practical proposition, I am done with the matter. But I 
hold on to the theory of it and cherish it. Maybe this goes to 
show that I too am only a demoralized Jew. A Gentile would go 
through thick and thin for an idea of such power. 

What would you have me do? I don’t care to look like a Don 

But the petty solutions — your 20,000 Argentinians, or the 
conversion of the Jews to socialism— I will not accept. For I am 
no Sancho Panza either, but 

Yours respectfully. 

Dr. Th. Herzl 


June 19, 1895 

Schiff was here today, brought me the regus [receipts], and then 
we did some figuring. It was a great relief to me to find that I 
was doing addition more rapidly and more accurately than he was. 
It took him a long time and he kept making fresh mistakes. So 
badly had he upset me yesterdayl 

♦ • * 

June 19 

I found an escape from the mental torment into which Schiff’s 
anguished opposition had plunged me. 

I am turning to Bismarck. 

He is big enough to understand me or cure me. 

* * * 

Letter to Bismarck. J une * 9 > ^95 

Your Highness: (Highness everywhere!) 

Perhaps one or another of my writings has had the good for- 
tune to come to Your Highness’ attention, possibly my essays 
about French parliamentarianism which appeared in the literary 
section of the Neue Freie Presse under the titles “Election 
Sketches from France” and “The Palais Bourbon.” 

On the basis of this questionable and meagre authority I am 
asking Your Highness to receive me for a political discourse. 

I am not trying to obtain an interview by cunning in this man- 
ner. Your Highness has occasionally granted such a favor to a 
journalist, and an editor of my paper in Vienna has been among 
those who have received the distinction of being admitted to 
you. But I have nothing of the sort in mind. If desired, I shall 
pledge my word of honor that I shall not publish anything about 
this discussion in newspapers, precious though it may be for 
my memory. 

And about what subject do I want to make the political dis- 
course? About the Jewish Question. I am a Jew and therefore 
qualified ad causam [on the subject]. 


I may remind Your Highness that you once spoke with an- 
other Jew also without mandatory authority, a man named Las- 
salle, about matters not exclusively Jewish. 

What do I have to say on the Jewish Question? Actually it is 
very hard for me to utter the word. For if I do, the first impulse 
of every rational human being must be to send me to the observa- 
tion room — Department for Inventors of Dirigible Balloons. 

Well, how shall I preface it? Perhaps this way: two times two 
is four, two times three is six, 17 X 7 = 119 . unless I am mistaken. 
I have five fingers on each hand. And I am writing with violet 
ink. And now I shall finally risk it: 

I believe I have found the solution to the Jewish Question. 
Not a solution, but the solution, the only one. 

It is a very voluminous, complicated plan. After completing 
it, I have told it to two Jews here, one very wealthy and one poor; 
the latter is a cultured person. 

I can truthfully say that the rich man did not think me crazy. 
Or was it only out of tact that he treated me as if I still seemed 
sane to him? At any rate, he went into the theoretical possibility 
and finally said only, “You won’t get the rich Jews for it; they are 
no good.” (I implore Your Highness not to reveal this family 

But on the poor Jew it had a different effect. He sobbed bit- 
terly. At first I thought, without being astonished at it, that I 
had overwhelmed his reason and wrung his heart. No! His sobs 
were not those of a Jew, but of a friend. He was worried about 
me. I had to cheer him up, swear to him that I was firmly con- 
vinced that two times two was still four and that I did not foresee 
the time when two parallel lines could converge. 

He said, “By this proposal you will make yourself ridiculous 
— or tragic!” 

I finally promised him everything he asked: that I would use 
the plan only for a novel in which the tragic or comic hero is 
only on paper. In this way I succeeded in raising my shattered 
friend up again. 

Being a tragic figure would not daunt me, nor would even the 



st terrible ridicule frighten me. But even though I have the 
10 ht to stake my person for my idea, be it crazy or sound, I still 
h a g V e to limit the sacrifice to my person; and if I got the reputa- 
tion of being insane, that would no longer be the case. I have 
arents and a wife who would grieve profoundly, as well as 
children whose entire future could be spoiled if people con- 
sidered me a crazy do-gooder. 

In this quandary — whose morality is clear, I believe — I am 
turning to Your Highness. Allow me to present my plan to you! 
If worst comes to worst, it will be a utopian novel of a kind of 
which many have been written from Thomas More to Bellamy. 
A Utopia is the more amusing the farther it strays from the ra- 
tional world. 

I dare to promise that in any case I shall bring with me a new 
Utopia and therefore an entertaining one. I am enclosing with 
this letter a leading article on “Public Works” which I published 
in the Neue Freie Presse two years ago. I am sending it to you 
not as a noteworthy literary achievement, but because the prin- 
ciole of public works is one of the many pillars on which my 

edifice rests. 

When I studied all these institutions here two years ago and 
wrote about them, I did not know that later they would serve 
me for the solution of the Jewish Question. Yet I should have 
to preface my talk with this essay. Therefore I ask you to take 
note of it for the time being. After all, it will reflect the fact 

that I am not a Social Democrat. 

It will be an easy matter for Your Highness to make inquiries 
in Hamburg, Berlin, or Vienna whether I have hitherto been 
considered a sensible man and whether it would be all right to 
admit me to a room — hien que f a riengagerait pas I’avemr 
[that would not commit the future]. But the way I imagine 
Prince Bismarck, you will not need to make any inquiries after 
you have finished reading this letter. Anyone who reads the 
faces and the guts of men the way you do will also understand 
the soul of something written. 

1 can really not turn to a lesser person. Shall I go to a psychia 


trist and say to him: “Tell me frankly, is this still the reasoning 
of a sane person?’’ In order to judge this he would have to have 
sociological, juridical, and commercial information of all kinds, 
which a medical man does not have even in the land of the 
sous-vdterinaires [assistant veterinarians]. 

Shall I ask individuals, Christians or Jews? Such an inquiry 
would gradually produce the very thing that I want to avoid. 

No, it must be the last court of appeal right away. Only the 
man who has stitched a torn Germany together with his iron 
needle in such a wonderful way that it no longer looks patched 
up, only he is big enough to tell me once and for all whether my 
plan is a truly saving idea or an ingenious fantasy. 

If it is but a novel, I shall have enjoyed the favor of providing 
some diversion for Your Highness and at the same time gratify- 
ing my old longing to commune with you for a moment — a long- 
ing which I should never have dared to express without such a 
momentous occasion. 

But if it is true, if I am right, then the day on which I come 
to Friedrichsruh will go down in history. Who will still dare to 
call my plan a pretty dream after the greatest living empire 
builder has stamped his approval on it? And for you, Your High- 
ness, it will be a participation in the solution of a question which 
is tormenting not merely the Jews, but all of Europe — a participa- 
tion which is in moral, national, and political harmony with all 
the proud accomplishments of your glorious life. 

The Jewish Question is a dragged-out piece of the Middle 
Ages with which the civilized nations cannot cope, even with 
the best will in the world, in a manner different from that 
planned by me. They have tried it through emancipation, but 
it came too late. It does no good to declare abruptly in the Legal 
Gazette: “Starting tomorrow, all men will be equal.” 

This sort of thing is believed only by beerhall politicians and 
their higher colleagues, the classroom theorists and drivelling 
fools in Clubs. And the last-named lack even the best part of 
those less learned exercises, the beerl 

Would it not have been better to let the Jews rise to emanci- 


pation gradually and during this ascent assimilate them, gently 
or vigorously, depending on circumstances? Perhaps! How? One 
could have passed them through the filter of mixed marriages 
and ensured a new generation of Christians. But it would have 
been necessary to put emancipation after assimilation, not the 
other way around; that was bad thinking. But in any case, it is 
too late for this, too. 

Just try to rescind the legal equality of the Jews. (Only their 
legal equality exists, anyway. What a misunderstood doctrine for 
the men from the beerhall!) What would be the consequences of 
that? Immediately all Jews, not only the poor ones as hitherto, 
but the rich ones as well, would join the Socialist Party with all 
their resources. They would plunge to their moneybags the way 
a Roman plunged unto his sword. 

Crowd the Jews out of the country by force and you will have 
the most serious economic upheavals. In fact, even a revolution 
directed exclusively against the Jews — if such a thing were con- 
ceivable — would bring no relief to the lower strata even if it 
were successful. Movable property has become more intangible 
than ever. It immediately sinks into the ground, and into the 
ground of foreign countries at that. 

But I do not want to talk of things that are impossible or for 
which it is too late, but of timely ones. At worst it might be too 
early for them — for I won’t believe in the fantastic nature of 
my ideas before I hear it from your mouth. 

If my plan is only premature, I shall put it at the disposal 
of the German government. It will be used if it is considered 

As a planner I must reckon with all eventualities, including the 
one that Your Highness will not answer my letter or will decline 
my visit. 

Then my plan will be a fantasy. For I cannot demonstrate the 
feasibility of my solution any more clearly than, in this letter, 
I have demonstrated the justification for my desire to present 

the solution to Your Highness. 

In that case, too, my mind will be at ease. Then I shall simply 


have dreamed, like the Utopians from Chancellor Thomas More 
to Bellamy. 

I beg Your Highness to accept this assurance of my profound 
reverence and admiration. 

Dr. Theodor Herzl 

Paris Correspondent of the Neue Freie Presse 

June 20, 1895 

A hat parable (a kind of “Tale of the Three Rings”), or 
Belief, Doubt, Philosophy resolved in “the Inexplicable.” 

I take my headgear from my head and show it to people. 
What is it? 

“A chapeau ,” says one. 

“No, a hat,” yells another. 

“He’s wrongl It’s a capello,” says a third. 

“You fools, it’s a sombrero,” cries the fourth. 

“A kalapr the fifth. 

“Scoundrels! Es ist ein Hut!” 

And so everyone uses a different word — there are countless 
ones; and yet these are only the general words, which in turn 
break down into generic terms like “cap,” “helmet,” “bonnet,” 

And people are irritated at one another because they use dif- 
ferent words for the same thing. 

I agree with everyone, and everyone is indeed right. It is a hat, 
a chapeau, a capello. I tell everyone in his own language; other- 
wise he would not understand me. But I want to be understood, 
now and in the future, and I make my greatest concessions in 
the terms that I use. 

I don’t fight over words. I have no time for that. 

What do you mean to say by your “faith”? And you, by your 
doubt ? Is it not simply that it cannot be explained by reason? 

Nous sommes d’accord [We are in agreement]. You may squab- 
ble among yourselves — but not with me. 

I do say— that it cannot be explained rationally! 


Let everyone get from this what he will. Do I appear to be 
evasive? Not at all. 

For after I have talked to everyone in his own language, I 
take the floor for a general, clear explanation, and say, “Is this 
an object which serves to protect my head against drafts, rain, 

and sunshine?” 

They all cry, “It is!” 

“Does it serve me to greet my friends, and do I also take it off 

before a flag?” 

“Yes, yes!” 

And I can close with a pleasantry: “Do I also take it off when 
I join a social gathering?” As a matter of politeness — that is, be- 
cause we have agreed to consider this polite. Everyone has his 
own specific hat and should not annoy others because its shape 
is different. 

I can thus conciliate people by explaining to them the meaning 
and purpose of a thing. 

June 20 

What if Bismarck had felt constrained to say, in his Frankfurt 
period: I will unite these states, which are incapable of small 
sacrifices, by forcing them to make great ones. I will make them 
brothers through the bloodiest brawls with one another. And 
since I cannot get them to agree upon a Kaiser within the coun- 
try, I shall take them out of the country. 

And because I cannot find a German city in which all would 
convene without objection, I shall take them to a small French 
provincial town where long-forgotten French kings once erected 
a castle. 

What would people have said to that? In the 1860’s, 7 ° s > 8° s, 
and 90’sl That is, if he had not carried it through! 

June 20 

Taveme Royale, over a cassoulet [stew]. 

I believe that if an acquaintance of mine were to invent a 
dirigible airship, I would box his ears. It would really be an 


awful insult to me. Why was it he and not I? If it were a stranger, 
I wouldn’t mind. 

With things that are above personal considerations, their con- 
nection with a person is offensive. 

• * # 

June 20 

Faults of Democracy: 

One gets only the disadvantages of its insistence on publicity. 
This publicity brings about the loss of that respect which is 
necessary for government. All the world finds out that the men 
who govern us are merely human beings too — and in so many 
cases laughable, narrow persons. Thus I lost my “respect” in 
Paris. On the other hand, only average types should be allowed to 
run the government. The geniuses and prodigies are necessary for 
the creation of things, but harmful to existing things, whether 
they replace them by something greater or expand them to the 
point of madness. They cannot leave the world the way they 
found it; they would be their own ruin if they were not able 
to destroy something, no matter whether bad or good. 

The existing order, one that is to be preserved, must be gov- 
erned only by mediocre people. The geniuses understand the 
past, they divine the future — but they are in a hurry to abolish 
the present, which the healthy ones among them also under- 
stand perfectly. 

Something impels them to leave their mark. They are afraid of 
passing on before anyone notices that they have been here. 

For government, however, we need ordinary men because they 
alone appreciate all the ordinary needs of mankind: food, drink, 
sleep, etc. 

A prodigy pays no attention to these needs — in himself or 
in others. 

And this is the difference between a healthy and an unhealthy 
genius. The unhealthy genius ignores ordinary needs because he 
does not understand them. The healthy genius ignores them de- 
spite the fact that he understands them I 

* * * 


Moreover, the light of publicity which Democracy offers is 
only something false and fictitious. Behind its glare things do 
take place which later emerge as scandals, such as the Panama 
affair and the like. 

June 20 

Taveme Royale. 

After my dejeuner the two Marmoreks came to my table. I 
got them to talk. Without suspecting it, they confirmed what I 
wanted. The architect described the virulent state of anti- 
Semitism in Vienna. Things were getting worse and worse. He 
thought there was some relief in the fact that the City Council 
had been suspended. I explained to him the nature of such a 
suspension: it was a suspension of the Constitution. And after 
that? Either the Constitution is allowed to function normally 

again in which case the common variety of anti-Semites will 

return with a lot of noise; and stronger than ever! Or the Con- 
stitution is suspended “for good.” This would be done with a 
furtive loving glance in the direction of the anti-Semites, and 
they will get the point, or it will be explained to them if neces- 
sary. The Constitution will be abolished, equal rights for the 
Jews will be chucked out — and afterwards a special Constitu- 
tional Assembly will be magnanimously granted. 

i * # 

Marmorek, the medical scientist, said: There will be no other 
course left but to assign us a state of our own! (This is the 
clever fellow who does research to find a serum and kills strepto- 

I was inwardly delighted. 

I need such supporters at this point. This is how greatly 
Schiff demoralized me with his agitation and his tears. 

I see now that he lacks understanding, for all his integrity and 
loyalty. Yet I owe him a great debt of gratitude. First, for his 
unmistakably great friendship; secondly, for dissuading me from 


the insufficient Giidemann, and thus making me hit upon the 
Bismarck idea — without his being aware of it. 

Bismarck is now the touchstone and cornerstone of the project. 

# * * 

June 21, 1895 

Democracy is political nonsense which can only be decided 
upon by a mob in the excitement of a revolution. 

# * # 

June 22, 1895 

I must introduce educational considerations into the census. 
The franchise can be qualified as follows: literacy required to 
vote for delegates to the Constitutional Assembly, advanced edu- 
cation for the election of higher representatives, etc. Thus I can 
make levels of representation out of educational levels. To be 
eligible for election by one level, a candidate must himself hold 
the franchise of the next higher level. 

* * * 

The community defrays expenditures out of direct assessments 
(autonomy). A grievance court for the protection of individuals 
against the community. 

The community is liable through assessments for obligations 
incurred in the auctioning of land. 

* * * 

Institutions of learning will be established in provincial cities, 
on the pattern of the German universities. A student may not 
be an active member of a uniformed association for more than 
one year. Students have no business in the capital city. 

* * * 


June 22 

Being asleep on the job will disqualify a judge; habitual rude- 
ness, an official. (An acces de mauvaise humeur [a touch of ill 
humor] in people must be viewed leniently.) 

June 22 

How can I make suicide something dishonorable? It will be 
easy with attempted suicide: insane asylum, involving loss of all 
civil and personal rights. Harder if death results. Burial in a 
separate place, after the body has been used for scientific pur- 
poses, will not suffice. There must be legal consequences as well. 
The last will and testament of the suicide (provided it can be es- 
tablished that he made it with suicide in mind) will be declared 
invalid as the work of a lunatic. His letters and posthumous 
writings must not be published. 

His funeral must take place at night. 

* * * 

June 22 

Sometimes one hears it said: this man has been driven mad 
by the Jewish Question; another by Jewish exploitation; a third, 
by socialism; a fourth, by religion; a fifth, by doubt, and so on. 

No, these people were already mad. The only thing is that 
their hitherto imperceptible madness or colorless wandering 
wits have taken on the hue of some fashionable trend, just as 
jets of steam in a stage production may be tinted red, yellow, 
blue, etc. 

Such a couleur a la mode [fashionable color] for suicide is 
anarchism. I can no longer arrest the anarchist idea. So I must 
seize suicide by the throat. 

Who was greater, Napoleon or Bismarck? Napoleon. 

But his greatness was an inharmonious one. Napoleon was the 
sick superman, Bismarck is the healthy one. 


June 22 

After completing my letter to Bismarck I thought of a funny 
story that I could have used regarding precedents for an inter- 

One day I asked an Austrian diplomat to get me an interview 
with Casimir-Perier — cn ces temps eloignes piesident de la 
Republique [in those illustrious times president of the Republic]. 
The diplomat groaned: That will not be possible. There is no 
precedent for itl 

That man would have been extremely embarrassed if someone 
had asked him to invent gunpowder. There was no precedent 
for it. 

But I beg of you, Your Highness, never to tell this to an 
Austrian diplomat. No matter which one you tell it to, there is 
a chance that he will feel offended. 

* • • 

June 22 

But will Bismarck understand me? 

Napoleon did not understand the steamboat — and he was 
younger and thus more accessible to new ideas. 

# # * 

June 22 

Today, incidentally, I have regained my spiritual equilibrium 
which I lost when Schiff had rocked the boat.* 

In this respect I am really like the errand boy who has drawn 
the grand prize in the lottery and an hour later says cold- 
bloodedly: “Pooh! What are a hundred thousand guilders?” 

An inventor need not inevitably go mad. A man loses his mind 
only while questing or through the tremendous shock of dis- 
covery — as when gold first flashes before the alchemist’s eyes, 

• Translator's Note: Herzl uses the word Schiffsstoss, a pun on the name of his 
friend. (Schiff means boat.) 


when a steam engine begins to work, or a balloon suddenly 
shows itself to be dirigible. 

Inventions that are trouvailles [finds] are more conducive to 
madness than systematic discoveries, because they are so fortui- 
tous, especially in the final, decisive leap. A Pasteur does not go 
mad, and his successors, who may make quite original discoveries, 
may be plain jackasses. 

Right now I even believe that the implementation of my 
plan will find me tranquil. I used to be afraid of it. 

Provided that I convince Bismarck. If I do not, or if he won’t 
even see me — well, then the whole thing will have been a novel. 
Oh, an immortal one! 

That too is something. 

# * * 

[The following notes, which form the conclusion of Book I, are 
entitled “Address to the Rothschilds” in the copy prepared by 
Herzl’s father.] 

June 13 

To the Family Council. 

I should first like to enlighten you on the special character 
of our conversation. It will create a permanent relationship be- 
tween you and me. Henceforth I must be your friend or your 
foe forever. The force of an idea resides in the fact that there 
is no escape from it. 

You will think: we have invited a bad visitor. 

But it would not have changed anything in the situation if 
you had not sent for me. In that case I merely would not have 
had the personal egards [consideration] to which I feel obliged 

At first, to be sure, I thought that I could carry on my project 
only in opposition to you. That is why I first went to Baron 
Hirsch. Oh! I did not tell him that I was an adversary of the 
Rothschilds. It may well be that this would have been a more 
powerful inducement to him than anything else. But I conduct 


things on an impersonal plane. All I said to him was: tous les 
juifs ont plus [all the Jews have more]. For I wanted to . . . 
(there follows an account). Hirsch did not let me finish. 

Actually, he does not know my plan. In the end he said only: 
we shall talk some more. I am ready, I replied, but I am not 
going to wait for you. Perhaps he will come to me, like so many 
others, when my plan is a living reality. For one has many friends 
when one does not need them. 

I shall go on. It occurred to me: Wait! What makes you think 
that you cannot do it with the Rothschilds? And that is why I 
am here. For the moment, it is de bonne politique [good policy] 
and perhaps it will be de bonne guerre [good military strategy]. 

Now I must beg your permission to speak about your fortune. 
If it were small, like mine, I should have no right to do so. But 
its size has made it a matter of public concern. 

I don’t know whether it is underestimated or overestimated. 
With a fortune of this size it is no longer a matter of what is 
visible or tangible in the way of gold, silver, securities, houses, 
estates, factories, and concerns of all kinds. It is no longer a 
matter of the material resources, even much less in your case 
than with a state bank. Because, if a bank can secure coverage 
with two-thirds, one-half, even one-third, perhaps one-tenth or 
less will suffice for you. Your credit is enormous, monstrous, 
amounts to many billions. I do not say ten, twenty, or fifty bil- 
lions. Incalculable amounts are involved, and they cannot be 
expressed in figures. 

And that is where the danger lies! The danger for you, for the 
countries in which you are established, for the entire world. 

Your fortune — and by this I mean resources plus credit — is 
like a tower. This tower continues to grow; you continue to 
build, you must continue — and that is the sinister part of it. And 
because you cannot change the laws of nature, because you re- 
main subject to them, either the tower must one day collapse by 
itself, destroying everything around it, or it will be demolished 
by force. In any event, an enormous convulsion, a world crisis. 

I bring you your salvation — not by razing the tower, but by 


giving it a broader foundation, one designed to last, as well as 
a harmonious conclusion. For a tower must have a limit. At the 
top I will place a light which will cast a wide beam. I shall make 
it into the highest and safest tower, an Eiffel Tower with a 
magnificent electric lantern. 

It goes without saying that it has not been my purpose to 
meddle with your interests. Your private affairs are none of my 
business. I don’t want to make any business deals with you, 1 am 
not in your service and never will be. 

But I want to place myself at the service of all Jews. 

After all, every person, and most of all, every Jew, is entitled 
to take an interest in the jeopardized Jewish cause, provided that 
he does it as an honest man with the best of intentions and con- 
science. The future will then bring him either approval of his 
actions or condemnation for the harm he may have done. 

Improvement is out of the question because of the afore- 
mentioned cogent reasons. If someone were to ask me how I know 
this, I should tell him that I also know where a stone rolling down 
an incline finally arrives— namely, at the very bottom. Only ig- 
noramuses or madmen do not take the laws of nature into ac- 

Therefore we must finally end up at the bottom, rock bottom. 
What appearance this will have, what form this will take, I can- 
not surmise. Will it be a revolutionary expropriation from be- 
low or a reactionary confiscation from above? Will they chase us 
away? Will they kill us? 

1 have a fair idea that it will take all these forms, and others. 
In one of the countries, probably France, there will come a 
social revolution whose first victims will needs be the big 
bankers and the Jews. 

Anyone who has, like myself, lived in this country for a feu 
years as a disinterested and detached observer can no longer have 
any doubts about this. 

In Russia there will simply be a confiscation from above. In 
Germany they will make emergency laws as soon as the Kaiser can 
no longer manage the Reichstag. In Austria people will let them- 




selves be intimidated by the Viennese rabble and deliver up 
the Jews. There, you see, the mob can achieve anything once it 
rears up. It does not know this yet, but the leaders will teach it. 

So they will chase us out of these countries, and in the countries 
where we take refuge they will kill us. 

Is there no salvation? 

Oh yes, gentlemen, there is one, one that has existed before. 
It will be necessary to repeat a very old, very famous, very proven 
maneuver, albeit in a different, modern, more refined form. All 
the resources of the present may be used for this simple, easily 
understood purpose. 

This simple old maneuver is the exodus from Mitzraim 


I have intentionally prefaced my address with this brief critical 
part, although everything in it was already known to you, and 
at the risk of boring you. My main aim was to convince you that 
I am thinking along the same rational lines as you do, that I view 
things with the same calm eyes as you. I may have delineated 
rather sharply a few dangers and complexities with which you do 
not concern yourselves frequently or willingly. But in any case, 
everything has been true, simple, and sensible. 

Do not, then, consider me a visionary. I shall now proceed to 
develop the business aspects of the matter which will give you 
a chance to observe closely whether I am talking sense or non- 

The only possible, final, and successful solution of the Jewish 
Question requires a billion francs. This billion will be worth 
three in twenty years — three billion exactly, as you will see 

But before I present my plan to you, I will tell you in two 
sentences the principle that it is based upon. This will help you 
understand everything more easily, i. We shall solve the Jewish 
Question by either safeguarding or liquidating the fortune of 
the wealthy Jews. 2 . If we cannot do it with the help of the 
wealthy Jews, we shall do it in spite of them. 


This is not a threat. We do not threaten any more than we 
beg. This will become clear to you at a later point. 

The plan is as follows. 

As soon as the Society of Jews* has constituted itself, we shall 
call a conference of a number of Jewish geographers to deter- 
mine with the help of these scholars, who as Jews are loyally 
devoted to us, where we are going to emigrate. For I shall now 
tell you everything about the “Promised Land” except its loca- 
tion That is a purely scientific question. We must have regard 
for geological, climatic, in short, natural factors of all kinds with 
full circumspection and with consideration of the latest research. 

Once we have agreed on the continent and the country, we 
shall begin to take diplomatic steps with the utmost delicacy. 
So as not to operate with wholly vague concepts, I shall take Ar- 
gentina as an example. For a time I had Palestine in mind. This 
would have in its favor the facts that it is the unforgotten ances- 
tral seat of our people, that its very name would constitute a 
program, and that it would powerfully attract the lower masses. 
But most Jews are no longer Orientals and have become accus- 
tomed to very different regions; also, it would be hard to carry 
out there my system of transportation, which will follow later. 
Then, too, Europe would still be too close to it, and in the first 
quarter-century of our existence we shall have to have peace 
from Europe and its martial and social entanglements, if we 
are to prosper. 

But on principle I am neither against Palestine nor for Ar- 
gentina. We merely have to have a varied climate for the Jews 
who are used to colder or to warmer regions. On account of our 
future world trade we have to be located on the sea, and for our 
large-scale mechanized agriculture we must have wide areas at 
our disposal. The scientists will be given a chance to provide us 
with information. The decision will be made by our Administra- 
tive Council. 

I can tell you right now that due to technical progress we shall 

• In English in the original, here and passim. 


1 <W 


be able to occupy a country, build cities, and found a civilization 
much more successfully than could be done in antiquity — indeed, 
as recently as a hundred years ago. The railroads have made us 
independent of the course of the rivers, and thanks to electricity 
we can settle in the mountains. At the outset, factories will be 
located in the mountains where cheap water power is available, 
the accumulation of masses of workers is impossible, and the 
working population can live and thrive more happily in the 
health-giving air. In this way, too, we shall prepare for the obvi- 
ously coming development which will divide the forces of nature 
for small-scale industry and make them available to the indi- 

As soon as we have determined the country that is to be occu- 
pied, we shall send out trusted and skillful negotiators who are 
to conclude treaties with the present authorities and the neighbor- 
ing states covering our reception, transit, and guarantees for 
internal and external peace. 

I am assuming that w ? e shall go to Argentina. In that case we 
shall negotiate with the South American republics. 

I shall now tell you the main features of our policy. Our goal 
must be to acquire the country we occupy as an independent one 
immediately after we declare ourselves a State. For this reason 
we shall probably grant financial advantages to the receiving 
country, although they must not take the form of a tribute. This 
would be incompatible with our future dignity. The subsequent 
cessation of payments could embroil us in an unnecessary war. 
In any case, it would damage our good reputation in the eyes 
of the world. We want to proceed legally and be good neighbors 
to everyone, if we are left in peace. 

The financial emoluments that we give the South Americans 
need not be in cash, of course. Even the procuring of loans on 
favorable terms would make them grateful and disposed to make 
major concessions. It would be a good investment for the reason 
that we would divert streams of wealth to South America. For 
the neighboring states will have enormous indirect advantages 
in addition to the direct ones. Through us and with us, an un- 


dented commercial prosperity will come to South America. 
The countries adjacent to ours cannot help becoming rich. This 
will, of course, be adequately explained to them during the nego- 

U While we are establishing these diplomatic connections over 
there, we shall have other tasks in Europe. A great deal of what 
I am here presenting successively will take place simultaneously. 

The Society of Jews will start operations by making treaties of 
removal with the governments. Only with Russia will there be 
a specific treaty of this kind; in the other countries involved, 
free movement is guaranteed by law. But we want to work hand 
in hand with the governments everywhere. We wish to, and 
shall, part as good friends. Great things are accomplished not 
with hatred and vengefulness, but only with Olympian friendli- 

Russia will undoubtedly allow our people to move away. Baron 
Hirsch is permitted to recruit even men subject to military 
service; when they come back, to be sure, they are treated as 
deserters. That will be all right with us. Surely we shall be granted 
at least the same concessions. After all, we shall take not only 
young and vigorous people, but the old, the sick, women and 
children as well (I shall tell you later what I shall do with these 

categories). _ 

The moment may conceivably come in which the Russian 

government begins to view the departure of so many people 
with displeasure. At that point your credit policy will have to 
come to the rescue. How often in recent times have you put your 
financial power at Russia’s disposal?l And I ask you: what for? 
Just consider what unused political power lies dormant in your 
granting of credit. In short, if we proceed purposefully, it will 
be an easy matter to keep the Russian government in a good 

mood, until our last man has gone. 

The treaties of removal will take a different form in other 
countries. The individuals’ freedom to move about is of no use 
to us. Here, too, we shall of course have to strive to procure the 
release of men liable for military duty, and under the same 


harsh conditions as in Russia. In Germany, they don’t like to 
have Jews in the army, anyway; and the people who want to 
remove the Jews from the army are certainly right from their 
point of view. 

But what about the free removal of property? In its present 
form, movable property is easier to get out than ever. But what 
about immovables? 

In the beginning, before our movement becomes a universal 
one, the first Jews who go with us will find it easy to sell their 
immovables. Gradually various contrarieties will appear. At first 
these emigrants will force one another’s prices down. Without our 
aid, all sorts of business crises would occur in the countries af- 
fected by the departure of the Jews, crises whose form and extent 
could not even be calculated. Finally the population would be 
disconcerted and enraged, and it would hold the remaining Jews 
responsible. They might resort to legal chicanery, but certainly 
to the administrative kind. 

The Jews who don’t go with us could fare badly. We 
could, to be sure, leave them to their fate, since they were too 
cowardly or too mean to join us. 

But what we have in mind is a project of justice and charity. 
We want to have mercy even on the contemptible. For are we 
not offering the solution? And a solution is only what satisfies 

Now, gentlemen, we come to a commercial key point of the 

You have already suspected that the Society will be piloting us 
to our State. But we are still a long way from that point. 

(This is the point at which to make an interpolation; for, as 
I have already said, many activities which I have described in 
succession will in reality take place simultaneously.) 

We left our diplomatic negotiators in South America where 
they were concluding treaties of occupation with the states. These 
treaties are now completed, and we are assured of the land that 
we are going to occupy. 

There can be no doubting that this operation is a legal one. 


But it is not scrupulous. We know about the increase in value 
which the seller does not suspect. For that reason we shall, 
after the transaction has been completed, give him a choice 
between a cash payment and a compensation in shares at the 
nominal value. If he thinks the whole thing a fraud — tant pis 
pour lui [so much the worse for him]. In any case, we shall have 
nothing to reproach ourselves for. 

The building material will have been taken care of by our 
geologists when they were looking for sites for our cities. 

Our principle of construction will be that we ourselves shall 
undertake the building of workers’ dwellings (and by this I 
mean the dwellings of all manual laborers). I am certainly not 
thinking of the sad-looking workers' barracks in European cities, 
nor of the paltry shacks which are lined up around factories. 
Our workmen’s houses must have a uniform appearance too, 
to be sure — because we can build cheaply only if we mass- 
produce uniform building materials — , but these individual 
houses with their little gardens shall everywhere be combined 
into beautiful collective units. 

A normal working day will consist of seven hours. This does 
not mean that only for seven hours each day will trees be felled, 
earth dug, rocks carted — in short, a hundred chores done. No, 
work will be going on for fourteen hours. But the workers 
will relieve one another after shifts of three and a half hours 
each. The organization will be quite military, with ranks, 
advancement, and retirement. You will hear later where I shall 
get the pensions from. 

A healthy man can do a lot of concentrated work in three 
and a half hours. After resting for an equal period of time, 
a period which he will devote to his relaxation, his family, his 
guided self-improvement, he will be quite alert again. Such 
laborers can work wonders. 

The seven-hour working day! I choose the number seven 
because it is connected with age-old associations of the Jewish 
people and because it makes possible fourteen general working 
hours; you can’t get more into a day. Moreover, it is my 


conviction that the seven-hour day is something entirely feasible 
(Jules Guesde speaks of five hours). In this, the Society will 
gather a store of new experiences from which the other peoples 

of the earth will benefit as well. 

(Widows, too, are taken care of in my somewhat complicated 

welfare system.) 

We shall raise the children right from the start the way we 
need them. I shan’t go into this now. 

As for assistance par le travail [public works]: 

This assistance consists in every needy person being given 
unskilled labor* some light, non-special ized work, as, e.g., 
splitting wood, making magotins [kindling wood] such as is 
used to start the fire in kitchen stoves in Paris households. It 
is a sort of prison labor before the crime, i.e., one that is not 

No one will have to resort to crime from necessity any longer, 
if he is willing to work. No more suicides must be committed 
out of hunger. As it is, suicides are one of the worst stigmata 
of a civilization in which tidbits are thrown to the dogs from 
the tables of the rich. 

The public-works system thus gives employment to everyone. 
Does it have a market for its products? It does not, at least not 
an adequate one. This is a flaw in the existing structure. 

This assistance always operates at a loss. It is prepared for 
one, of course. After all, it is a charitable institution. The alms 
constitutes the difference between the cost of production and 
the selling price. Instead of giving a beggar two sous, the 
assistance gives him work on which it loses two sous. 

But a beggar who has become a skilled worker will make 
1 franc 50 centimes. Instead of 10 centimes, 150! Do you know 
what this means? It means increasing the benefaction fifteen- 
fold, making 15 billion out of 1 billion. The assistance, to be 
sure, loses the 10 centimes. However, you will not lose the 
billion, but triple it. 

• In English in the original. 


All this will be done according to a big plan which is set 
from the start. 

I left the main theme of this presentation at the construction 
of workers’ dwellings under State auspices. 

Now I go back to other categories of homes. We shall have 
the architects of the Society build homes for the petty bourgeois, 
too, either for barter or for money. We shall have the architects 
make drafts of about 100 types of houses and reproduce them. 
These pretty designs will also serve as part of our publicity. 
Every house will have its fixed price; the quality of the execution 
will be guaranteed by the Society, which does not wish to make 
a profit on the construction of homes. And where will the houses 
be constructed? I shall tell you this when I speak of the Local 
Groups and the pioneering expedition. 

Since we will not make a profit on construction work, but 
only on the land, we shall welcome it if many free-lance archi- 
tects build on private commissions. This will enhance the value 
of our other land-holdings, and bring luxury into the land, 
and we need luxury for various purposes, especially art, industry, 
and, finally, to make up for the decline of the large fortunes. 

Yes, the rich Jews who at present must timidly conceal their 
treasures and give their uneasy parties behind drawn curtains 
will be able to enjoy them freely over there. 

If our emigration is accomplished with your participation, 
capital will be rehabilitated among us on the other side, for it 
will have shown its usefulness in an unparalleled project. 

In this area of my plan, too, you could do us great services 
with your credit. 

In this instance, it is drawing-room credit. If you begin to 
build your castles, at which people in Europe are already look- 
ing askance, over there and if you stimulate your syndicate 
members to do likewise, it will soon become fashionable among 
the wealthy Jews to settle in sumptuous houses on the other 
side. Ilya la un mouvement a crier [there is a movement to be 
created]. And that is such an easy matter. You simply tell 



good friends who will pass the word on: “Want some good 
advice? Build over there.” You see, this really is good advice. 

In this manner the art treasures of the Jews will gradually 
find their way across. You know best how great these treasures 
already are. Perhaps this will be the point at which the govern- 
ments will first interfere, if we do not have your help in this 
project, that is, the benefit of diplomatic assistance, and must 
establish contact with the Jewish people through publicity. The 
kind of action that the governments would have to take has 
already been shown in Italy. May I remind you of the prohibi- 
tion to export works of art. 

However, it would be very injurious to the movement if the 
governments hit upon the idea of extending this ingenious 
prohibition to other pieces of tangible property as well. The 
little Jews would be least affected by this — et pour cause [and 
with reason]; the bigger ones would be hit harder and harder, 
and you, gentlemen, would be hit the latest and the hardest. 
Do not overlook the legal nature of this export prohibition. 
It is the partial deprivation of the right to dispose of an object; 
one quality of the object, its exportability, is confiscated. 

To me even this seems like a bad thing. And once confiscation 
starts, where is it going to stop? 

Let us not provoke this; but can we prevent it if it occurs 
in the course of our movement? You will see from our entire 
proposal that we are not bent on harming you — on the contrary! 

We are showing you the way, making you suggestions as to 
how this huge movement can be led gently, without upsets. It 
will come into being — you probably surmise that much, gentle- 
men; and it will be to your advantage to go along with us. If 
you do not, we could not bother about the liquidation of your 
European business interests. We liquidate only the fixed assets 
and businesses of the people who have gone with us by a certain 
date — let us say, within the first decade. For we shall have to 
withdraw from Europe. We can stay here no longer. And we 
shall be allowed to leave without molestation only if we don’t 
do much shilly-shallying. 


We can and will liquidate all those who desire it as quickly 
as possible. All except you, because it will be utterly impossible. 
For after the Jews have emigrated, Europe could not stand 
the additional shock of your liquidation. 

June 14 

Address to the Family: 

The movement will be born the moment I impart my idea 
to the world. You are rich enough, gentlemen, to further this 
plan; you are not rich enough to prevent it. The reason is 
remarkably simple: I cannot be bought. 

Yes, I would be sincerely sorry if you did not go along with 
me and thus suffered harm. For your refusal would not be due 
to wickedness or narrow-mindedness — you are known to be 
loyal adherents of despised Judaism; you would be refusing 
because you did not see the correctness of my assertions, or be- 
cause I did a bad job of explaining my plan. In that case I shall 
go to the depths with my solicitation. If the Society of Jews 
cannot be formed through aristocrats of money, it will be formed 
through democrats of money. Among them, as I told you in the 
beginning, the anxiety is greater; consequently their desire to 
draw a free breath will be greater. If then a few Jews and their 
possessions perish in the movement, I shall have no further 
responsibility. I have given a clear enough warning: The 
procession is under way! 

But is this not in contradiction to my earlier statement that 
the peaceful exodus of all Jews should be secured? It is not, 
for we can protect only those Jews who go along with us, who 
entrust themselves to us. Those in the procession will not be 
stepped on. In regard to them we can assume guarantees vis-i-vis 
the governments and nations and receive in return their pro- 
tection by the states and by public opinion. 

You, gentlemen, are too big for us to take you under our 
protection at a later date. This is not due to rancune [rancor], 
nor because we shall in the meantime have arrived at opposite 
ends and shall have to have it out in many areas; on the con- 



trary, we shall give you a brotherly reception over there if one 
day you come in search of protection and peace. To be sure, 
we shall have to take some safety measures against your dangerous 

If you do not give me your support, you will inflict great 
damage on my plan. For the most delicate, the most secret, the 
diplomatic aspects become impossible if I have to conduct things 
in public. 

I could not deal then with the South American republics the 
way I am planning to, could not expropriate things so inex- 
pensively, would have a thousand difficulties attendant upon 

With your aid it will be a splendid business (oh, but not for 
me); with the help of the midget millionaires a doubtful one; 
with that of the small Jews a bad one which could possibly not 
be brought to fruition and could end with a scandal (as in 

“I hold you responsible for it” — this might be something you 
would smile at. 

No, I shall say: You will suffer for it if the project, as a 
popular one, fails. And if it succeeds we shall let in all the 
Jews except the Rothschilds. 

And that is not such a matter of indifference to you as it may 
seem today. For even after our departure your fortune will 
continue to grow in an alarming manner, and all the hatred 
which hitherto has been spread over countless Jewish heads will 
be concentrated on just a few — namely, yours. 

These few heads will not be firmly attached, least of all in 

Gentlemen! The only conceivable form the voluntary liquida- 
tion of the Rothschild fortune could take is the one about which 
I have been talking to you for so long: the emigration of the 

Well, in what form will the Society of Jews (whether it has 
an aristocratic or a democratic complexion) give guarantees that 

there will be no impoverishment or economic crises in the 

countries we have left? 

I have already told you that we want to let respectable anti- 
Semites participate in our project, respecting their independence 
which is valuable to us— as a sort of people’s control authority. 
But the state, too, has fiscal interests which could be damaged. 
It loses a class of tax payers which enjoys little civic respect, 
but is highly valued financially. We must offer the state some 
compensation for this. We are giving it an indirect one by leav- 
ing behind our businesses which Jewish astuteness and diligence 
have fashioned, by letting our Gentile fellow citizens move into 
the positions that we have abandoned, thus making it possible 
for masses to rise to prosperity in a manner unprecedented in 
such scope and peacefulness. On a smaller scale, the trench 
Revolution produced something similar, but there the blood 
had to flow in streams under the guillotine, in all provinces 
of the country and on the battlefields of Europe, and inherited 
and acquired rights had to be violated into the bargain. And 
this only served to feather the nests of the shrewd buyers of 
national property. 

Another indirect advantage the states will have is the tremen- 
dous growth of their export trade. Since over there we shall 
be dependent on European products for a long time to come, 
it will be essential for us to import them. And in this, too, my 
system of Local Groups (more about which soon) will create 
an equitable adjustment. The customary requirements will 
be met by the customary places for a long time. But the 
greatest indirect advantage, one that may not immediately be 
appreciated in its full import, is the social alleviation. Social 
discontent will be put at rest for some time, perhaps twenty 
years, possibly even longer. As for the social question, gentle- 
men, I consider it a merely technological question. Steam power 
has gathered men around the machines in factories where they 
are squeezed together and make one another unhappy. Pro- 
duction is enormous, indiscriminate, unplanned, and every 


moment brings about serious crises which ruin the workers along 
with the management. Steam, then, has crowded people to- 
gether; I believe that the exploitation of electricity will disperse 
them again to happier places of work. That is something I can- 
not predict. But in any case, the technical inventors, the true 
benefactors of mankind, will go on working in those twenty 
years, and, I hope, invent such wonderful things as before— no, 
ever more wonderful ones. 

As for us, we shall utilize and improve upon all innovations 
over there; and just as we shall institute the seven-hour working 
day as an experiment for the good of all mankind, we shall lead 
the way in all philanthropic pursuits and be a new country of 
experimentation, a model country. 

But the states will hardly content themselves with indirect 
benefits. They will want direct payments. In this we must lend 
the governments and parliaments a helping hand. It is perhaps 
one of the noblest aims of this plan that the modern civilized 
nations are to be spared the shame of making special laws against 
a people that is already unfortunate. In order to spare the 
governments an emigration tax on the Jews, the Society will 
assume all responsibility. Our headquarters will be in London, 
because in matters of civil law we must be under the protection 
of a great nation which is not anti-Semitic at present. But if 
we receive official and semi-official support we shall everywhere 
provide a broad base for taxation, what is called surface in 
France. We shall everywhere found taxable subsidiary and 
branch institutions. Moreover, we shall provide the advantage 
of a double transfer of fixed property, which means double 
fees. Even where it acts only as an agent for immovables, the 
Society will assume the temporary appearance of a buyer. Thus, 
even when we do not wish to be the owners, we shall for a 
moment be entered as buyers in the land register. 

This, of course, is purely a matter of bookkeeping. In each 
individual place it will have to be investigated and decided how 
far we can go in this without endangering the existence of our 
undertaking. We shall have to have frank discussions with the 


Ministers of Finance about it. They will clearly see our good 
intentions and will everywhere grant us those special considera- 
tions which we demonstrably need for the successful completion 
of our historic project. 

Another direct contribution which we shall make is in the 
field of freight and passenger transportation. In the case of state 
railroads this is immediately obvious. In the case of private 
railroads we shall get special rates, like every major shipping 
agent. We must, of course, transport our people and their 
belongings as cheaply as possible, because everybody pays his 
own way across. For middie-class people we shall have the Cook 
System, and for the poor classes, travel at special reduced rates. 
For the freight we have our experienced agents. We could 
make a big profit on passenger and freight discounts. But in 
this area, too, our principle must be merely to break even. 
We must not make any more profits in Europe. Therefore we 
shall divide the discount between our emigrants (fare reduction) 
and the states (providing surface through the establishment 
of shipping agencies and freight-insurance companies). 

It will not be necessary to establish new moving agencies 
everywhere. In many places the moving business is in the hands 
of Jews. These companies will be the first we will need and 
the first we will liquidate. Their present owners will either 
enter our service or freely establish themselves over there. After 
all, receiving agents will be needed at the point of debarkation; 
and since this is an excellent business and people not only may, 
but should, immediately make money on the other side, it is 
evident that there will be no shortage of enterprising spirits 
in this field. 

We ourselves will undertake the management of the boats, and 
at the same time we shall encourage Jewish ship-owners. At first 
we shall buy the boats (and through secret and simultaneous 
purchases, similar to the centralized system of land purchase 
which will have been developed earlier, w r e shall prevent price 
increases); later, and as soon as possible, we shall build our 
own ships over there. We shall encourage the shipbuilding of 

— ’ 


free-lance entrepreneurs through various benefits (inexpensive 
material from our forests and blast furnaces). The labor supply 
will be handled by our Central Employment Office. 

In the beginning we shall have little or rather unrewarding 
cargo on the return trips of our boats (except, perhaps, from 
Chile, Argentina, and Brazil). Our scientific assistants, who 
will be the first to go across on the pioneering ship, will have 
to give their immediate attention to this point as well. We shall 
look for raw materials and take them to Europe; this will be 
the beginning of our export trade. Gradually we shall produce 
industrial goods, at first for the poor among our emigrants. 
Clothes, underwear, shoes, etc., will be mass-produced, for in 
the European ports of embarkation our poor people will be 
given new clothes. This will not be a gift to them, because we 
have no intention of humiliating them. Their old things will 
merely be exchanged for new ones. We do not care if we lose 
anything on this; we shall put it down as a business loss. The 
completely destitute will be our debtors for their clothes, and 
over there they will pay by working overtime; we shall exempt 
them from this for good conduct. 

There shall be something symbolic about these very clothes: 
You are starting a new life now! And we shall see to it that on the 
boats a serious and festive mood is maintained through prayers, 
popular lectures, information regarding the purpose of the 
undertaking, hygienic advice for the new places of residence, 
and directions for their future labors. For the Promised Land 
is the land of labor. On the other side, each ship will be given 
a festive reception by the heads of our government. Without 
fatuous jubilation, for the Promised Land will yet have to be 
won. But right from the outset these poor people shall see that 
they are at home there. 

As you can imagine, our clothing industry for emigrants will 
not be aimless in its production. Through a centralized network 
of agencies — which constitute our political administration, as 
opposed to the autonomous Local Groups — we shall always 
know in time the number of emigrants, their day of arrival, and 


their requirements, and we shall make provision for them. In 
this systematic management of an industry there are the faint 
beginnings of an attempt to avoid production crises. This is 
how we shall proceed in all areas where the Society appears as 
an industrialist. But on no account do we want to crush private 
enterprise with our superior power. We shall be collectivists 
only in those instances where the enormous difficulties of the 
task require it. In general, we want to cherish and protect the 
individual and his rights. Private property as the economic 
basis of independence shall have free and respected development 
among us. After all, we shall allow our very first unskilled 
laborers to acquire private property. Moreover, you have already 
seen in several examples (the free building contractor, the 
free shipowner, the free shipping agent) how we want to en- 
courage the enterprising spirit. In industry we shall favor the 
entrepreneur in various ways. Protective tariff or free trade are 
not principles, but matters of usefulness. At first we shall, in 
any case, be free-traders. Later the requirements of our policy 

will decide. 

But there are other ways in which we can aid industry, and 
we shall use them. We have the allotment of cheap raw materials 
under our control and can regulate their supply through sluices, 
like the flow of water. This will become important later for the 
prevention of crises. And then we shall establish an institution 
of permanent and increasing value: an Office of Industrial 

Statistics, with public announcements. 

Thus the enterprising spirit will be stimulated in a salutary 
way. Risky desultoriness will be avoided. The establishment 
of new industries will be announced promptly, so that any 
entrepreneurs who six months later might have the idea of 
going into a certain industry will not build their way into a 
crisis, into misery. Since the purpose of a new establishment 
will have to be reported to our Industrial Police, the outlook 
for new ventures will be available to anyone at any time, just 
as the land registers make available information about the 
property situation. 


Finally, we are offering entrepreneurs a centralized labor 
pool. An employer applies to the Central Employment Office 
which charges him only a fee required for its operating expenses 
(office rent, salaries, postage, and telegram charges). The em- 
ployer sends a telegram: Require tomorrow 500 unskilled 
laborers for three days (or three weeks or three months). The 
next day the 500 men requested arrive at his agricultural or 
industrial establishment. Our Central Employment Office col- 
lects them from various places where they may happen to become 
available. The migration of laborers in search of work* will 
be improved along military lines and changed from a crude 
procedure into a meaningful institution. We shall, of course, 
supply no slave labor, but only seven-hour laborers who will 

keep their that is, our — organization and retain their seniority 

as regards rank, advancement, and pensions even when they 
change their location. A free entrepreneur may get his workers 
from somewhere else if he wants to; but I doubt if he will be 
able to. 

We shall thwart the importation of non-Jewish slave labor 
through some sort of boycott of uncooperative industrialists, 
through making their commercial activity more difficult, denying 
them raw materials, and the like. So people will have to take our 
seven-hour-a-day workers. You see, gentlemen, how we are almost 
painlessly approaching the regular seven-hour working day. 

It is evident that what applies to the unskilled laborers will 
be even easier to accomplish with more skilled labor. The 
part-time workers in the factories may be brought under the 
same regulations. There is no need for me to go into detail on 

As for the independent artisans, the small master craftsmen, 
we want to foster them with a view to the future progress of 
technology, give them technological information even if they 
are no longer young, and make water power and electricity 
available to them. These independent workers, too, shall be 

•Translator’s Note: Herzl uses the term Sachsen ganger ei, referring to laborers 
from the eastern part of Prussia who tried to find work in the Saxon lands. 


sought out by our Central Employment Office. A Local Group 
will apply to this office: we need so-and-so-many carpenters, lock- 
smiths, glaziers, etc. The Central Office will make this public 
and the people will come forward. They and their families will 
move to the place where they are needed and remain there, 
not crushed by random competition. A permanent, good home 
will have come into being for them. 

This brings me to the Local Groups. So far I have only shown 
how the emigration may be accomplished without an economic 
upheaval. But in such a mass migration many strong emotions 
are involved. There are old customs and memories which bind 
all of us to certain places. We have cradles and we have graves, 
and you know what graves mean to Jewish hearts. The cradles 
we shall take along; in them there slumbers our future, rosy 
and smiling. Our beloved graves we must leave behind. I think 
this is what we covetous people will find it hardest to part with, 
but it will have to be. 

Even now, economic distress, political pressure, and social 
hatred frequently remove us from our places of residence and 
our graves. Even at present the Jews constantly move from 
one country to another. There is even a strong overseas move- 
ment, to the United States, where we are not liked either. 
Where will people want us so long as we have no homeland 
of our own? But we will give the Jews a homeland not by 
uprooting them forcibly from their earth, but by carefully 
digging them up with all their roots and transplanting them 
into a better soil. Just as we want to create new economic and 
political conditions, we intend to keep sacred all the emotional 
attachments to the past. 

I am only touching on this briefly. On this point, more than 
on any other part of my plan, there is great danger that you 
will consider it overly romantic. And yet even this is as clear 
in my mind as everything else. 

Our people are to emigrate in groups of families and friends. 
But no one will be forced to join any group departing from his 
present locality. Everyone may go the way he wants to. After 

Nf\J^ ’ 


dll, everyone is paying his own way, in whatever class of railroad 
and ship he chooses. But I should always like to use trains and 
boats that have only one class. On such long trips the pooi are 
bothered by differences in wealth. And even though we are 
not taking our people across for entertainment, we still do not 
wish to spoil their good humor on the way. No one will travel 
under conditions of hardship; everything in the way of elegant 
comfort will be available. People will make arrangements far 
in advance; after all, it will be years before the movement by 
homogeneous property classes gets rolling. The well-to-do will 
form traveling parties. All personal connections will be taken 
along. As you know, with the exception of the wealthiest, Jews 
have almost no social relations with Gentiles. A Jew who does 
not happen to support a few dinner-table parasites, spongers, 
and Gentile flunkeys does not know any Gentiles at all. 

Therefore, those of average means will make prolonged and 
careful preparations for departure. Every locality will form a 
group. In the large cities there will be several district groups 
which will communicate by means of elected representatives. 
There is nothing obligatory about this division into districts; 
it is actually intended only as an aid to those less well-to-do, so 
that no discomfort or homesickness will arise during the trip. 
Everyone is free to travel alone or to attach himself to whatever 
Local Group he prefers. The conditions will be the same for 
all members of each class. If a traveling party is large enough, 
the Society will give it a special train and thereafter a special 
boat. In transit and on the other side, the Central Housing 
Office, headed by the Director of Housing, will have provided 
suitable housing (Cook System). On the boats, entertainment 
and instruction will be provided, this time not according to 
property classes, but according to educational levels. Jewish 
actors, singers, and musicians, as well as Jewish professors and 
teachers will, after all, go along too. They will all be given 
assignments, which they will soon have guessed anyway. We 
shall make a special appeal for the participation of our clergy- 
men. Each group will have its Rabbi who is traveling with his 


congregation. You can see how naturally all these groups fall 
into place. A Local Group will have a Rabbi as its nucleus; 
there will be as many such groups as there are Rabbis. The 
Rabbis will be the first to understand us and become enthusiastic 
over our cause, and they will impart their enthusiasm to the 
others from their pulpits. Imagine with what fervor our old 
saying "Next year in the Promised Land!” will be spoken 
henceforth. There is no need to call any special assemblies with 
a lot of blather. This propaganda will be included in the religious 
service, and properly so. We recognize our historic identity 
only by the faith of our fathers, because we have long since 
inextinguishably absorbed the languages of various nationalities. 
I shall return to this point later when I speak of the Constitution 
of our State. 

The Rabbis will then regularly receive the advices of the 
Society and announce and interpret them to their congregations. 
Israel will pray for us and for itself. 

The Local Groups will appoint small committees of repre- 
sentatives under the chairmanship of the Rabbis. These com- 
mittees will discuss and decide all practical issues in accordance 
with local needs. What will be done with the charitable institu- 
tions I shall explain later. 

The Local Groups will elect their representatives who will 
go across with the pioneer ship in order to select sites for 
towns. In all our activities we shall aim at a gentle transplanta- 
tion, and the preservation of all legitimate claims. 

Later the Local Groups will have plans of the towns. Our 
people will know beforehand where they are going, in what 
towns and in what houses they will live. I have already mentioned 
the building plans and clear illustrations which will be dis- 
tributed among the Local Groups. 

Just as strict centralization will be the principle of our 
administration, the principle for the Local Groups will be full 
autonomy. Only in this way can the transplanting be accom- 
plished painlessly. 

\Jnj^ — 


I am not imagining all this to be easier than it actually is; 
on the other hand, you must not imagine it to be harder. 

The middle classes will automatically be drawn along by our 
movement. Some wdl have their sons on the other side, as 
officials of the Society, judges, lawyers, physicians, architects, 
railroad engineers, bridge-builders, etc. Others will have 
daughters married to our workers. These will all be good 
matches, for those who come with us will rise high, especially 
the pioneers who will be rewarded for their devotion, and also 
because the positions which do not lend themselves to any 
actions d’eclat [striking deeds] will be governed strictly according 
to seniority rather than influence. 

Then one of our unmarried people will send for his fiancee, 
another for his parents, brothers, and sisters. In a new civiliza- 
tion, people marry young. This can only benefit general morality, 
and we shall have sturdy offspring — not those delicate children 
of fathers who have married late, having already spent their 
energies in life’s struggles. It is evident that especially the poorest 
will go with us. The already existing Emigrants’ Committees in 
various cities will accept our leadership. Since they were founded 
by well-meaning men who have a heart for their poor brethren, 
there is no doubt that they will readily submit to our higher 
purpose, our higher institutions. If they do not, we shall forget 
about the envious ones. But I don’t think there will be any such 
people. It would be pitiful; and they would incur disgrace as 
surely as we shall gladly honor them if they join forces with us. 

June 15 

Address to the Family: 

Any person of discernment must see the development clearly 
even now. But no great exertion will be necessary to stimulate 
the migration movement. The anti-Semites are already taking 
care of this for us. As soon as our institution becomes known, the 
anti-Semites will agitate for the Society in the government, in 
parliament, at rallies, and in the papers. Good for the Jews who 


are going with us! Woe to them who will let themselves be forced 
out only by brutal arguments. 

But our exodus must and will be a voluntary one. Anyone who 
appreciates the phenomena of acquisition and entertainment — 
panem et circenses [bread and circuses] — must also realize how 
right I am. 

Let me explain to you these phenomena which I learned to 
understand myself only in Paris. 

How can I direct a multitude to a particular spot without 
giving them a command? Baron Hirsch, a man who is concerned 
about Jewry, but whose attempts I consider a failure, says: “I 
shall pay these people to go there.” That is dead wrong, and all 
the money in the world cannot pay for it. 

By contrast, I say: I am not going to pay them; I am going 
to make them pay. Only, I shall offer them something. 

Let us say that Hirsch and I want to assemble a crowd of 
people on the plain of Longchamps on a hot Sunday afternoon. 
By promising them 10 francs each, Hirsch will, for 200,000 
francs, bring out 20,000 perspiring, miserable people, who will 
curse him for having inflicted this drudgery on them. I, on the 
other hand, shall offer the 200,000 francs as a prize for the swiftest 
race horse; and then I shall put up barriers to keep the people off 
the Longchamp course. Those who want to get in have to pay: 

1 franc, 5 francs, 20 francs. 

The upshot will be that I get half a million people out there; 
the President of the Republic will drive up a la Daumont ; and 
the people will have a good time entertaining one another. Most 
of them will find the exercise in the open air a pleasure in spite of 
the heat and the dust. And for my 200,000 francs I shall have 
taken in a million in admissions and betting taxes. 

I can get those same people out there again any time I want to, 
but Hirsch cannot, not at any price. 

Let me show you the same phenomenon in an economic situa- 
tion. Try to get someone to shout this out in the streets of a city: 
Whoever is willing to stand all day long, in the bitter cold of 




winter or the burning heat of summer, in an iron hall exposed 
on all sides and there to accost every passer-by and offer him junk, 
or fish, or fruit, will receive two florins, or four francs, or any- 
thing you please. 

How many people would you get to go to that hall? If hunger 
drove them there, how many days would they stand it? And if 
they did hold out, how much eagerness would they display in try- 
ing to persuade the passers-by to purchase fruit, fish, or junk? 

I shall go about it in a different way. In places where trade 
is active— and these places I shall discover all the more easily 
because I myself shall channel trade in any direction I please 
—there I shall build large halls and call them markets. I could 
make these halls worse, more unhealthy than those I have men- 
tioned, and yet people would flock to them. But I shall make 
them better and more beautiful, put my whole good will into 
them. And the people, to whom I have promised nothing, be- 
cause I cannot promise them anything without deceiving them, 
these good, enterprising people will create an atmosphere of fun 
and do a thriving business. They will tirelessly harangue the 
buyers. They will stand on their feet and hardly notice their 
fatigue. Every day they will not only rush to be the first on the 
job, but will form unions, combines, all sorts of things, just so 
they can continue this gainful employment undisturbed. And 
even if it turns out at the end of the day that all their honest 
work has netted them only a guilder-and-a-half, or three francs, 
or whatever, they will still look hopefully to the next day which 
may be better for them. I shall have given them hope. 

You would like to know where I am going to get the demand 
which I need for the markets. Do I really need to tell you that? 
Did I not demonstrate that the assistance par le travail will pro- 
duce a fifteenfold return? One million will produce 15 millions 
and one billion, 15 billions. 

Well, you may wonder if this is just as true on a large scale 
as it is on a small one. After all, capital yields a return diminishing 
in inverse ratio to its own growth. That is true of inactive capital, 
capital that has gone into hiding, but not of the active kind. 


In fact, that kind of capital yields a tremendously increasing re- 
turn in large amounts. The social question is contained in this. 
Is what I am saying true? You be your own witnesses, gentlemen. 
Why are you managing so many industries? Why do you send 
men to work underground and bring up coal amidst terrible 
dangers and for meager wages? I cannot imagine this to be pleas- 
ant, even for the mine owners. For I do not believe, and do not 
pretend to believe, that capitalists are heartless. I am not an 
agitator, but a peacemaker. 

Do I need to illustrate the phenomenon of masses and the 
ways of attracting them to any desired spot by discussing religious 
pilgrimages, too? 

This speech may have to be published, and I do not wish to 
offend anyone’s religious sensibilities by words which could be 

Let me just mention in passing what the pilgrimage to Mecca 
means in the Mohammedan world, Lourdes and the Holy Mantle 
at Treves to the Catholics, and so many other places from which 
people return home comforted by their faith. 

So, over there we will build a more beautiful Sadagora for 
the Wonder Rabbi. After all, our clergymen will be the first to 
understand us and go with us. 

We shall let everyone find salvation over there in his own 
way. That includes, and very particularly, our beloved free- 
thinkers, our immortal army which is conquering more and more 
new territory for mankind. 

No more force will be applied against anyone than is necessary 
for the preservation of the State and public order. And the force 
necessary will not be arbitrarily determined by whatever person 
or persons happen to be in authority at a given time, but will 
reside in iron-clad laws. 

I have mentioned commerce and the markets. Are we not going 
to have too many tradesmen? We are not. At present, large-scale 
or small-scale trade does attract most of our people who want to 
make a living. But do you think that a peddler who covers a 
territory with a heavy pack on his back is happy? I think that by 


means of the seven-hour day we shall be able to make workmen 
out of all these men; they are such decent, misunderstood, un- 
happy people, and are perhaps suffering most of all right now. 
From the very beginning we shall concern ourselves with training 
them to be workmen. In this we shall be a.ded by the advance- 
mem of the unskilled laborers and their eventual pensioning off. 
For the pension will consist in something that may seem like 
paradise to today’s peddlers during their disheartened tramping 
through the villages: a tobacco-shop, a liquor store. I shall get 

back to this in a moment. 

The small businesses will be operated only by women, I think. 
You can see how this will relieve the pressure for women’s rights. 
Women can easily take care of such businesses in addition to i heir 
household chores, even if they are pregnant, and can also super- 
vise their girls and small boys. The bigger boys we shall take, for 
we can use them all. 

But what about dealings in money? After all, that seems to 
be one of the main problems. At present we are unfortunately a 
people of stock-market speculators. Is everybody going to rush to 
the stock-exchange right away? Ah, or are we by any chance not 
going to have that useful, indispensable institution at all? You 
may begin to laugh at me. Be patient, gentlemen! 

In the first place, I do not believe that our people are crazy 
about the stock-exchange. I have often had a deep and sympa- 
thetic insight into the situation of the little stock-traders. I think 
they would rather do anything than run to the stock-exchange. 
A Jew, especially one of small means, is an excellent patet-fami- 
lias, and it is with trepidation that he goes out every day to 
"grab a percentage," because he can be commercially disgraced, 
i.e., made incapable of earning a living, in the twinkling of an 
eye, through some maneouvre of the big boys or some political 
development that may break suddenly. T hen he spends years or 
even the rest of his life outside the stock-exchange, which is tragic 
rather than comic. And yet for him there is no other place to go, 
no other way to earn a living. Even our educated people cannot 


get in anywhere; what use could be made of these poor people? 
We, however, are going to use them according to their skill, with- 
out any prejudice; after all, they are our own. We shall make new 
men out of them. Yes, a new life starts for all, with the experience 
of the past and without the onus of past sins. Out of the present 
refuse of human society we shall make respectable, happy men, 
just as beautiful aniline dyes are now made out of factory refuse 
that once went to waste. 

Believe me, these little stock-traders will serve us gratefully 
and loyally wherever we place them, unless they prefer to become 
free-lance contractors of jobs and transactions of all kinds. If 
they want to become small agricultural industrialists, they will 
get credit in the form of machinery and can make our land 
arable as leaseholders. 

On a larger scale, the same goes for the ordinary stock-holders. 
They will become manufacturers, building contractors, etc., be- 
cause they have capital or credit. Impartial observers like our- 
selves know that a real stock-exchange deal is not child’s play, 
requiring, as it does, the calculation of many factors, powers of 
observation, quick judgment — in short, many things that can and 
will be put to far better use. The only thing is that Jews cannot 
get out of the stock-exchange. In fact, the present political situa- 
tion forces more and more Jews into it; all our unemployed peo- 
ple of average education must either starve or go to the stock- 
exchange. On the other hand, the moneyed Jews are driven to 
pure speculation by the persecution of capital by the Socialists 
and anti-Semites. They administer their property at the stock- 
exchange. And the big ones — yourselves, the biggest ones, in- 
cluded — are forced to do likewise. This makes the great fortunes 
grow frighteningly. At least, that is what everybody thinks, and 
it probably is so. 

Well, we will set all these forces free. We shall channel them 
our way and have gold mines in our country. I am not speaking 
of the mines that might be discovered in the new soil over there; 
that would be a foolish illusion. I am speaking of the certain 



£ old mines, the full extent of which is well known and which we 
ourselves shall take across with us in the form of labor, capital, 

and the happy union of both. . . , , 

By now you will see what I am driving at: the Promised Land 

is within ourselves 1 No one has ever looked for it there. 

Gentlemen! I am trying very hard not to present things in 
too tempting a manner. If my words have a beautiful ring, this 
is due to my subject. But you are certainly not peasants and will 

not regard this alone as cause for mistrust. 

My psychological explanations and predictions why over there 
our people will not be stock-traders may not satisfy you or my 

subsequent worldwide audience. 

My aim has been to show first the beautiful and the free as- 
pects. These are the front walls of the building. But rest assured 

that my edifice has steel girders inside. 

You see, we are going to close the stock-exchanges right after 
we have set them up! In other words, we shall institute a stock- 
exchange monopoly. Yes, all dealings in money will be national- 
ized. At first I had only the re-education of our people in mind. 
But the more this plan grew and matured within me, the more 
the ways in which I found the stock-exchange monopoly right. 
This will also give us control over the mania for gambling with- 
out eradicating sound speculation. Above all, we shall manage 
our State credits independently of private financiers. Further- 
more, we shall get resources for pensioning our higher officials 
and taking care of their widows and orphans. How does this as- 
pect of it work? Very simply. It involves large, divisible tobacco- 
shops (un quart d’ agent de change [a petty stockbroker]). 
These non-inheritable agencies will be conducted by sworn lessees 
who are members of a disciplinary association. These licensed 
agents will guarantee us that their clients are not professional 
gamblers. That will be hard to establish; it is more of a moral 
question and we shall have to operate with indefinite standards, 
like the term “economic ruin” in the Austrian Usury Law. 

In a comparable manner, we shall control alcoholism among 


our unskilled* laborers by means of the truck system. Let me here 
mention the fact that we shall also establish a liquor monopoly. 
In addition to the profits on the manufacture, this will give us 
a large number of small retail outlets for pensioners and widows. 
Small outlets, I say, because as a rule our people are not drinkers. 
They are not, at present, but physical labor might make them 
drink; a state must take preventive measures. And this is the 
place to speak of the tobacco monopoly, the last form of indirect 
taxation for the time being. If at a later date we need more and 
bigger sources of revenue, this will have been caused by our 
needs, i.e., our standard of living. But once we are established 
we can find whatever forces are required. 

The tobacco monopoly has several points in its favor: most 
Jews are familiar with it from their present locations; it enables 
us to exact bigger amounts from bigger consumers; it gives us any 
number of small pensions in the form of tobacco-shops. The 
last-named will at the same time be the exclusive vending places 
for newspapers; there they will be available to the public, and to 
the government, if need be. 

This is all I have to say about the stock-exchange monopoly. 
Of all the fine institutions which we shall create over there, 
this will probably be the first to be copied by Europe. 

Right now, of course, it would be a tremendous hardship if 
we were barred from the stock-exchanges. Where should the un- 
fortunate Jewish brokers turn? But once we start migrating, this 
will suddenly be a great boon to the Jews, and at the same time 
the states will create great resources for themselves and get control 
of speculation with government credits, as we shall do in our 
State. Over there we shall offer rich fields to industrious traders 
and enterprising capitalists. Let the gamblers, the dissolute fel- 
lows, stay in Monte Carlo. If they follow us uninvited, we shall 
tame them, just as we keep mutinous elements among our un- 
skilled laborers in check through our protective troops. 

It will be said that we make people unhappy by our measures. 

# In English in the original. 


I deny this most categorically. A wound that old cannot be healed 
by moaning and groaning; it has to be cauterized. And who will 
dare deny the moral power of labor? By this I certainly do not 
mean only manual labor, but brain work as well. The latter 
undoubtedly includes speculation, provided it is not gambling. 

The moral aspects of work have long since been recognized in 
penal legislation. We have seen them operating in an incom- 
parably nobler fashion, before the crime, in the assistance par le 


Let me briefly tell you a touching story which I came across 
in an account of the gold fields of Witwatersrand. A man came to 
the Rand one day, settled down, tried several things, not includ- 
ing gold mining, finally opened an ice factory that prospered, 
and soon earned general respect for his decency. Years later he 
was suddenly arrested. It seems that as a banker in Frankfurt 
he had perpetrated fraud, then had escaped and started a new life 
here under an assumed name. When he was taken away as a 
prisoner, the most respected people of Johannesburg turned up 
at the station and gave him a cordial “Farewell— until we meet 
again.” For he was going to return. 

There is a lot in this story. First, it says that I am right. And 
after all, our unfortunate stock-market operators are no criminals. 
They are conscientious, struggling, decent heads of families. Of 
course, there are crooks among them. Where aren’t there any? 
In what distinguished office or profession do you not find them.' 
How many gamblers are there in the Clubs?! 

But even if they were criminals, which they are not, we would 
still take them along. We shall take the real criminals along as 
well — after they have served their term, you understand. For in 
Europe everything must be liquidated in an honorable manner. 
Then, a new life! 

We shall also take along the sick and the aged; do I even have 
to mention this? The charitable institutions of the Jews will be 
freely transplanted with the Local Groups. Endowed institutions 
will remain with their original Local Group over there. The 
buildings should not be sold, in my opinion, but donated to 


needy Gentiles in the cities concerned. Over there we shall give 
the Local Groups credit for this by not charging them for build- 
ing sites when the land is distributed and giving them special con- 
sideration in construction. Also, it shall be credited in the 
auctioning off of the local community. 

I shall speak in a moment about the distribution and auction- 
ing off of the land. I am trying to present everything as succinctly 
as possible. 

Over there we shall from the very beginning put the charitable 
institutions in a centralized system, and I have already worked 
it out. If you believe me implicitly, I shall spare you an elabora- 
tion of this now. 

Private philanthropy must cease, because it is haphazard. Those 
unable to work will all be provided for by the State and the free 
Charity Headquarters. Beggars will not be tolerated. Anyone 
who refuses to choose his own occupation will go to the Work- 

You see how we pull some along and let others tag after us, 
how the third kind is swept along, and the fourth pushed after us. 

If the stock-exchange monopoly is instituted after we have left, 
it will hasten all vacillators after us, overseas, where they may no 
longer find the best berths. 

You see, gentlemen, how cog meshes with cog, how I slowly 
build a great iron machine out of familiar components that you 
can touch with your own hands. I shall also show you the coals 
with which I shall make fire, and the water which I shall turn 
into steam. 

Then there will be a whistle that will mean: Get aboard, or 
out of the way! 

I have already mentioned some of the Jewish State’s forms 
of revenue. It will have still others. Any kind of undertaking 
that has already been completely investigated, like railroads and 
insurance of all kinds known up to now, will be nationalized. 
All Jews who have been serving as officials of such institutions 
in Europe will freely transfer into the service of our State, re- 
ceiving positions at least as good and, besides, chances for 



advancement, etc., which at present a Jew does not have even 
in a private institution. Certain industries we shall manage our- 
selves even at the risk of running them less cheaply than private 
interests. Mines, particularly, will be operated only by the State, 
because even with a seven-hour day mine workers should not 
be subject to an entrepreneur’s parsimony. The State will not 
economize on safety measures. But there is no striking against 
it. It represents no private interests. On the other hand, the vary- 
ing difficulty of kinds of work will be compensated for by a scale 
of pensions. The man who has worked harder will get his tobacco- 

shop sooner. 

The State will collect certain taxes not for its own benefit, but 
as an informal equalization between poverty and wealth. We 
cannot remove economic differences. Even if we were visionaries 
enough to attempt this, they would immediately arise anew. But 
we can establish a moral connection between the joys of some 
and the sorrows of others. The amusement tax (as in f ranee) will 
benefit the hospitals. The dowry tax will be used to take care 
of indigent girls whom men have forgotten to marry because the 
girls have no money. Many wealthy Jews are doing this sort of 
thing now, but haphazardly, like everything else. Nor shall this 
become the prey of chance mendicancy. We shall have no beggars. 
As for preventing cheating on dowry taxes, I have got that worked 

out, too. 

I have already said that we are going to nationalize all dealing 
in money, with the exception of the issuing bank. I think the 
Bank of France is a good model. The stability of the currency 
can be guaranteed better by a private issuing bank. But its em- 
ployees resemble state employees anyway. 

As for harmonizing the private issuing bank with the State 
Bank, with all the proper precautions and policies, our financial 
geniuses, of whom there is no lack, will know more about this 
than I do. 

I am going to concern myself only with fundamentals. The 
nationalization of the money-exchange will be designed to edu- 
cate the people in our State, something that will be necessary 


in the early stages. There will be neither small nor big bankers 
any more. Those with capital must and will shrewdly invest it 
in other enterprises. Let the little ones, the hole-and-corner 
usurers and speculation agents, enter State service. There they 
will be subject to a sound code of discipline, and they need not 
be placed in a Ministry, but can also be in branch offices, like 
manager of Postal Savings, etc. 

You are quite aware, gentlemen, that I am not talking non- 
sense about the state centralization of the money-exchange. And 
it is also common knowledge where and how the states even 
now engage in financial deals with themselves, either in the open 
(savings banks) or under cover, by entering into silent partner- 
ship with the issuing bank. 

But if that were not so, what would your World House be? 
I do not believe that our State or any other state will ever have 
a bigger money-exchange. You know, then, that the large-scale 
money-exchange not only can stand centralization, but actually 
thrives on it. By going from one of your windows to the next, 
I can collect a claim in London and pay a debt in Naples. I can 
even save myself this little trip, you can take care of it for me. 
And wherever centralization does not already exist, it is widely 
sought. For larger financial transactions the banks stand to- 
gether in groups and form those evil financial cartels which have 
not yet been recognized in their full harmfulness. And you are 
right in the midst of everything! On vous voit trop, messieurs 
[One sees too much of you, gentlemen]! I know, of course, that 
you do not come in uninvited, that people seek you out, that 
you wait to be asked. 

And that is your curse! People can no longer do without you. 
You are forced to become richer and richer, whether you want 
to or not. You have lost control of your fortune, you are drifting 
on this stream of gold and no longer know where you are going! 

I don’t know whether all governments already realize what 
an international menace your World House constitutes. Without 
you no wars can be waged, and if peace is to be concluded, people 
are all the more dependent on you. For the year 1895 the military 



expenses of the five Great Powers have been estimated at four 
billion francs, and their actual peacetime military strength at 
2 , 800,000 men. And these military forces, which are unparalleled 
in history, you command financially, regardless of the conflicting 
desires of the nations I 

Who has given you the right to do this? What universal human 
ideal are you serving? And who are you, anyway? A handful of 
bankers, now more than ever “Schutzjuden" who are occasionally 
invited to court— with what repugnance you can imagine, if you 
are not shown it. For you are nowhere given full rights or even 
regarded as regular citizens. And you who are in a position to 
tighten the belts of almost three million soldiers, you and your 
cash-boxes have to be anxiously guarded everywhere, from the 
people who, to be sure, do not know everything yet. 

And your accursed wealth is still growing. Everywhere it in- 
creases more rapidly than the national wealth of the countries 
in which you reside. Therefore this increase takes place only at 
the expense of the national prosperity, even though you your- 
selves may be the most decent persons in the world. 

For that reason, the Jewish State from the outset will not toler- 
ate your alarming wealth, which would stifle our economic and 
political freedom. Not even if you go with us! Do you understand 
that, gentlemen? And how do %ve intend to keep you from getting 
richer over there when we should like to make everyone richer? 
Do we by any chance have special legislation against you in mind? 
What ingratitude, if you help us, or what nonsense! Gentlemen, 
if you do not go with us, we shall probably have to outlaw you. 
We shall not admit you to our country, just as in France the pre- 
tenders, all of them scions of famous French families, are barred 
from the country. 

But if you do go with us, we shall enrich you one last time 
more. And we shall make you big beyond the dreams of the 
modest founder of your House and even of his proudest grand- 

We shall make you richer by tripling your contribution, the 
billion with which we started. The Jewish State will be given 


the right to redeem the shares of the Society within twenty years 
at three times their face value. These are the three billions ex- 
actly of which I spoke earlier. 

We shall make you big, because we shall take our first elected 
ruler from your House. That is the shining beacon which we 
shall place atop the finished Eiffel Tower of your fortune. In 
history it will seem as though that had been the object of the 
entire edifice. 

Just a few words about the Constitution. A principality with 
an elected head. We shall choose a quiet, modest, sensible man 
who will not think that he is our master. We shall impose suffi- 
cient restrictions on him in our Constitution anyway. For we 
shall be free men and have no one over us but the Almighty 

Alas, many of our brethren cannot even imagine in their dreams 
what it means to be a free man! 

We shall not found a hereditary principality. We cannot make 
ourselves ridiculous in the eyes of the world. It would look like 
something bought, like some dubious marquisate. In order to 
prevent for all time subtle pressure from those in power, the 
second prince will not be a Rothschild, and never will a son be 
allowed to succeed his father. Any Jew can become our prince, 
with the exception of the author of this plan. Otherwise the 
Jews would say that he did everything for his own benefit. And 
if you examine it closely, even the first Prince Rothschild will 
not have attained this high position because of his money. 

As you will soon see, we are not dependent on your money. 
But by giving us your contribution you will perform a moral act. 
You will be subjecting yourself to the National Ideal, helping 
us to carry out the enormous undertaking without a fight, and 
sparing the whole civilized world the severest upheavals. For this 
you shall be rewarded and the world will not deride it. 

To make them comprehensible to the people, ideas of this 
kind must be presented in the simple and moving form of sym- 
bols. That is why we shall all be in glittering gala dress when we 
march to the Temple to crown the Prince. Only one man in our 


midst will wear the shabby garb of shame of a medieval Jew, 
including the pointed Jew’s hat and the Yellow Badge, and that 
very man will be our Prince. Only in the Temple shall we put a 
princely cloak about his shoulders and a crown on his head. 

The meaning of this will be: To us you are but a poor Jew; 
you shall never forget what we have endured and take care not 
to expose us to fresh dangers. But in the eyes of the world you 
are our Prince; as such you shall be resplendent and represent 
us with distinction. 

Oh, now you will again think that I am telling you a tale. You 
are touched and shaken, and yet feel like mocking. Am I speak- 
ing of the impossible? In what way is my plan unrealistic? The 
Temple? 1 am going to build it wherever I please. Our gala dress? 
We shall be rich and free enough to wear it. The crowds? Them 
I shall draw wherever I want. The wondrous garb of the Prince? 
You must have been moved when I described it, and if you were 
not, tant pis pour vous [so much the worse for you]! Other na- 
tions also see old costumes in such festive processions and do not 
regard them as masquerades, but as meaningful remembrances of 
the past. 

And why do I, who am talking to, and counting on, business- 
men, dwell so long on this kind of description? 

Because the intangible element of popular enthusiasm, surg- 
ing like steam out of boiling water, is the power with which I 
run the great machinel 

All right, and now to the as yet unsolved question of what will 
be done with your fortune if you come with us. 

It is extremely simple. Your wealth consists of two parts: of 
the actual funds, which we shall even increase by two billion 
(within twenty years the Jewish State will redeem the shares at 
three times their face value), and of your credit. 

The funds you keep. We shall then no longer be afraid of 
this wealth, great though it is. A large part of it will remain in 
Europe, but it will no longer be active. Your castles, palaces, all 
luxury establishments may remain; you can use them for future 
visits to Europe, when members of your family return on pleasure 




trips or represent us as diplomats. The natural disintegration of 
great fortunes will set in: through marriages, ramification of the 
lineage, and wastefulness. Then, too, over there you will set a 
good example to the rich by starting beautiful art collections, 
erecting fine buildings, and making gorgeous gardens. We will 
subtly entice the intellectually backward to culture. As 
for the main part of your fortune, the dangerous international 
power of your credit, we shall take it over for the benefit of our 
Society of Jews. 

We shall liquidate the Rothschilds in the same way that we 
liquidate the smallest shipping agent or shopkeeper. This means 
that the Society will absorb the House of Rothschild. 

This, too, will happen in the most natural way in the world. 
For the time being, all your employees will remain where they 
are, and you yourselves will remain at the helm everywhere — 
until such time as you, the present-day Rothschilds, will be used 
in our State, as directors of our financial system or as other gov- 
ernment officials, as governors of provinces or as our diplomatic 
representatives to foreign powers. Through your connections with 
the European aristocracy you will be well suited for the diplo- 
matic service. That way you will not need to tear yourselves away 
from your accustomed surroundings either. 

We shall not give you any titles that might sound ridiculous in 
the beginning. You will simply be the representatives of the Jews 
in this place or that. Even now you occasionally identify your- 
selves as representatives of the Jews when, upon the conclusion 
of a loan, you beg for a bit of protection for the local Jews. 

Once the time has come when other nations consider it expedi- 
ent, and us worthy enough, to send ambassadors to us, we shall 
gladly return this compliment. 

When the other Jews, those of moderate wealth, who are now 
Consuls-General and the like, join us, we shall make them 
our representatives in their present localities until such time as 
we summon them. 

We shall recognize the present noblemen among the Jews if 
they bring proof to our free Office of Nobility by a certain date. 


This office will see to it that no overly grotesque nobility is 
smuggled in. For certain exalted purposes of our policy we need 
a State nobility, just as we shall have one single decoration 
(along the lines of the legion d’honneur [legion of honor]). This 
decoration will be called “Jewish honor ! It will consist of a 
yellow badge, and so we shall make our new honor out of our 
old disgrace. Our best men, and only they, will be allowed to 
wear it, which will bring it the respect of the entire world. It 
will not be available for money. Otherwise it would no longer 
be a reward for our people whom we shall sometimes ask to 
give their lives, or who will offer their lives to us. In the heredi- 
tary nobility we give the reward after death, that is, we bestow 
it on the descendants. With our decoration we shall place the 
reward in the middle of life, and the nation will immediately rec- 
ognize its oustanding men. 

Our sons! Just as I have frequently and tenderly thought of 
my little boy, who is only 4 years old now, during the drawing 
up of this plan, you, too, will be thinking of your sons. I wish 
you numerous and able ones; we shall need all of our boys. Right 
now the future of your sons is one of your big worries — will you 
admit this? Will you again make bankers out of them, or loafers, 
simple-minded sportsmen? They will not be allowed to give any 
orders anywhere, in the government or in the army; you realize 
that, don’t you? No one will turn the real command over to you 
in addition to the financial one. 

But things will be different in our State. If your sons have the 
ability, they can become anything, just like any other Jew. But 
only if they have ability. Nobility and private property will be 
hereditary in our State, but offices will not be. Otherwise we 
should be ruined. That must be prevented at all costs. 

What will our Constitution be like? It will be neither a 
monarchic nor a democratic one. I am a staunch advocate of 
monarchic institutions because they favor a stable policy and 
the interests of a historically illustrious family, one born and 
educated to rule — interests that are bound up with the preserva- 


tion of the state. But our history has been interrupted too long for 
us to attempt to resume this institution. 

I am against democracy because it is extreme in its approval 
and disapproval, tends to idle parliamentary babble, and pro- 
duces that base class of men, the professional politicians. Nor are 
the present-day nations really suited to the democratic form of 
government; and I believe they will become less and less suited 
to it. For democracy presupposes a very simple morality, and 
our morality is becoming ever more complex with the advance 
of commerce and civilization. Le ressort d’une democratic est la 
vertu [the concern of a democracy is virtue], said wise Montes- 
quieu. And where will you find this virtue — political virtue, I 
mean? I have no faith in the political virtue of our people, be- 
cause we are no different from the rest of modem men and 
because freedom will at first make our heads swell. Government 
by referendum does not make sense, in my opinion, because in 
politics there are no simple questions which can be answered 
merely by Yes or No. The masses are more prone even than 
parliaments to be misled by every kind of heresy and lend a 
willing ear to every ranting demagogue. As you know, the Swiss 
people, which is famous for its love of freedom and now subsists 
on its tourist trade, was the first to pass special legislation against 
the Jews. Neither internal nor external policy can be formulated 
in popular assembly. I could not even explain the protective tariff 
or free trade to the people, let alone some currency problem or 
international treaty, and least of all those sensible principles of 
popular education which must be our prime concern. 

Politics must work from the top down. This does not mean 
that we shall put anyone in bondage, for we shall let every capable 
Jew rise, and everyone will want to rise. Can you imagine what 
a powerful upward surge is bound to move through our people? 
Every individual will think he is only raising himself, and yet 
the entire community will be raised. We shall bind this rise in 
moral forms which will be useful to the State and further the 
National Ideal. 


Therefore I am thinking of an “aristocratic republic,” as 
Montesquieu termed it. This would also be in keeping with the 
ambitious spirit of our people which has now degenerated into 
fatuous vanity. Many of the institutions of Venice come to mind, 
but we shall avoid all the features that caused the ruin of that 
city. We shall learn from the commercial mistakes of others, just 
as we shall learn from our own. Our people, to whom we are 
presenting the new country, will also gratefully accept the new 
Constitution that we give it. But wherever opposition may ap- 
pear, we shall break it down. Everywhere we shall try it with 
friendly persuasion, but if need be we shall push it through by 
brute force. 

I am not going into detail on the public institutions. Take 
my word for it: I understand the State. We shall also have a 
grand council of State jurists. We shall impose extensive but firm 
limits on public opinion, especially in the beginning. You can 
imagine that I as a journalist am concerned about the freedom 
and honor of my profession. But we certainly cannot permit our 
work to be disturbed by obtuse or malicious individuals. 

(Here I wish to insert incidemment [incidentally] something 
that will show how easily we can transplant many of our customs. 
The newspapers which are now being hawked as Jewish sheets — 
and rightly so, I believe — will have editions over there, like the 
Paris edition of the New York Herald. The news will be ex- 
changed between both sides by cable. After all, we shall remain 
in contact with our old homelands. Gradually the demand for 
newspapers will increase, the colonial editions will grow, the 
Jewish editors will move overseas, leaving the Gentile ones by 
themselves. Little by little and imperceptibly, the Jewish papers 
will turn into Gentile papers, until the overseas editions are as 
independent as the European ones. It is an amusing thought in 
this serious plan that many a government will be willing to help 
us for that reason alone.) 

Let me just add a few remarks about other public institutions. 
Someone may think that our lack of a common language would 
present difficulties. After all, we cannot converse in Hebrew. 


Who among us knows enough Hebrew to ask for a railroad ticket 
in this language? We have no such people. But it is really a very 
simple matter. Everyone retains his own language. I am a Ger- 
man-speaking Jew from Hungary and can never be anything but 
a German. At present I am not recognized as a German. But that 
will come once we are over there. And so let everyone keep his ac- 
quired nationality and speak the language which has become the 
beloved homeland of his thoughts. Switzerland offers visible proof 
that a federated state of different nationalities can exist. 

I believe that German will be our principal language. I draw 
this conclusion from our most widespread jargon, “Judeo-Ger- 
man.” But over there we shall wean ourselves from this ghetto 
language, too, which used to be the stealthy tongue of prisoners. 
Our teachers will see to that. 

Actually, the only thing by which we still recognize our kinship 
is the faith of our fathers. Shall we, then, end up by having a 
theocracy? Nol Faith unites us, science makes us free. Therefore 
we shall permit no theocratic velleities on the part of our clergy 
to arise. We shall know how to restrict them to their temples, 
just as we shall restrict our professional soldiers to their barracks. 
The army and the clergy shall be honored to the extent that their 
noble functions require and deserve it. But they will have no 
privileged voice in the State which confers distinction upon them 
and pays them, otherwise they would cause us trouble externally 
and internally. Every man will be as free and unrestricted in his 
belief or unbelief as he is in his nationality. And should it hap- 
pen later that men of other creeds and other nationalities come 
to live among us, we shall accord them honorable protection. We 
have learned tolerance in Europe. I am not saying this sar- 
castically. Present-day anti-Semitism can only in a very few places 
be taken for the old religious intolerance. For the most part it 
is a movement among civilized nations whereby they try to 
exorcize a ghost from out of their own past. 

I believe that by now it must be clear from every aspect: a 
Jewish State is a world necessityl 

And that is why it will come into being — with you, gentle- 


men, or in opposition to you! Sooner or later it would arise, 
par la force des choses [of necessity], even without this proposal. 
They cannot throw us into the sea, at least not all of us, nor burn 
us alive. After all, there are societies for the prevention of cruelty 
to animals everywhere. What, then? They would finally have to 
find us some piece of land on the globe — a world ghetto, if you 

Thus my plan does not invent a need; it only demonstrates one 
and shows at the same time how things can be accomplished to 
everyone’s satisfaction without upheaval, struggle, or suffering. 
That is why it is the solution. 

We shall found the new Jewish State in a respectable manner. 
After all, we have in mind our future honor in the eyes of the 

For that reason all obligations in our old places of residence 
must be scrupulously fulfilled. We shall grant cheap passage and 
settlement benefits only to those who produce an official certifi- 
cate saying "Affairs left in good order.” Every private claim orig- 
inating in the abandoned countries will be heard more readily in 
the Jewish State than anywhere else. We shall not even wait for 
reciprocity, but act purely for the sake of our own honor. Thus 
our claims will later get more consideration from law courts 
than may now be the case in some places. 

It is self-evident, from the foregoing remarks, that we shall 
extradite the Jewish criminals more readily than any other state, 
until the time comes when we can enforce our penal code on the 
same principles as all other civilized nations. For the time being 
we shall admit Jewish criminals only after they have paid all 
penalties, but then we shall receive them without any restriction. 
The criminals among our people shall start a new life, too. The 
only exception will be made in the case of deserters. Deserters 
in wartime we shall not let in. If they try to take refuge in our 
State, we shall arrest them immediately and extradite them. Any- 
one who remains in his old home until war breaks out must stay 
there until the war is over, and of course he must fight like any 
other man who can carry a rifle. But after the war we shall re- 


ceive them gladly and with great honors, for they will have fought 
for Jewish honor. 

However, they will have to let us take and keep peacetime 
deserters. Otherwise we shall not be able to start out. 

We shall need all hands that are able to work. As it is, we 
must allow for the loss of half a generation as far as physical labor 
is concerned. Only in fifteen years, I imagine, will our boys be 
fully grown and suffice for all the physical work that needs to be 
done. Until then we shall have to import many products. The 
atrophied arms of the generation that is already withering are 
not of much use now. We shall give these people occupations, 
certainly, but it will be work that is no hardship on them. We 
shall make them supervisors, mailmen, retailers, etc. We are not 
going to put them in homes for the aged. These homes are one of 
the most cruel forms of charity which our fatuous good nature 
has devised. In a home for the aged an old person dies of shame 
and grief. Actually, he is buried alive there. But we will leave 
even those on the lowest level of intelligence the comforting 
illusion of usefulness till the end of their lives. 

In this way we shall seek for all ages, for all walks of life, the 
physical happiness and moral blessings of work. Thus our people 
will regain their skill in the land of the seven-hour working day. 

Gentlemen! I cannot sketch this plan in concentric circles and 
straight lines. I must draw it like a map with its zigzag of moun- 
tains and waters. This is why I come to speak only now of the 
event which will be one of the first to take place, the actual occu- 
pation of the land. 

When peoples migrated in historic times, they let themselves 
be carried, pulled, propelled by world accident. Like swarms of 
locusts they settled somewhere in their aimless wanderings. In 
historic times, after all, people did not know the earth yet. 

The new migration of the Jews must take place according to 
scientific principles. 

As recently as some forty years ago, gold digging was carried 
on in a curiously naive manner. How adventurous things were in 
California! There a rumor made the desperadoes come running 

a JCo 


from all over the world; they looted the earth, stole the gold from 
one another, and then gambled it away in an equally predatory 
manner. But today 1 Look at gold digging in present-day Trans- 
vaal. Gold mining is no longer run by romantic rogues, but by 
sober-minded geologists and engineers. Ingenious machines sepa- 
rate the gold from auriferous rock. Little is left to chance. 

And so the new Jewish land must be explored and exploited 
with all modern aids. 

As soon as our geographers have decided on the location and 
the international and private purchase contracts have been con- 
cluded, a ship will sail to take possession of the land. 

This ship will carry administrative officials, technicians of all 
kinds, and delegates of the Local Groups. 

These pioneers will have three tasks: first, the exact scientific 
investigation of all natural properties of the land; second, the 
establishment of a tightly centralized administration; third, the 
distribution of the land. These three tasks overlap and are to be 
expanded rationally to fit the purpose which is already sufficiently 

Only one thing has not been clarified yet, namely, the way 
in which the land will be occupied according to Local Groups. 
An indispensable condition will be a variegated climate. We 
must give our people roughly the same climate to which they are 
accustomed in their old places of residence. After this general di- 
vision comes the specific one. 

In America the occupation of a newly opened territory still takes 
place in a rather naive manner. The settlers gather by the border 
and at the appointed hour rush forward simultaneously and 

We shall not do it that way. The locations in our provinces 
will be auctioned off — not for money, but for achievements. It 
will have been established according to the general configuration 
of the land which roads, water-regulation systems, bridges, etc., 
are necessary for commerce. This will be organized by provinces. 
Within each province the sites of towns will be auctioned off in 
a similar manner. The Local Groups will take the responsibility 


for carrying this out in an orderly fashion, and will defray the 
costs from local assessments. After all, we shall be able to know 
in advance whether or not they are undertaking too great a sacri- 
fice. The bigger communities will get more elbow-room for their 
activities. Greater sacrifices will be rewarded by certain conces- 
sions. Universities or various technological research institutes and 
those institutions that do not have to be in the capital will be 
systematically spread over the country. We do not want to have 
a hypertrophic capital. 

The proper development of what is taken over will be guaran- 
teed us by the interest of the purchaser himself, and, if need be, 
by the local taxes which we may collect as dues. For, just as we 
cannot and do not want to abolish differences among individuals, 
differences among the Local Groups will continue. Everything 
will fall into place in a natural way; all acquired rights will be 
protected, all new developments will get sufficient elbow-room. 

All these things will have been made clear to our people. Just 
as we will not take others by surprise or cheat them, we shall 
not deceive ourselves either. 

Everything will be arranged systematically in advance. Even 
on the ship that sails to occupy the land everyone will know his 
assignment quite clearly — the scholars, the technicians, the offi- 
cers and officials, and finally and principally, the authorized rep- 
resentatives of the Local Groups. 

But when the new land first comes in sight, our new flag will 
be raised on the staff. At present we do not have any. I am think- 
ing of a white flag with seven gold stars. The white field signifies 
our new, clean life, and the seven stars, our desire to start this 
new life under the banner of labor. 

This is the way it can and will be if you go with us, gentlemen. 
And what if you do not feel like it, if you feel happy enough in 
your present situation — does that mean that the whole thing will 
be cancelled by your smile of rejection? It does notl 

We would be poor people indeed if we came to you begging 
for a billion. 

If you are not willing, the matter will go to the second level, to 


the Jews of moderate wealth. We shall send a few copies of the 
plan to the main centers of Jewish wealth, and bring it to the 
attention of the medium millionaires. Money-raising will then 
take a different form. All the medium-sized Jewish banks must 
be organized into a second, formidable financial power against 
the top bankers in the name of the National Ideal. The task is 
to sweep you along or pull you down and then, across. In the 
latter case, to be sure, I will have nothing to do with the execu- 
tion. I will not be a party to money matters. 

And yet, for the time being, it will only amount to a money 
matter, for the billion would have to be deposited in full— there 
is no starting otherwise— and since this money would be used 
only gradually, all sorts of banking and loan transactions would 
be made in the first years. There is also a possibility that in this 
way the original purpose would gradually be forgotten. The 
moderately wealthy Jews would have found a new, big business, 
and the emigration of the Jews would be bogged down. 

The notion of raising money in this way is certainly not fan- 
tastic— that you know. Several attempts have been made to mar- 
shal the Catholic money against you. No one has ever thought 
that you could also be fought with Jewish money. And this is 
how you might be beaten. 

But what commercial crises all this would produce! How the 
countries in which these financial battles took place would suffer! 
How anti-Semitism would necessarily gain ground in the process! 

This, then, is not agreeable to me. I am mentioning it only 
because it lies within the logical development of my thought, 
because this danger may induce you to go along with us, and be- 
cause, after all, the Jews of moderate wealth have a right to be 
given ample notice. 

I do not know whether the medium-sized banks will take the 
matter up. Maybe they will. 

In any case, even if those of moderate wealth refuse, this will 
not finish the matter. No! Then it will begin in earnest, for I 
shall take it to the Jewish people and the whole world. I shall 



publish this Address, including all the steps I have taken in the 
matter and all the reactions that I have received. I know full well 
to what I should then be exposing myself. People will ridicule 
me and say that I want to become King of the Jews. They will 
try to hold me up to contempt and say that I was only interested 
in making a business deal. Of course, I have never made such a 
deal, least of all with my pen — but after all, that proves nothing 
about the future. 

Then my peers, the philosophers and artists all over the world, 
will take me under their protection. For they know that certain 
words come only to a man who means them sincerely. 

And the people will believe me. Not only among the poor 
Jews, but among all peoples, there will arise a feeling of rage 
against you who are able to bring this relief to the world and 
refuse to do so. 

I believe that my book will have readers. The people will be- 
lieve my words — and the governments no less. In the synagogues 
there will be prayers for the success of this plan — and in the 
churches as well! The little people and the middle classes and the 
nobility and the clergy and kings and emperors will warm to the 
cause. It is a relief from an old pressure under which all have suf- 

No, Messieurs Rothschild, you are not necessary for all that. 
Do you know who is going to raise the share capital of the Society 
of Jews} The Gentiles! 

Perhaps even the poor, very small Jews. For them the billion 
will be divided into tiny parts. To be sure, in such a case I could 
not participate in the execution either — not only because it 
would again be a money matter, but especially because even this 
money would not be sufficient for the many purposes for which 
we could have used your world-wide credit. 

I do not want to lead the poor people into penury. In this case 
the migration of the Jews could be accomplished only with the 
express, definite aid of the governments concerned. People would 
have to give us a helping hand with everything, procure the 


requisite and adequate land for us, give us all possible concessions 
on the transportation— in short, everything that is indispensable 
for carrying this out soundly. 

The governments — by now I am no longer talking to you, 
gentlemen, but out the window— the governments will soon 
realize the full scope of what the solution of the Jewish Question 
will bring them. 

Earlier, I spoke about direct and indirect advantages of our 
exodus. These were only the smallest. Yes, we shall produce con- 
siderable fiscal income by moving away. Yes, we shall patronize 
the railroads, give work to the movers, pay double fees, take care 
of all our debts, let appropriate numbers of people move into 
the lucrative positions that we give up, and where the state 
wishes to take over our industries and institutions, we shall give 
it the right of first refusal. 

These individual voluntary expropriations and nationaliza- 
tions can and must be something considerable. Yet they are not 
the most important benefit which the states and their citizens 
will derive from the emigration of the Jews. The most important 
benefit is something else. What? 

Have you not been thinking all the time: they certainly can- 
not let us move away with all our money. After all, at present 
they still have a bit of power over us and can occasionally tighten 
the leash. Is this, then, the weak point in my system? I think, on 
the contrary, that it is the strongest. 

In the first place, movable property in its most important cur- 
rent form, shares payable to the bearer, can never be regarded 
as being in the country. These shares can no longer be got at. 
The Paris commune tried it from below, and we know with 
what result. No one tries to do it from above. In the second 
place and this is the enormous point which everyone must see — 
we shall free the world’s credit system of us, for the moment we 
move out, the states will nationalize their credit. Through the 
stock-exchange monopoly, which they will hasten to copy from 
us, they will get control of the pernicious juggling with the 
states credit. Perhaps they will even completely nationalize the 


money market; otherwise one would have to fear that the civi- 
lized peoples will Judaize themselves after we are gone. 

We shall be in a position to show how this nationalization can 
be carried out. Transitional forms are easy to find. The states 
can found banking organizations which will take over from the 
Society of Jews the incomplete transactions which the Society 
will have taken over from individuals. The Society itself can do 
this organizing for the states and turn over to them those trans- 
actions that have been completed. In fact, the whole Society can 
eventually be split in two parts — the neo-Jewish part, which will 
go to our State, and the old Jewish, i.e., European one, which 
belongs to the states. The form and scope of the settlement would 
be a subject for negotiation with the individual governments. 

So, you see, we by no means take the world credit-market with 

us oh, how happy and strong our national spirit will be once 

we are rid of it! — rather, by our departure we shall organize 
the national credit of the states. That will be our greatest gift; it 
cannot be regarded as an emigration tax, because we shall do it 
voluntarily. As a matter of fact, in this plan we do everything 
voluntarily and in keeping with our honor! 

Well, what is going to happen with the nations financially less 
stable? Are they not going to be controlled by the distant Jewish 
financial power? 

Not any more than the others. Our credit will continue to be 
at their disposal if they seek it — but they will no longer be de- 
pendent on us exclusively. The governments will have their own 
foreign financial policy. They will get together in alliances. There 
will be a concordance of all political resources. 

Whether the governments shall communicate with one another 
through financial ambassadors, or in a less formal, even a very 
informal manner, is really only a small detail. The important 
thing is that internally and externally the State will get control 
over its finances and will no longer be dependent on international 
groups and stock cartels. I look at everything through the eyes of 
the State, for ourselves as well as for others. 

The State must exist! 


Will there be Jews who will consider me a traitor to the cause 
of the Jews because I say all this? 

I shall immediately enlighten and calm them. I am not rep- 
resenting and defending the bad Jewish cause, but I believe I 
am performing a service to the good Jewish cause by making 
these thoughts public. 

But their publication will not even harm the selfish and preda- 
tory swindlers among the Jews. 

For, all this can only be carried out with the free consent of 
the majority of Jews. It can be done against the will of individ- 
uals, even against groups of those now most powerful, but cer- 
tainly not by the State against all Jews. 

The emancipation of the Jews, which I consider just as much 
a failure on political grounds as I approve of it enthusiastically 
and gratefully for human reasons, came too late. It was no longer 
possible to emancipate us by legislation and in our old places of 

Nevertheless, the legal equality of the Jews, where it exists, can 
no longer be abolished. Not only because it would run counter 
to modern sensibilities — Good Lord, necessity knows no law — 
but also because that would immediately drive all Jews, poor and 
rich alike, into the arms of the revolutionary parties. 

Therefore, no effective measures can actually be taken against 
us. And yet, anti-Semitism increases among the nations every 
day, every hour, and must continue to grow, because the causes 
have not been and cannot be removed. 

The causa remota [indirect cause] is the loss of our assimilabil- 
ity which dates from the Middle Ages. 

The causa proxima [immediate cause] is our overproduction 
of average minds who cannot sink and cannot rise — that is, can- 
not do so in a healthy way. At the bottom we are forced into 
becoming proletarian revolutionaries, constituting the petty of- 
ficers of all revolutionary parties. And, at the same time, our 
frightful financial power grows at the top. 

That is how it is. That is how things really are. I am not ex- 


aggcrating and not denying anything. What I am saying is the 
simple truth. 

And this is why my outline contains the solution. Do I hear 
somebody saying: Well, if such a thing were possible, would it 
not have been done before? 

It was not possible before. It is now. As recently as a hundred 
or fifty years ago it would have been a fantasy. Today it is all a 

You, gentlemen, know best what can be done with money; how 
rapidly and safely we now speed in huge steamers across formerly 
uncharted seas. We have built safe railways up into a world of 
mountains which we previously scaled on foot and with trepida- 
tion. A hundred thousand brains are constantly thinking of ways 
to wrest all Nature’s secrets from her. And what one man discovers 
belongs to the whole world an hour later. It is possible! 

And it will happen in a wondrous way: the plain people who 
do not know these truths as you do, gentlemen, especially the 
simple souls, will have the greatest belief in me. They have the 
age-old hope of the Promised Land within them! 

And it is real: no fairy tale, no deception I Anyone can find 
out for himself, for everyone will take across a piece of the Prom- 
ised Land: one his brain, another his brawn, a third his belong- 

No doubt about it: it is the Promised Land, where it is all right 
for us to have hooked noses, black or red beards, and bandy legs 
without being despised for these things alone. Where at last we 
can live as free men on our own soil and die in peace in our own 
homeland. Where we, too, can expect honor as a reward for great 
deeds; where we shall live at peace with all the world, which we 
shall have freed through our own freedom, enriched by our 
wealth, and made greater by our greatness. 

So that the derisive cry “Jew!” may become an honorable 
appellation, like “German,” “Englishman,” “Frenchman”— in 
short, like the name of any civilized nation. So that by means 
of our State we can educate our people for tasks which still lie 
beyond our horizon. 


June 17 

Now it might seem as though this were a long-drawn-out pro- 
ject. I keep speaking of months, years, decades. In the meantime, 
in a thousand places the Jews are being teased, insulted, scolded, 
whipped, plundered, and slain. 

No, gentlemen, it is the immediate solution. I shall stop anti- 
Semitism instantly all over the world. It is the making of 

For, after we have taken all initial steps with the greatest dis- 
patch and discretion; after we have secured our independence as 
a State through treaties under public law, and the land through 
purchases under civil law; after we have acquired cables and 
boats and made contracts on customs and special rates — in short, 
after we have done everything that is necessary to carry out our 
plan inexpensively, we shall make our entire program public. 

This will be done in the pages of the Neue Freie Presse. For 
I have a debt of gratitude to this paper to discharge. It sent me 
to Paris and gave me the means and the opportunity of acquiring 
much of the knowledge that is now in the service of the cause. 
Therefore, any literary aspect of my announcement shall be the 
property of this paper. 

On the next morning, a message will fly out into the whole 
world: Peace! 

Peace to the Jews, victory to the Gentiles. 

We must make peace because we can no longer fight, because 
later we should have to surrender under less favorable conditions. 

The anti-Semites will have carried the day. Let them have this 
satisfaction, for we too shall be happy. They will have turned 
out to be right because they are right. They could not have let 
themselves be subjugated by us in the army, in government, in 
all of commerce, as thanks for generously having let us out of the 
ghetto. Let us never forget this magnanimous deed of the civilized 

By liberating them from us we shall also relieve them of the 
atavistic pressure of the Middle Ages which they have been under 


in the Jewish Question without recognizing it. They are not to 
blame for the sins of their fathers. 

Forgiveness, peace, reconciliation for the whole world. And the 
relief will come instantly. The middle classes will immediately 
be drained of our overproduction of average minds which will 
flow into our first organizations and constitute our first officers, 
officials, jurists, physicians, and technicians of all kinds. 

And so the matter will proceed with dispatch and yet without 
upheavals. There will be prayers in the synagogues for the suc- 
cess of our wonderful project. But in the churches as well! 

The governments will give us their friendly assistance be- 
cause we relieve them of the danger of a revolution which would 
start with the Jews — and stop who knows where! 

The nations will breathe a sigh of happy relief. But so shall 
we, we especially! We shall depart as respected friends. 

And so we shall move out to the Promised Land, the Land of 
the Seven Hours, the land which God has promised us in His in- 
scrutable goodness, under the bright banner which we shall fash- 
ion for ourselves. 

Book Two 

June 23 

With my letter to Bismarck this development of my thought 
which has been growing in me has logically entered a new stage. 
I am starting a new book. I don’t know how much space the 
previous notes will occupy; I am not in the mood now to make a 
clean copy of them. 

June 24 

Today Bismarck has my letter. Will he take me for a gentle fool 
or a raving one? Will he reply? 

June 25 

Dined with Fiirth. I told him of my meeting with Hirsch. I 
thought he would hear of it in any case, and therefore I wanted 
to supply some authentic notes on my letters, intended to be 
passed along. I especially regret that third letter. When shall I 
break myself of the habit of writing imprudent letters? 

Incidentally, Fiirth told me that I had judged and treated 
Hirsch correctly. 

He also confirmed my assumption that Hirsch had arranged 
for the two secretaries to be there as witnesses that my visit actu- 
ally took place. 

Then we went to the circus. 

I said: There is one man who would understand my plan 
(which I did not disclose to Fiirth, although he seemed to guess 
its approximate nature). That is the German Kaiser. 

Fiirth: Draw up a memorandum for him. Then find a reliable 
man to transmit it. Perhaps my cousin von Kaiser, the director 
of the Colonial Office. 

I: He is your cousin? Baptized? 

Fiirth: Yes. He coached Herbert Bismarck for his assessor’s 
examination and in that way became acquainted with the old 



man who said he could use him if he had himself baptized. 
Kaiser did it, perhaps partly because he wanted to marry his 
present wife, a Catholic. First he became State Attorney at Strass- 
burg, then he was promoted and finally appointed director of the 
Colonial Office. When Bismarck had a falling out with the Kaiser, 
von Kaiser went over to the latter. He always has access to him. 

I: Then he would probably be the right man. But being a 
convert, will he want to have anything to do with the Jewish 

Furth, with a shrug: Maybe. (After all, F. has also been con- 

June 26 

Today Bismarck’s reply is due. It has not come. 

I wonder if he has even received my letter. If there are "black 
cabinets” on either side of the border, the letter will have been 
opened once or perhaps even twice. The postal censors actually 
had an invitation in my final remark that I was prepared to re- 
ceive no answer at all. They could simply have thrown my letter 

Here is a droll idea: if you want to be sure to get some message 
into the hands of the government, you only have to put it into 
such a letter with a conspicuous address. 

June 27 

No answer from Bismarck. I am already convinced that I shall 
receive none. I thought of having Feldmann inquire at the Ham- 
burger Nachrichten whether Bismarck has received my letter. 

But Feldmann would at some later date tell this as an anecdote 
about me. I no longer care whether Bismarck has received my 
letter or not. If he has — tant pis [too bad]. 

I am now thinking of Schoen. He could deliver my memoran- 
dum to the Kaiser. But come to think of it, isn’t Schoen on va- 


June 27 

In the Chamber of Deputies I casually asked Wolff whether 
Schoen was here. No, he is in Bavaria, on vacation until August 
> 5 - 

I thought of asking Schoen through Wolff whether he would 
see me between trains. 

Decided later to write Schoen directly. The fewer know about 
it, the better. 

Schoen, by the way, will know me and lend me a willing ear. 

Possibly look for some other German diplomat to do this. It 
will not be hard. 

June 27 

Addendum to the plan. 

Those who die during the passage will not be thrown into the 
water. This would be a deterrent to immigrants and a ghastly 
image to the people. Corpses will be safely embalmed and buried 
on the other side. 

June 28 

Before I approach Schoen it will be helpful to notify Albert 
Rothschild. This way, I believe, I shall get back to my original 
thought in better style. And I shall be covered against the re- 
proach of having acted without, i.e. against, the Jews. 

* * * 

Letter to Albert Rothschild: 

Dear Sir: 

I shall come to the point without preliminaries. 

I have composed a memorandum about the Jewish Question 
for the German Kaiser. A reliable man (a diplomat) will deliver 
it to him. It is not a fatuous and querulous complaint. Even if 
he wanted to, the Kaiser could not do anything against anti- 
Semitism, as I understand the movement. Rather, my memoran- 



dum contains a comprehensive plan for self-help on the part of 
Jews of all countries. If the Kaiser sends for me after reading my 
memorandum, I can pursue the matter with him as an independ- 
ent man because I am not under his political jurisdiction. From 
the outset there cannot be any doubt that I do not want any fa- 
vors or special treatment from him or anyone else. And therefore 
I hope that this alert and vigorous ruler will understand me. My 
memorandum will bear only my signature and I shall have the 
exclusive responsibility for it. But since I am taking up the cause 
of the Jews, I owe them some proof of my good intentions, and 
for this purpose I need a few reputable and independent persons 
as references. Note: references, not guarantors or principals. Ac- 
tually, individuals would not even be entitled to give me an 
assignment which, incidentally, I do not need. 

Would you care to be one of the references? I am having some 
trouble finding serviceable men. Since I have been concerned 
with the cause I have already had quite bad experiences. Some- 
times I have been utterly fed up. We have such twisted, crushed, 
money-worshipping people who are therefore booted around 
even more than they deserve. But even these miserable qualities 
fill me with pity, in the final analysis; they are products of pro- 
longed pressure. 

Let me immediately dispel one doubt that might arise in your 
mind. My memorandum does not contain even the slightest trace 
of a violation of duty or of reverence toward our sovereign. I am 
simply trying to get at anti-Semitism where it originated and still 
has its center: in Germany. I consider the Jewish Question an 
extremely serious matter. Anyone who thinks that agitation 
against the Jews is a passing fad is seriously mistaken. For pro- 
found reasons it is bound to get worse and worse, until the in- 
evitable revolution comes. 

Some Jews, of course, think that the danger is no longer there 
when they close their eyes. 

Let me recapitulate. My memorandum will be delivered to the 
Kaiser at the end of July or the beginning of August. In the lat- 
ter part of July I shall come to Austria. If you would like to 


know what is in the document, I shall read it to you. We can 
arrange a meeting for this purpose. I am prepared to come to you 
for half a day. You will certainly make sure that we are undis- 
turbed. But if you should be traveling at that time, I would like 
it even better if I could meet you on your travels somewhere — 
I don’t care where. 

If you feel no desire to become acquainted with my memoran- 
dum, it will be quite sufficient for you to return this letter to me. 
I shall not regard it as an insult, because I am expressly asking 
you to. 

In any case, I know that I am dealing with a gentleman. And 
when I now ask you to treat my letter in complete confidence and 
not tell a soul about the matter, it is just as if I had told it to you 
verbally and immediately sworn you to secrecy. 

It may not be superfluous to remark that no one on my news- 
paper has any knowledge of the matter. I am doing this alone and 

Respectfully yours, 

Dr. Theodor Herzl, 

36 rue Cambon. 

• • • 

June 28 

In the Chamber I spoke with the Communard Leo Franckel. 
Fine face, mediocre mind, a sectarian’s pride. He boasted of the 
prisons in which he has “languished.” 

I explained to him why I am against the democracies. 

“So you are a disciple of Nietzsche?” he said. 

I: “Not at all. Nietzsche is a madman. But one can only govern 
aristocratically. In the community I am in favor of the widest 
autonomy. Parish-pump politics are sufficiently — in fact, best — 
understood around the parish pump. However, the state and its 
needs cannot be comprehended by the people.” 

Franckel: “How are you going to establish this aristocratic gov- 



j. «There are all kinds of ways. Here is just one example, from 
which you need not generalize. The French Academy constitutes 

an elective aristocracy.” . . . . 

We then spoke about social theories. I said that I was in favor 

of nationalizing banking, insurance, railroads, and everything 
that has already been tested, where there no longer is any risk 
that would justify entrepreneurial profits. 

Franckel: “That way everything can be arranged collectivistic- 


I • "By no means. The individual must not be done away with.” 
Here, obviously, is the flaw in the thinking of the Socialists: 
they say, "everything.” 

I say: what has been adequately worked outl 

June 28 

On the Champs Elys^es. 

Moritz Wahrmann’s son rode past. Looks vigorous but bored. 
Such fellows, with their unused vitality, would be splendid ma- 
terial for us. It would be easy to fill them with enthusiasm for 
the cause. And how beautiful is my scheme in which such Leo 
Franckels and young Wahnnanns would find room for their de- 

June 28 

Champs Elysees. 

Poverty: when you wear your winter clothes in summer. 

July 4 

Albert R’s reply, which was due today, has not come. Fortu- 
nately I did not degrade myself by excessive courtesy in my letter. 

The memorandum to the Kaiser is being given its final form. 
In this, too, I shall take care to maintain my dignity. 

July 4 

Now the novel is again very much in my thoughts, because my 
plan will probably strike everyone as fiction. 


When I am at Aussee, I shall request two months’ leave with- 
out pay and write the novel there in September and October. 

J ul Y 4 

In the novel I shall include everything that I am sorry to have 
written to Hirsch and that he may have laughingly shown around. 
My revenge will be a generous one: I am going to make a likeable 
character out of him. (I do like him, after all.) I shall glorify his 
stock market coups. He had made them without suspecting that 
they will benefit the cause which he as yet does not know about. 
Thus his figure will acquire a vague grandeur. Then there will 
be a good reversal. The Baron has misunderstood the office of 
"sovereign.” He thought that he was to become not only Presi- 
dent of the Company, but also Chief of State. That cannot be. 
No matter how great his contributions to the cause, he cannot 
become Chief of State. At that point the hero hits upon an in- 
genious solution. He says to the Baron when they are about to 
be recognized under international law: “All right, now both of 
us will retire. If we want to become part of history, we must do 
all this unselfishly. Henceforth we shall be merely observers. I 
shall so arrange it that you are offered the sovereignty — but you 
must immediately refuse it.” The Baron does not see the need 
for this, but the hero gives him to understand, in no uncertain 
terms, that this is the way it has to be. And if he did not first 
pledge himself in writing to reject the honor, he would not even 
be offered it; in fact, the hero would ruin him completely if he 
did not comply. 

At first the Baron flies into a rage; then he realizes that the 
hero is right, throws his arms about his neck, and tearfully kisses 

Then, at the coronation, the two give a symbolic spectacle of 
selflessness, and the one who has not been truly selfless outdoes 
the other in manifestations of modesty. 


J u iy 5 

Stonge- While 1 was writing the above, Hirsch’s letter, which 
I no longer expected, was on Us way to me. It arrived last nigh,. 

82 Piccadilly, W. 
July 3, 1895 

Dr. Herzl, Paris.* ...... . 

I am in receipt of your letter to which this is a somewhat tardy 

renlv However, an answer was not urgent. When I return to 

Paris' which, I may add parenthetically, will not be for several 

months I shall be delighted to see you, although without any 

change ’in the ideas which I have already expressed. 

Very sincerely yours, 
M. de Hirsch. 

My reply to Hirsch: 

Paris, July 5, 1895 

Dear Sir: 

I was greatly annoyed that you did not reply at once to the 
letter I wrote you after our conversation. That is why I informed 
you two weeks later that I had given the matter up. But after 
receiving your letter yesterday I should like to tell you how my 
decision is to be understood. I shall still try to do something for 
the Jews, but not with them. If I ventured to believe that some- 
one would understand my resolute ideas, it was you. From other 
Jews I can expect even less. The decline of our once-vigorous 
race is revealed most clearly in our political lethargy. People 
would deride me or suspect me of making God knows what busi- 
ness deals with the cause. I should have to pass through a swamp 
of disgust — and I am not ready to make this sacrifice for the 
Jews. They are incapable of understanding that a man can act 
out of other motives than money, that a man can refuse to sub 
mit to money without being a revolutionary. It follows that the 
last step, and perhaps even the most effective, that I shall take 

• In French in the original. 


will be to place the matter before the exalted personage I spoke 
to you about. He is said to be an anti-Semite, but this does not 
bother me. I have found an approach to him. Somebody is going 
to hand him my memorandum. If he then sends for me, the con- 
versation could be interesting. Unless he expressly enjoins se- 
crecy, and if anything at all in the conversation can be passed on, 
I shall tell it to you as soon as chance brings us together again. It 
is not likely to be in Paris, for I have had my fill of this city and 
have prevailed upon the publishers of my newspaper to transfer 
me to Vienna. Our conversation would have no value anyway be- 
yond the pleasure of an exchange of ideas. You stick to your views, 
and I with equal stubbornness, to mine. You believe that you can 
export poor Jews, the way you are doing it. I say that you are 
only creating new markets for anti-Semitism. Nous ne nous com- 
prendrons jamais [we shall never understand each other]. For the 
rest I do not regret having made contact with you. I found it 
most interesting to make your acquaintance. 

One more thing: I should like to clarify something that may 
have struck you. I emphasized in every letter that this matter is 
not a business to me. C’est qu’il est horriblement compromettant 
d’ecrire aux gens riches [The point is that it is terribly compro- 
mising to write to rich people]. I am well aware that a gentleman 
carefully guards or destroys the letters written to him in confi- 
dence. But the malice of things may bring it about that such a 
piece of paper falls into other hands; and if anything worries me 
it is the thought that in the course of my efforts I could lose as 
much as a shred of my good reputation. 

Therefore, keep my memory untarnished. 

Respectfully yours, 

Dr. Herzl. 

J ul Y 5 

Dined yesterday with little Wolff. He has been called up for 
military drill. I listened once again to his tales of the Dragoon- 
Guards. He doesn’t consider anti-Semitism so bad. The upper- 


class Prussians, he says, are not anti-Semites at all; they feel just 
as superior to the middle-class Gentiles as they do to the Jews. 
Thus Wolff does not notice that the upper-class people he ad- 
mires only substitute one kind of contempt for another. He is 
satisfied to be thrown in the same pot with the middle-class Gen- 
tiles and to be despised along with them. He finds it quite natural 
that he will not get an officer’s commission although he got the 
highest marks on the examinations. 

By the way, if there is one thing I should like to be, it is a mem- 
ber of the old Prussian nobility. 

July 6 

Yesterday with Nordau, over a glass of beer. Also discussed the 
Jewish question, of course. Never before had I been in such per- 
fect tune with Nordau. Each took the words right out of the 
other’s mouth. I never had such a strong feeling that we belonged 
together. This has nothing to do with religion. He even said that 
there was no such thing as a Jewish dogma. But we are of one 
race. Fiirth was also present, and I noticed a certain gene [em- 
barrassment] in his manner. I think he felt ashamed of having 
had himself baptized when he saw and heard our strong profes- 
sion of adherence to Judaism. Another point on which Nordau 
and I agreed was that only anti-Semitism had made Jews of us. 

Nordau said: "What is the tragedy of Jewry? That this most 
conservative of peoples, which yearns to be rooted in some soil, 
has had no home for the last two thousand years.” 

We agreed on every point, so that I already thought that the 
same ideas had led him to the same plan. But he comes to a dif- 
ferent conclusion: "The Jews,” he says, "will be compelled by 
anti-Semitism to destroy among all peoples the idea of a father- 
land.” Or, I secretly thought to myself, to create a fatherland of 
their own. 

Fiirth said: "It is not good for the Jews to develop such a 
strong nationalist feeling within themselves. This will only in- 
tensify the persecutions.” 


July 7, 1895 

Why has Hirsch suddenly written me again? I have two expla- 
nations for it. 

Either Fiirth casually mentioned in a letter to him that I was 
preparing a memorandum for the Kaiser. 

Or — and this seems more likely to me — my last letter, in 
which I wrote "Pull Rothschild with us or pull him down — and 
then over and across!” really struck home. 

He instructed his secretary to write me after exactly two weeks 
— so that the matter would not appear urgent. Actually, I have 
been much on his mind. 

And if he has any nose for such things he must certainly sense 
what I am bringing him. 

After all, we two are natures such as emerge at the beginning 
of a new era — he is the condottiere of money, I am the condot- 
tiere of the intellect. 

If this man goes along with me, we can really usher in a new 

July 8 

Lunched yesterday with Schiff at Ville d’Avray. We visited 
Gambetta’s house. The most remarkable thing was the death 
mask. I don’t really like Gambetta; he looks as though he were 
a relative of mine. 

Afterwards we went to the restaurant Au bord de l’Etang by 
the pond. Nine tables were occupied; at three of them I recog- 
nized Viennese Jews. That proves something. 

Schiff told me that his brother-in-law had been insulted by an 
anti-Semite on leaving the train at Kitzbiihel; as a result of that, 
so his mother-in-law had written, he was upset and hurt. 

And this sort of thing is repeated in a thousand places every 
day — yet people fail to draw any conclusion from it. 

I didn’t want to go into the matter further with Schiff, for he 
doesn’t understand me. 

No answers either from Hirsch or from Rothschild. Hirsch may 


be stalling again. But on the part of the other man, it’s just bald, 
vile arrogance. Must be repaid in kind at the first opportunity. 

J ul Y 9 

“If I were a prince or a legislator I would not waste my time 
telling what ought to be done; I would do it, or keep silent.” * 

(Rousseau, Contrat Social, Book One) 

J ul y 9 

There is a novel by Ludwig Storch, The Star of Jacob ( Der 
Jakobsstern), which deals with Sabbatai Zvi. 

July io 

Businessmen are best suited for conducting political affairs. 
But a man seldom gets rich — and wealth is the freedom of busi- 
nessmen — without having soiled himself. 

In order to be able to call on them for political services, never- 
theless, some sort of investigation of the way they have made their 
fortune would have to be instituted, on a voluntary basis. This 
would have to be done not by jealous peers, but by a political 
tribunal of honor composed of independent men from all walks of 
civil life. Often a man in public life finds it necessary, as it were, 
to permit examination of his books afterwards. 

If he does this at the start of his political activity, we shall have, 
in addition to his business sense, the near-certainty of his decent 
character. At the same time it will be ascertained what he was 
worth prior to his public service. If, subsequently, demagogues 
or intriguers throw suspicion on him, he can proudly point to 
his financial status. 

Of course, I am not thinking of this in terms of a law, but as 
a gradual moral institution. At first this idea will be carried out 
by a few reputable businessmen, then it will become more and 
more firmly established usage, and will finally be embodied in 

• In French in the original. 


legislation when enough time has elapsed for the young mer- 
chants to set this as a goal for themselves. 

After about twenty years it can become law. 

July io 

I consider money an excellent means of political evaluation, 
provided the morality of its acquisition can be established. But 
only then; for otherwise a financial standard would be absurd 
and repugnant. 

Anyone who has earned a lot of money honestly must be a very 
capable man, a clever speculator, a practical inventor, an indus- 
trious, thrifty person — all qualities eminently useful for guiding 
the state. 

Habitual speculation with stock would be grounds for disquali- 
fication. On the other hand, occasional stock deals are nothing 
dishonorable. Naturally, it is hard to draw the line — therefore, a 
tribunal of honor in each case. The person being investigated 
must, at any rate, take an oath of manifestation (under penalty 
of perjury). After all, no one will be forced to become a political 
figure. That way we shall keep the shady politicians * off our 
necks, and politics will become the goal of our cleanest and most 
capable men. 

July io 

Types for my novel, which is to contain real people: 

The “dog in the manger” (a village fiddler, a fake aesthete) 

Gamel Moishe (extremely likeable) 

The “forgotten” girl (include only one, but teach readers to 
understand them all through her; possibly have someone devise 
the dowry tax while returning from her funeral. For the excellent 
girl has missed her “natural calling” and died from it. But what 
a splendid mother she would have made! I shall call her Pauline!) 

And it is to her memory that the novel will be dedicated. 

• In English in the original. 



July 12 

Heinrich’s gushing young brother, the musician, will be 
“trained” to be a ruler in the novel. It is the hero’s long-prepared 
plan to make it up to Heinrich’s parents in this way. He chuckles 
inwardly as he tends this beautiful, useless plant, the visionary 
and dreamer with his head in the clouds. 

July 12 

A character for the novel. 

A clever swindler (a la Schapira, the bank-note splitter) who 
becomes an honest boy scout after he returns from a European 

He fled to the Seven-Hour Land, but his extradition was de- 
manded and he was returned. Before he is deported in the cus- 
tody of the police, the hero comes to see him in the prison of the 
port and sets him straight. “You will have to serve your term be- 
cause of us. But while you are in prison, think about some honest 
schemes that you will put into practice here later.” 

And the hard-hearted cheat is deeply moved. Before his de- 
parture the hero comes up to the handcuffed man and shakes his 
hand in view of everybody. A commotion. And the swindler 
quickly bends down and kisses the hero’s hand. 

In prison on the other side his conduct is excellent, so that he 
is given time off for good behavior. Then he goes back and be- 
comes an efficient, honest, ingenious businessman. 

July 12 

For the novel. 

Pastimes for the workers after working hours. They make mu- 
sic (Workers’ Orchestras). 

But the main thing: Jewish National Passion Plays from an- 
cient times (Maccabees) and the Middle Ages. Fear, pity, pride, 
and adult education in the form of diversion. 

Popularization of the amateur theatricals of high society. 

This will furnish nice chapters for the novel, comic episodes 



of the innocent little cabotinage [strolling players] in every lo- 

Circenses [entertainment] for their own sake. 
Teacher-directors will have seen models in the capital. 

July 13 

Forms of consistency: 

(At the rendezvous) 

— I have changed my mind and have come. 

— But you were going to come. 

— Yes, that was my first change of mind. 

• • # 

Letter to Giidemann: 

July »5 

Dear Doctor Giidemann, 

My last letter seems to have made you somewhat annoyed at 
me, because you did not answer it. 

But I hope we shall have an opportunity to have a direct ex- 
change of ideas about this matter which concerns us so closely, 
and at that time I shall give you an adequate explanation of 

The reason I am writing you today is the recent anti-Semitic 
riots in Vienna. I am very closely following the movement in 
Austria as well as elsewhere. These are but trifles. Things are 
going to get worse and more out of control. 

Unfortunately, nothing decisive can be done at the moment, 
although the plan, which has been carefully devised and is mild, 
prudent, and anything but violent, has been completely worked 
out. To put it into practice now, that is, with the Jews, would 
be to jeopardize it. This plan, you see, is a reserve for worse days; 
please believe me, even if I express myself in such vague terms. 
You will see and hear about it when we meet in Vienna at the 
end of the summer. 

For the present, I simply would not want this mood of annoy- 
ance to take hold of a man whom I respect, and in the midst of 


this bleak situation in which the Austrian jews find themselves 
hould like to hold out to you hope for some rebel whtch we 
younger, resolute men are preparing for our unfortunate breth- 
ren To be sure, the mean people, the cowards, and those whom 
h it money has made arrogant would be enough to sour one on 
he noble undertaking: but we must think of the poor and decern 
e « They are in the majority. We are not a chosen people, but 
lot a base one either. This is why I am on. 

Yours very sincerely, 

July *5 

Schiff has been here. 1 asked him what he thought of the anti- 
Jewish riots outside the Lanner Hall in Vienna. 

J The lews must turn Socialist!" he says obstinately. 

In vain I explained to him that this would do even less good 
in Austria than in Germany. He believes that Hungary, which 
has a liberal policy toward the Jews, is going to prevent an anti- 
Jewish reaction in Austria. How wrong he is! In Hungary the 
jews are committing the greatest error by buying up the landed 
estates. The "gentry" who are being ousted from the soil w, 
overnight make themselves the leaders of the peop e a 
upon the Jews. The liberal government is being kept in power 
quite artificially by Jewish election funds. The conservative Na- 
tional Party, with Vienna and the army behind it, can overturn 
everything from one day to the next. 

July 16 

Dined at Nordau’s party yesterday. 

It's a lucky thing for me that I’ve had no social life here. 1 
would have spent myself being scintillating at dinner parties. 

For a moment the conversation turned to Baron Hirsc . 
Nordau said: “With his money I would make myself emperor of 
South America.” 


How strange! And that time Schiff had said that I should sub- 
mit my “crazy” plan to Nordau. 

July 16 


Hero is of the blond type, blue eyes, a piercing look. 

His beloved is a Spanish Jewess, slender, dark-haired, high- 
bred. She first sees him as the captain of the ship sailing to occupy 
the land. He dreams of her in his tent. 

July 21 

Had a good letter from Giidemann today. I am immediately 
writing him as follows: 

My Dear Friend: 

Permit me to address you thus after receiving your letter, 
which is a joy to me. 

I see now that my eyes did not deceive me when I saw in you 
one of the right people that I need. Now I will give you a little 
more information about why I recalled my letter. That was done 
in a terrible fit of demoralization caused by a local friend, the 
first and only person in whom I have confided my plan so far. 
When I showed him the letter which I had sent you the day 
before, he said to me: “Giidemann will think you crazy; he will 
go to your father right away, and your parents will be unhappy. 
By doing this you are making yourself either ridiculous or 
tragic . . .” Only when you know everything that I have in mind 
— and you will learn it, for I now feel your Jewish, manly heart 
beating next to mine — will you understand what a severe crisis 
I went through, after the tremendous birthpangs with which the 
plan had been born, when my loyal and devoted friend said this 
to me. I am ready and able to stake my life on the Jewish cause, 
but I must confine the sacrifice to my person. That would not 
be the case if people considered me “meshugge [crazy].” It 
would spoil my parents’ last years and ruin my children’s future. 

Naturally, I did not consider myself crazy just because my 


friend, who is a good man but lives in confining circumstances 
and is not an outstanding intellect, did not understand me. But 
I had to tell myself: He represents the average educated Jew. 
He knows me, has confidence in me, respects and loves me; if he 
feels that way, what must the others say! He showed me how thick 
the wall is against which I want to beat my head . . . Therefore 
it can’t be done the way I was going to do it. And so I recalled 
that letter. 

But I did not abandon the matter. I thought about other ways 
of putting the plan into practice. 

There are two of them. The first is a memorandum to the 
Kaiser. An acquaintance of mine offers me a possibility of having 
this memorandum transmitted to him. 

But this acquaintance would not be able to do this before the 
middle of August. At the end of this month I am going to Aussee 
where I shall spend my vacation. Perhaps a better way to reach 
the Kaiser will present itself to me there. I once had some cor- 
respondence on a problem of social legislation with the presi- 
dent of the Austrian Chamber of Deputies, Baron Chlumecky. 
He is in Aussee. If I can explain my plan to him, maybe he will 
introduce me to Imperial Chancellor Hohenlohe, who can then 
take me to the Kaiser. 

If I don’t get to him, there remains to me the last form of 
implementation: the fictional kind. 

I shall tell the Jews didactic fairy-tales which they will under- 
stand gradually, in five, ten, or twenty years. I shall put seeds 
into the earth. That is lovely, apt, and worthy of a poet. Only 
I fear that by the time the seeds sprout, everyone will have 

Yes indeed, it would pain me to have to do this, for my plan 
is no fantasy. 

Now I have your letter. Only when you know everything will 
you realize how you have guessed my innermost thoughts and 
I have guessed yours. And, no! We are not isolated cases. All 
Jews think as we do! I have faith in the Jews, I, w'ho used to be 


lukewarm and am not a religious man even now! Les coups que 
nous recevons nous font une conviction [the blows we receive 
give us conviction]. 

Enough of talking. If you had written me in this vein sooner, 
we would be one month ahead. 

What you write me about Dr. Heinrich Meyer-Cohn makes 
me long to meet this man immediately. Immediately! It may 
be in the highest interest of our cause that I get together with 
you and Meyer-Cohn before I go to the reshoim. Could you find 
out by telegram where he is now, and could the three of us meet 
somewhere at the end of this week? After your letter and the por- 
trayal you have given me of M.-C., I want very badly to speak 
with both of you. I suggest some place in Switzerland, such as 
Zurich. In Austria you and I are too well known. We would run 
into acquaintances everywhere. At the moment I do not want 

Zurich is a well-situated central point. After your letter I no 
longer doubt that you will make the small sacrifice of money and 
time that this trip will entail. You can tell the head of your 
congregation — that is, if you must give any reasons for a short 
absence — that you have to meet Meyer-Cohn in Zurich to give 
him some important information. 

You have already shocked me once — when you did not want 
to come to Caux right away the time I summoned you in the 
service of the Jewish cause (!) To be sure, you must have been 
surprised at first when the author of comedies and writer of 
feuilletons wanted to speak about serious matters. Do you be- 
lieve me now? Do you already sense from my every word that 
I have important, decisive things to say? 

I don’t need the rich Jews — but I need men! Donnenuetter 
[damn it], they are hard to find! And that was my crisis which my 
good friend had brought about. For a moment I despaired of the 
possibility of finding any men among the Jews. The crisis is over 
now; I had already overcome it before your letter arrived, be- 
cause every day I pay close attention to the sufferings of our 


brethren in all countries. I think that such oppression must make 
m _ n oUt 0 f even the most degenerate riff-raff. What has been lack- 
in „ hitherio is a plan. Such a plan has been found! 

j am say ing this in all humility— believe me. Anyone who 
thinks of himself in such a matter does not deserve to be engaged 

in Get Meyer-Cohn to Zurich and go there yourself! I shall leave 
here on Thursday or Saturday evening and be there the fol- 
lowing morning. I authorize you to send this letter to Meyer- 
Cohn if he hesitates. But if he hesitates, he won’t be the person 
that you have described. 

I am taking on the case of Bloch, and you can tell him so. 
But no one except you and Meyer-Cohn should see this letter. 

To get the money for Bloch will be an easy matter. I am 
acquainted with Hirsch, and if I drop him a line, I am con- 
vinced that he will immediately give what is needed. At the 
moment, to be sure, relations between Hirsch and me are a bit 
strained, because in my last letter I used some more explicit 
language than this man, who is accustomed to beggars, parasites, 
and aristocratic sponges, can stand. Yet there is no doubt but 
that he will give the required money without thinking twice 
about it if I ask it for Bloch, because he is already aware that I 
should not be capable of asking anything for myself. But even 
without Hirsch, Bloch will be taken care of— you can depend 
on that. Of course, I only know Bloch s unpleasant side, the evi- 
dences of his lack of taste, but the fact that you consider him 
necessary is enough for me. 

Awaiting your acceptance by telegram, I remain, with cordial 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. Herzl. 

July 21 

Telegram to Giidemann: 

Thanks for kind letter. Wire immediately requesting Meyer- 
Cohn’s whereabouts. We three must definitely meet end of this 

week, perhaps in Zurich. Please get ready for departure. Details 
by letter. Regards, 


July 22 

In the Austrian Beer Hall, Herrschkowitz (Hercovici) came 
to my table. 

I had him describe the situation of the Rumanian Jews to me. 
Horrible. There are 400,000 in the country; most of the families 
have been living there for centuries and still have no civil rights. 
Each person must first apply to the Chamber of Deputies for 
these rights after he has completed his military service, and his 
application may be rejected by secret vote. 

Since 1867 there have been only two major pogroms. H. was 
a witness to the one in Galatz. Hundreds of Jews were driven 
into the Danube by soldiers under the pretext that they were to 
board Austrian ships. They were not let on board, and so they 
were drowned. The exact number is not even known. 

From time to time the peasants do some looting. 

The situation is also bad for the Jews where making a living 
is concerned. Three per cent of them are artisans, the rest are 
storekeepers, and the educated men are almost invariably physi- 

The merchants suffer from lack of business. Old firms are col- 
lapsing. The bankruptcy lists are full of Jewish names, and, 
what’s more, all Jewish bankruptcies are believed to be fraudu- 
lent and the ruined people are locked up. When they get out of 
jail, they are broken men and go begging. 

Many of them emigrate, to Argentina, etc.! But frequently 
they come back. 

(. Parbleu [Aha]! They haven’t got my homeland there yet.) 

The Jews in Rumania are a sturdy lot, says H. Fine, fine. 


July 22 

Pangloss: “the best of all possible worlds! ” * 

“Let us work without arguing, says Martin, that s the only 

wav of making life bearable. 

(Voltaire, Candide, end of Chapter XXX) 

“Very well,” says Candide, “but, most of all, let us cultivate our 

garden " * (ibu) 

July 22 

Note on national psychology. 

In the Taverne Royale there are several managers who are 
actually super-waiters. A clever arrangement! When one of these 
super-waiters, who does not wear a waiter’s jacket, hands a plate 
to a guest, the latter feels flattered, honored. I have noticed this 
in my own case. In the same way, our emigrants, too, shall be 
given “courteous service.” Jews are starved for Koved [honor], 
being a despised people; and by catering to it, one can lead them. 

July 23 

Prophylactic quinine! 

Official distribution and administration while standing in line. 
The quinine must be taken daily in the presence of the health 

Greatest sanitary precautions in transit and on the other side. 
Move very rapidly through fever regions. In such areas, have 
necessary work on railways, roads, and, later, swamp drainage 
(Maremma) done by natives who are used to the climate. Other- 
wise deaths will be puffed up and demoralize the people who, as 
it is, will be afraid of the floorless water and the unknown. Old 
prisoners don’t like to leave prison. They have to be coaxed and 
all obstacles inside and outside them have to be cleared away. 

• These three sentences are quoted in French by Herzl. 


July 23 

Blockheads must not be given any explanations! 

My grandfather, Haschel Diamant, was a wise man. He used 
to say: Never give a kush [kiss] to a miesse maad [homely girl]. 

Such a warning may seem superfluous, for this would promise 
no pleasure. But the meaning is this: don’t kiss a homely woman 
out of pity, or because you expect her to be faithful, for she will 
become presumptuous and then there will be no getting rid of 

July 23 

I have thought of preventing peddling through legal restric- 
tions and police heckling (no voting rights, etc.). Only in the 
European states would this be something cruel, a pushing into 
the water like the Galatz pogrom. We, however, will not push 
a peddler into the water that way, but onto firm ground! 

How is this to be attained? Through favoring the big stores 
(a la Louvre, Bon-March£). 

Principle: always destroy harmful elements by favoring their 

The favoring of the Louvre stores will not be unconditional, 
of course. At the outset the entrepreneur will have to guarantee 
profit-sharing and old-age benefits as well as education for his 
employees’ children (to the extent that the State has not made 
provisions for this). 

Mass industry as well as mass trade must be handled along 
patriarchal lines. 

The entrepreneur will be the patriarch. 

To be considered whether such a stipulation should be 
specifically embodied in a law; or whether an indirect policy 
should be pursued in this, too, through honoring the patriarch 
in various ways. 

Laws are easier to circumvent than customs. 

Possibly a combination of both: a legal minimum of public 



welfare (on account of profiteers and those devoid of a sense of 
honor) and an indirect policy, pour encourager les efforts [to en- 

courage efforts]. 

July 23 

To the bickerers, hatemongers, and grumblers. 

In the next twenty years we shall have no time to fight among 
ourselves. That will come at a later date. For the present, let 
anyone who feels like fighting and has enough courage do battle 

against our enemies. . , „ , .. 

Wranglers should be declared public enemies. We shall deliver 
them up to the hatred of our people. 

July 23 

The capital city, our treasure-trove, will be in a location pro- 
tected by mountains (fortresses on the tops), on a beautiful river, 
with forests nearby. 

Take care that the site is protected from the wind, but not a 
sun bowl, guarded by mountains, but not too small. 

Prevent the hypertrophic development of the capital through 
a belt of forests which must not be cut down. In addition, de- 
centralization of educational institutions, etc. 

July 23 

In the process of transplantation, have careful consideration 
for all local customs. 

Salzstangel* coffee, beer, customary meat, etc., are not indif- 
ferent matters. 

Moses forgot to take along the flesh pots of Egypt. We shall 
remember them. 

• Translator’s note: A sort of breadstick, strongly flavored with salt and caraway 


July 23 

The transplantation of the big department stores will immedi- 
ately supply us with all necessary and not-so-necessary goods, 
which will make the cities habitable in a very short time. 

July 23 

Full autonomy for the communities in all parish-pump politics. 
Let the gabbers play parliament to their heart’s content. 

But only one Chamber of Deputies which cannot overthrow 
the government but only deny it particular resources. This will 
suffice for a public control. 

One-third of this Chamber will be named by the ruler upon 
the recommendation of the government (a life-time appoint- 
ment, for only nobility and property will be hereditary). 

Another third will be elected by the learned academies, the 
universities, schools of art and technology, chambers of commerce, 
and trade associations. 

The final third will be elected by the community councils 
(an election commission to examine authorizations), or perhaps 
by the provinces after a scrutiny of voting lists. 

The ruler will name the government. It remains to be con- 
sidered, however, how the ruler’s arbitrariness may be kept in 
check. For, since the Chamber is not supposed to overthrow the 
government, a ruler could surround himself with straw men. 
Perhaps this three-fold composition of the Chamber will suffice 
to prevent the abuses of the Palais Bourbon, and the Chamber 
could be given the right to overthrow the government. 

To be considered carefully and discussed with state jurists. 

July 23 

Will the Jews subject themselves to the predetermined Con- 

Quite simple: whoever wants to be naturalized must take an 
oath to support this Constitution and submit to the laws. There 
will be no compulsion to become naturalized. 


July 24 

A peculiar letter came from Giidemann: he says he cannot 
travel, on account of a “stomach upset. 

Is it possible that I again misunderstood his “good" letter? 
Could his fighting spirit, the kind that satisfied me, have been 

due to an indigestible Pfefjerkugel? * 

By the way, he has wired me that I shall receive a letter from 

him tomorrow. I will wait for that. 

July 24 

Beer was here. 

Had a long discussion with him about “Beerite.” It makes 
possible quick construction, replaces the plaster between bricks, 
and can even be used for cementing glass bricks, such as are now 
used in America. Such houses— iron construction, glass bricks— 
ought to be finished and habitable in two months. “Beerite” 
dries in two days, yet the houses look impressive faced with this 
material. “Beerite” will also be used for the statues of public 
gardens, and soon. 

The genuine, monumental things will come later. 

Beer also has ideas on the paving of streets. 

July 24 

I should like to have wood-block paving in the cities. We shall 
lay out our streets differently from the way the old cities do it. 
We shall make them hollow to begin with and put the necessary 
pipes, wires, etc. into the cavity. That way we shall save our- 
selves the trouble of tearing them up later. 

July 24 

Beer will come along on the expedition to take the land. On 
the boat we shall dress for dinner, just as we want to have ele- 
gance on the other side as soon as possible. 

• A spicy baked dish. 


The purpose of this: the Jews shall not get the impression that 
they are moving out into the desert. 

No, this migration will take place in the mainstream of cul- 
ture. We shall remain part of civilization while we are migrating. 
After all, we don’t want a Boer state, but a Venice. 

July 24 

In the Constitution, which is to have only the small elasticity 
of a rubber hose the thickness of an arm, care must be taken that 
the aristocracy does not degenerate into tyranny and presumption. 
The hereditary nobility is not our kind of aristocracy. Among us 
any great person can become an aristocrat. (Money is a good 
criterion if it has been established that it was acquired honestly.) 

Another thing that is to be prevented is a policy of future con- 
quest. New Judea shall reign only by the spirit. 

July 25, in the evening 

Received another lukewarm letter from Giidemann. I am 
answering him as follows: 

My Dear Friend, 

We shall stick to this form of address, if you don’t mind. Its 
advantage, apart from the pleasure and the honor, is that I can 
tell you my opinion more clearly with all due respect. I shall 
not dwell on the contradiction between your letters of the 17th 
and the 23rd of this month. In one letter you are “bold as Wil- 
liam Tell.” The next time you are exaggeratedly timid. That will 
not do. 

You don’t want to “flirt” with me, do you, like a woman who 
charms and then withdraws? 

Where the Jewish cause is concerned I am not to be trifled 

To be sure, you cannot know what I have in mind. 

Why do I not tell you, then? After all, if my idea is a sensible 
one, that is, simple and comprehensible, I ought to be able to 
express it in a few sentences. I can, too, dear doctor; I simply don’t 


want to. Because it is not just a matter of the idea itself, i.e., 
the logical end result which is and must be a universal idea if 
it is not to be regarded as the isolated thought of a madman or 
that of a genius, an idea centuries ahead of its time. I am prob- 
ably not a madman and, alas, certainly not a genius. I am a man 
of my time who has both feet firmly on the ground; that is why 
I asked you — if you still recall — to bring a businessman with you 
to Caux. So it is not simply a question of the conclusion, but of 
the whole long chain of reasoning. It has taken me many weeks of 
extremely hard work to get this ethno-psychological, economic, 
juridical, and historical documentation down on paper. This I 
cannot crowd into a letter without mutilating it. After all, I want 
to make myself understood and not the reverse. 

My local friend did not understand me. Was it my fault? Who 
knows? When I asked him, after he had given me his criticism, 
“Then what is your idea of a remedy?” he replied: “The Jews 
have to join the Socialist movement!” In my opinion, that would 
be as nonsensical as Socialism itself. He also thought that the 
anti-Semites would have to be killed, something that I should 
consider as unjust as it would be impracticable. 

Do you still believe blindly that my friend is right in his at- 
titude toward me? 

He still remains my friend, just as you will remain my friend, 
I hope, even if if you don’t understand me — just as all decent 
Jews are my friends. 

But I will have nothing to do with the milksops, the shits, 
and the s.o.b.’s with or without money. 

Please be assured that I greatly appreciate your truly friendly 
concern about my career. I can set your mind at ease. My career 
and my ability to provide for my family are not in danger. I 
think you are not judging my relationship to the Neue Freie 
Presse correctly. I can leave it whenever I please without doing 
myself harm. It is true that if I then looked for a position nearly 
as good on another paper, I would be in a bad way. But if I 
quit my job, I would become the head man on a newspaper, 
namely my own. That is the situation. 


Incidentally, I have nothing of the sort in mind. I am just 
as amicably devoted to my publishers as they are to me, I hope. 

I have a deep affection especially for Bacher, although I have 
had few dealings with him. He is a real manl 

To show you how little my plan will put me in opposition to 
the N.Fr.Pr . — its fairy-tale version, which I mentioned to you 
in my last letter, is to appear in the N.Fr.Pr. if the plan cannot be 
put into operation. 

Does this set your mind at rest? 

But it is no fairy-tale as yet, and neither you nor Meyer-Cohn 
can make it one. Nevertheless, I shall gladly confer with you, 
listen to your objections, and then see what I have to do. 

You will evaluate my thoughts and I shall evaluate yours — 
that is the purpose of our meeting. It can take place wherever 
you wish — excepting Vienna and vicinity. This I specifically 
don’t want. 

Linz would be all right with me. But never have three strangers 
arrived there at the same time. In that capital of anti-Semitism 
we would attract too much attention. Wouldn’t you rather 
designate the tourist center Salzburg as the place for our get- 
together? The difference in time and money is really trifling. 
Also, this would favor Meyer-Cohn a bit. 

That is why I first thought of Zurich. 

To be sure, I had another reason for wanting to meet with 
you two as early as the day after tomorrow. You see, the Jews of 
Berlin are at present doing something that doesn’t please me. 
I had hoped to convince you and then have Meyer-Cohn take 
some immediate action. It is certainly tormenting not to be able 
to do anything about an error which one recognizes as such. But 
one error, one piece of stupidity, one act of negligence more 
or less, will not matter in the history of our people’s sufferings. 

You will have to be the one to extend the invitation to Meyer- 
Cohn to come to either Linz or Salzburg. I cannot do it. I am 
not acquainted with him and he may never have heard my name. 
You are definitely qualified to do it, and I am counting on you 
to act without delay. Have Bloch give you his address, under 


whatever pretext. Bloch must not know about our meeting any 
more than anyone else. This conference must take place in an 
atmosphere of quiet. 

I shall leave here on Saturday evening, and on Monday I 

shall be at Villa Fuchs, Aussee, Styria. 

Don’t hesitate, dear doctor. At the very least, you must be 
curious by now about what I may have to say. 

Write to Meyer-Cohn immediately. When I say that I am not 
acquainted with him, what I mean is that I know nothing about 
him don’t know what he looks like, etc. Do not consider that 
odd; knowing a man provides guidance for a correct epistolary 
style A letter is the summoning up of a certain will, and for this 
I need an approximate idea of what the possessor of this will is 
like, otherwise I grope in the dark and write a confused letter, 
i.e., one that is not suited to summoning up his will. 

When I was preparing my memorandum to the German 
Kaiser, I very attentively studied various photographs of him, 
read his speeches critically, thoroughly examined his actions. 
Have no fear: when I address the memorandum to him, from the 
first moment I shall so grip him that he will not throw it into the 

wastepaper basket. 

For I am not a babbler and I despise drivellers. Literature, 
to me, is only a form, a hieroglyphics with large characters, which 
serves me as these small and ordinary letters flowing from my 
pen serve me— to express my ideas. When I learned the big 
writing, the literary kind, I did not know of what use it would 
be to me, just as I did not know it when I learned how to write 
as a child. I know it now. 

Leave it to ignoramuses and blockheads, then, to distrust 
a writer. There is no madness in creative writing itself. The im- 
portant thing is the idea which the big writing puts on paper; 
if it is sound and clear, the only ridiculous elements will be the 
doubters. And a man’s doubting can even make him a tragic 
figure, because in delaying or frustrating the relief of his brethren 

he will also delay or frustrate his own. 

To stand by idly and watch when a house is on fire is certainly 


more insane than to rush up with a modem fire engine. And 
that is what I want to do. 

So immediately write Meyer-Cohn a beautiful letter like the 
one of the 17 th, not of the 23 rd. I hope that your indisposition 
has cleared up nicely by now. Should it be difficult for you at 
present to write Meyer-Cohn a letter setting forth the necessity 
for a trip to Salzburg (rather than Linz, as I have said), then send 
him my letters. Now as before, no one except Meyer-Cohn may 
read these letters, and he may read them only because I want to 
tell him everything, just as I have told you. 

You ask whether I have childbed fever again. What faulty med- 
ical terminology I This fever one only has once, right after giving 
birth. I had it because I was so terribly overworked, writing down 
details for weeks from early morning until late at night in addi- 
tion to my daily work, and then, in a state of exhaustion, putting 
all these details into an orderly sequence with iron-clad logical 

Then came the friend who absolutely failed to understand me. 

Now all that is finished. The bleeding has been stopped. The 
uterus has resumed its normal position and its ordinary size. So 
there is no danger. 

And do you know how I got over the attack of doubt? Again, 
by working; once again I worked hard all day, for the newspaper, 
as well as doing work of my own. 

Farewell! In Aussee 1 shall soon be expecting an invitation to 
Salzburg (if worst comes to worst, to Linz) for the fifth, the sixth, 
or the seventh of August. Fabius delayed in the face of his ene- 
mies, but one doesn’t play Cunctator toward one’s friends. 

With cordial regards, 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. Herzl. 

July 26 , in the afternoon 

Just rode past Hirsch in the street. I am writing him, even 
though reluctantly. But it may be useful. 

Dear Sir: 

We just rode past each other in the street. From this I draw 
the brilliant conclusion that you are in town. I myself am leaving 
for Austria tomorrow evening. It may be some time before we 
shall be in the same place again. Would you like to become 
acquainted with my perfected plan? It goes without saying: with- 
out interrupting me again. 

On the 6th of August I shall meet in Salzburg with two stal- 
wart Jews, a Viennese and a Berliner. I want to submit to them 
my memorandum to the roshe before I send it off. I shall consult 
with these older people to see whether some things that could 
be harmful to the Jews should not be deleted. 

If you want to be in on this, write me a line and I shall drop 
in on you for an hour or so before I leave. 

If you don’t, don’t. 

Respectfully yours, 

July 27 

Hirsch did not reply. 

I am writing him the following farewell letter which I may 
mail in Basel tomorrow: 

Dear Sir: 

It is part of the Jewish misfortune that you refused to be 

I saw in you a useful tool for the important cause, voila pour- 
quoi j’ai insiste outre mes habitudes [this is why I insisted be- 
yond my wont]. 

The legend in circulation about you is obviously false. You 
engage in the Jewish cause as a sport. Just as you make horses 
race, you make Jews migrate. And this is what I protest against 
most sharply. A Jew is not a plaything. 

No, no, you are not interested in the cause. Elle est bien bonne, 
et j’y ai cru un instant [It is very nice and I believed it for a 


For that reason it was an excellent thing that I wrote you 
once more from Paris and that you did not honor me with a reply. 
Now any error is out of the question. Some jackass must have 
told you that I am only a pleasant dreamer, and you believed 
it. When men talk about serious business they do not use any 
polite phrases. Let this serve as an explanation if I have shocked 
you by the violent way I have expressed myself. 

And so I beg to remain 

Very respectfully yours, 
Dr. Herzl. 

July 27 

And today I am leaving ParisI 

One book of my life is ending. 

A new one is beginning. 

Of what kind? 

July 29 

On the way I changed my mind and did not mail the letter 
to Hirsch. Perhaps the man can still be included in the combina- 
tion at some later date. I must subordinate my indignation and 
my self-love to the cause. Besides, they forwarded me a letter 
from him in which he makes excuses on account of his own de- 
parture. He says he would like to continue the discussion about 
it in late autumn. In late autumn! Finished! 

Zell am See. 

The curse must be taken off money. 

July 29 

July 29 

Get the soil tilled by renting a farm for half the produce and 
giving the equipment on credit; after a short period (possibly 
three years) this rental will become ownership. The debt for 
the machinery will be liquidated. Later, we shall have a tax on 



the land. Election of the ruler (for life). 

Immediately after the ruler dies (or is rendered incapable 
by insanity or incompetence), within twenty-four hours each 
community will choose an elector. These electors must meet at 
the place of election within the time it takes to reach the capital 
from the remotest point in the country. The election is to take 
place in a sort of Versailles, so as to make it independent of 
public pressure. 

The meetings of the legislature will be presided over by the 
President of the Chamber who will direct all preparations (mili- 
tary, etc.). 

The electors will not be deputies, but their votes will count 
the same as the deputies’ in the election of the ruler. Continue 
balloting around the clock, narrowing it down until one man 
has a two-thirds majority. 

During the interregnum the Prime Minister will be responsible 
to the President of the Chamber. 

Soldiers will be eligible for election only after they have been 
inactive for at least one year. 

July 29 

Zell am See. 

In a bath-house. The walls full of anti-Semitic inscriptions. 
Many answered or crossed out by upset Jewish boys. 

One reads as follows: 

O Gott, schick dock den Moses wieder, 

Auf dass er seine Stammesbriider 
Wegfiihre ins gelobte Land. 

1st dann die ganze Judensippe 
Erst drinnen in des Meeres Mitte, 

Dann , Herr, o mach die Klappe zu 
Und alle Christen haben Ruh. 

[O God, won’t you send Moses again to lead the members of his 
tribe away into the Promised Land. Then, when the whole Jewish 
clan is right in the middle of the sea, O close the lid, Lord, and 
all Christians will have peace.] 


August 2 


In the last few days a frequent exchange of telegrams with 

Meyer-Cohn has been in Vienna. Our rendezvous was sup- 
posed to take place at Salzburg within the next few days. Giide- 
mann shows a lot of zeal and willingness. I think I have the right 
helper in him. 

Unfortunately he has not been able to get Meyer-Cohn for 
our meeting, because he has to go to Posen “on account of a 
distribution of shares.” 

I hope that is not the Argentinian one! 

I am answering Giidemann as follows: 

Dear Friend, 

I wouldn’t have a sound conception of the stress and strain 
of real life if I expected that everything will and could go the 
way I want it to right away. 

The only thing that can discourage me is the stupidity, cow- 
ardice, and meanness of my fellow Jews. And I want to help even 
the intellectually and morally deficient ones. 

But now, unless my eyes deceive me, I have already found a 
stalwart ally, although you don’t even know what I want. Just 
have confidence in me, my dear, honored friend! You will see 
soon enough to what a noble and exalted cause I am summoning 

When I received your wire yesterday, saying that Meyer-Cohn 
is not coming and therefore you do not want to come either, I 
was, to be sure, a bit vexed, although not too much so. My an- 
noyance was directed at the regrettable fact that a helper on 
whom I had already counted was dropping out. 

Then I went out. On the street I overheard people talking 
about a small, everyday incident: there had just been a scene 
on the Promenade in which someone had yelled “Dirty Jew.” 
Such a scene apparently occurs in a thousand places in the world 
every day. You know this as well as I do. 


And you can imagine with what scornful bitterness I note 
this sort of thing, because my closely guarded idea contains the 
remedy. Nevertheless, this idea will not be got out of me until 
the right moment which I am awaiting with all necessary coolness 

and firmness. . 

However, your letter which arrived today again holds out to 

me the prospect that we need not give up Meyer-Cohn. Now I 
make you a new proposal which I ask you to pass on to M.-C. 
I owe it to my self-respect not to write him before he has written 
me. For, after all, my last letters to you were indirectly addressed 

to him too. 

You as well as M.-C. are completely on the wrong track if you 
think that I want to direct a request for protection to the German 
Kaiser. All misconceptions of this kind are due to the fact that 
you would like to guess the things that I am minded to tell only 
orally and with a comprehensive explanation. 

Patience! Be patient, but do not tarry, honored friend. 

Since M.-C. is ready to counsel with us, but faces obstacles, 
we must meet him half-way. My suggestion is that we make an- 
other rendezvous with him. It could be in Zurich, but need not 
be. In Munich, Frankfort, as far as I am concerned, any place and 
any time— but certainly within the next two weeks. You already 
know what I intend to initiate here in Aussee if I cannot get any 
Jewish helpers. It will not be my fault if people let me proceed by 
myself and make mistakes which could have been prevented by 
consultation. The totality of my plan is right— that is my pro- 
found conviction. 

I long ago gave up thinking of Salo. 

Please send me M.-C.’s article in the Wochenschrift. It will 
be useful for me to try to recognize the make-up of his mind 
from it. 

Expecting to hear from you soon and with cordial regards, 

Yours sincerely, 


August 4 

Spoke with a Viennese lawyer. 

He said: “If you don’t attend any election rallies you don’t 
notice anything.” 

The people are especially enraged against the Liberals, he said. 
They cheer Lueger and Friebeis (the latter is the district council- 
lor who is now replacing the suspended municipal councillor). 

I explained to the attorney that if this temporary suspension 
of the Constitution can be repeated once or twice more without 
a fight, it will lead to the complete scrapping of the Constitution, 
with a subsequent change, or, rather, the formation of a new 
Constitution from which the Jews will be left out. 

Then I talked to two physicians from Pest who found it 
wonderful the way Hungary treated its Jews. 

I explained to them the enormous mistake which the Jews of 
Hungary make by acquiring real estate. They already own more 
than half the immovable property. In the long run the people 
cannot possibly put up with such a conquest by the makk-hetes 
zsidd [low class Jew]. Only through a terrorizing force of arms 
can an identifiable minority, which is alien to the people and not 
famous historically like the old aristocracy, retain possession of 
all privileges. 

It is common knowledge that only recently the Jews have been 
the opposite of an honored aristocracy. 

The liberal government, which is apparently based on election 
promises and coalitions, can be swept away by a coup de main, 
and then overnight Hungary will have anti-Semitism in its most 
virulent form. 

August 4 

Kohn the cabinet-maker in Ausseel 

Last year I was glad when I saw the Jewish wood-carver in the 
house across the street. I regarded that as the “solution.” 

This year I have returned. Kohn has enlarged his house, added 
a wooden veranda, has summer tenants, no longer works him- 

self. In five years he will be the richest man in town and hated 

f °This UHtow hatred is produced by our intelligence. 

August 5 

Received a letter lightly tinged with irony from Giidemann. 

I am answering 


Yon are, of course, free to regard me as an operetta general. 
To me your remark proves only that I was right m the first place 
,o consider correspondence as inappropriate. Today by the way, I 
am following your advice and writing M.-C directly, asking him 
whether he is willing to meet with me in Munich or somewhere 
else. When the two of us have arranged a get-together I shall ask 
vou by wire whether you want to participate in it. If you then 
exclude yourself, I shall regret it, and possibly so will you, later. 

M C 's article is a good one. But what use is all the philosophy 
ins? In this matter the watchword is -primum vivere [first Tive]l 
deindc [then], if it is absolutely necessary, philosophan [philoso- 
phize] is all right with me too. 

With kindest regards, 

Yours sincerely, 

Letter to Doctor Heinrich Meyer-Cohn of August 5: 

Dear Sir: . 

Dr. Giidemann has written me about you and told you about 

me. I believe you are also acquainted with the letters that 1 
have written him. Therefore I can be brief. Would you like to 
meet with me somewhere within the next two weeks? I leave it 
to you to determine the place. It would mean a great deal to me 
to have Dr. Giidemann participate in our discussion. As I can 
tell from his letters, it is hard to get him to take a long trip. But 
he could perhaps be induced to go to Munich. For the present 


must ask you to believe that I have really serious things to say. 
From your willingness to make the sacrifice of a small trip for 
the Jewish cause I shall recognize that you are the right man in 
whom to confide my thoughts and plans avant la lettre [before 
writing them down]. 

What my intentions are I shall tell you only in person, or not 
at all. Idle chatter in letters is no more in my line than the 
spoken kind. It would be useless to ask me to give you a hint in 
advance. I shall only clear up your mistaken notion which Giide- 
mann pointed out to me: I am not considering a request for pro- 
tection. I am seeking and finding the solution within ourselves. 
For this I need suitable Jews. If you are one, fine! If you aren’t, 
you aren’t! 

I have had your article in the Wochenschrift sent to me. May 
I, now that I am addressing you directly, be permitted a judge- 
ment? Your article is excellent and sensible — but philosophizing 
won’t lure a pig out of the clover. Fix the time and place, then; 
take into consideration the fact that we need Giidemann. As soon 
as I hear from you, I shall communicate with Giidemann by tele- 
gram and try to get him there. 

With respectful greetings. 

Yours sincerely, 
Dr. Th. H. 

August 6 

I am just reading Bloch’s Wochenschrift. 

He is engaging in a theological tussle with the anti-Semites, 
medieval style, like that rabbi with the Capuchin monk. 

. . that both of them stink!” * 

Of course, an out-and-out Jewish paper is needed. 

But it would have to be a modem one. 

Bloch could be used for Galicia, at any rate. He is acquainted 
with the local atmosphere and would know how to talk to the 

• Translator's Note: This is the last line in Heinrich Heine’s poem ''Disputa- 


The miscellaneous news column in his paper is ghastly: There 
are persecutions like that every week, every dayl 

August 6 

Spoke with old Simon, the president of the Vienna Jewish 
Community. My words visibly inspired him. Of course I told 
him only the negative things, and that the rich Jews must be 
destroyed if they lead lives of avarice, epicureanism, and vanity, 
while the poor are being persecuted. 

August 7 

Received a letter from Meyer-Cohn. The letter is a good one. 
I am wiring him: 

Thanks for letter. I wrote you the day before yesterday. Please 
do your utmost to arrange a meeting soon, anywhere. 

Let us communicate about this by telegram. 



August 10 

Yesterday received a letter from Giidemann in which he ex- 
cuses himself for the ironic tone of his next-to-last letter. 

No word from Meyer-Cohn. 

I am writing him as follows: 

Dear Sir: 

I was very pleased with your letter which arrived on August 7. 
But unfortunately I did not receive the notification which I asked 
you to send me by telegram. Permit me therefore to tell you one 
final time what it is all about. 

To the extent that I can give information in writing I have 
already given it to you directly and through Dr. Giidemann in- 
directly. I should like to submit my plan to Jews of integrity: 
that means that I am ready to listen to sensible advice concerning 


the expansion or limitation of my plans. I shall probably not find 
two men like you and Giidemann so easily. I cannot spend much 
time looking, either. Certain qualities of character and intellect 
must be there, and these I may presuppose in you two. But it is 
not enough that you wish to meet with me; it must be soon, too. 
It is true, nothing in the Jewish cause, which has been dragged 
out for so many centuries, would seem to justify my haste, and 
that might even give you pause. But I have practical reasons for 
hurrying. Didn’t Dr. Giidemann tell you that here in Aussee I 
want to try to become acquainted with Imperial Chancellor 
Hohenlohe through Chlumecky, the President of the Austrian 
Chamber of Deputies, and thus gain access to the Kaiser? And 
should I find this impossible, I will immediately start on the lit- 
erary elaboration of my plan. 

Upon Giidemann’s provisional advice I first wanted, and still 
want, to confide in you two in all modesty. After all, you have 
as much at stake in the matter as I, and you are my natural friends 
and advisors. You must also consider that I would not dare idly 
to put you to the trouble of a trip. This means that I have serious 
and important things to say. Do not let me go on alone. I should 
do so reluctantly, but I should do it finally. Consider that I shall 
need some time to get the matter rolling with and through 
Chlumecky, and that I must put the remaining twenty days of 
my stay in Aussee to the best possible use. 

Oblige me by telegraphing me your reply soon. Pick a time 
and a place for our meeting, with regard for Dr. Giidemann who 
is not so mobile. It would be downright painful to me if I were 
disappointed in my expectation of being able to go hand in hand 
with you. 

With respectful greetings, 

Yours very sincerely, 
Dr. Th. H. 

August 10 

Talked with Dr. F. of Berlin. He is for baptism. He wants to 
make the sacrifice for the sake of his son. Tsk, tsk. I explained to 

him that there are other low-down ways in which one can make 

it easier for one s son to get ahead. 

He will apparently be baptized as soon as h.s rich father-in-law 
k dead The only thing he forgets is that if five thousand like him 
become baptized, the watchword will simply be changed to •'Dirt, 

August 13 

In the Kurpark I talked again with old Simon and two other 
elderly Jews. I outlined all my premises for them, seemingly with- 
out premeditation, but naturally not my conclusion. Again I was 
able to notice that I have the power to stir people. These are 
only old men, slow-moving and made apathetic by their wealth. 
And yet I can feel their souls emitting sparks when I strike on 

th The young men, to whom I want to give a whole future, I 

shall of course carry by storm. 

In the afternoon Meyer-Cohn’s letter arrived. 

He wants to be in Munich on the 17th of this month. I am 
wiring Gudemann. The difficulty: the 17th is a Saturday. The 
Rabbi will not be able to come, or can plead official duties if he 
does not feel like it. However, if he says no, I shall summon him 
with the greatest urgency — or drop him for good. 

August 14 

My good Mom likes to tell how Albert Spitzer passed away. 
One day his housekeeper asked him after dinner, “What shall we 
cook for tomorrow?” 

He replied vigorously, “Rump steak!” 

That was his last word. He fell over and died. 

In her sovereign way, my Mom derives from this the meaning 
of a life that ends with a cry of “Rump steak!” 

I shall make use of this anecdote in Munich. 


August 14 

I see only one difficulty in it all: how to get the landlubbers 
out to sea. 

Program for Munich: First I shall tell them the history of my 
plan, then call on them to differentiate any details which do not 
appeal to them from the scheme as a whole. I shall advise them in 
advance of my conclusion and shall explain to them the mistake 
I made with Hirsch. In presenting the matter to him I proceeded 
from the State — i.e., I only started, and stopped in time, because 
I noticed that he was not following me. To these men I shall pre- 
sent it as a business transaction — they must not misunderstand 
me in the other direction and take me for an “entrepreneur.” 

Tell them, too, how I want to use a different approach in pre- 
senting this same plan to the German Kaiser, stressing the 
“mounting of the self-[defense?].” * 

August 14 

Gudemann has wired me his acceptance. He will leave for 
Munich on Friday morning. He would like me to arrive there 
at the same time as he, i.e., Friday evening. But I don’t want to 
do this. Meyer-Cohn isn’t arriving until Saturday and won’t be 
available for a discussion before Saturday afternoon. I want to 
avoid talking to Gudemann before that, and so I shall not arrive 
in Munich until Saturday forenoon. They ought to be together 
first, wait for me; and Gudemann especially should no longer be 
tired from the trip, but rested and alert. 

The hard part of my presentation will be to lead them over 
gradually from their accustomed conceptions to mine without 
their having the feeling that they are losing touch with reality. 

Munich, August 18 

Actually, I might as well give up keeping this record of daily 
action, for there is no action. 

• Translator’s Note: The phrase is incomplete in the original. 


I arrived here yesterday morning. In the hotel lobby I ran 
into Gudemann who looked fresh and cheerful with his gray 
beard and ruddy cheeks. 

We went to see Meyer-Cohn who was washing up. From the 
very first moment I knew that he was not the right man. A little 
Berlin Jew by his outward appearance, and with a spirit to 
match. While he finished his toilet, he spun us a long yarn about 
“parliamentary” doings in the Berlin Jewish community. Trivi- 
alities; but his unassuming manner of presentation makes up 
for this. 

And just as I found him during that first quarter-hour and de- 
scribed him to Gudemann the moment we left the room, so 
M.-C. proved himself to be throughout the day. He has few 
convictions, and he clings to them tenaciously, but expresses 
them with disarming modesty. He is a mediocre intellect, does 
not think that anyone could understand anything better than he 
does; however, he believes everyone else, including myself, to be 
as capable as he is. 

Afterwards, I went to the synagogue, where I was supposed to 
meet Gudemann. The services were over when I arrived. Gude- 
mann showed me the interior of the beautiful synagogue. The 
shames [beadle] or shabbes goy, an elderly man in blue military 
tunic, tall and of shrivelling corpulence, bore a great resem- 
blance to Bismarck. It was a curious touch to have a Bismarck 
figure walking behind us with the keys, while the rabbi was 
showing me through the temple. The goy [gentile] did not know 
that he looked like Bismarck; the rabbi had no idea that he was 
doing something symbolic in showing me the beauty of a temple. 
I alone was aware of these and other things. 

I said nothing that morning concerning the project itself. For 
the most part I let Gudemann do the talking; he did not dream 
that he would call me “Moses” before the day was over. 

We met for luncheon in the Jewish Jochsberger’s Restaurant 
where I felt very much at home. The proprietor knew Gude- 
mann and set us up in a separate room. Later on he discovered, 
with Jewish acumen, that we were conferring about the Jewish 


cause, and saw to it that we remained undisturbed. This is the 
sort of human material we possess in our people. They divine 
what one would have to hammer into other people’s heads. They 
carry it out with intelligence and devotion. 

At table the subject came up quite naturally. Gudemann had 
already won his way to my heart during the forenoon. More and 
more I found in him a fine, open-minded, splendid human being. 
Naturally, our conversation had a theological and philosophical 
flavor. I incidentally mentioned my views on the Deity. I want 
to bring up my children with a belief in what might be called 
the historical God. To me, “God” is a beautiful, dear old word 
which I want to retain. It is a wonderful abbreviation for concep- 
tions that might be beyond the grasp of a childlike or limited 
intellect. By “God” I understand the Will to Good! The omni- 
present, infinite, omnipotent, eternal Will to Good, which does 
not immediately prevail everywhere but is always victorious in 
the end. For which Evil, too, is but a means. How and why, for 
example, does the Will to Good permit epidemics to exist? Be* 
cause epidemics cause musty old cities to be torn down and new, 
bright, healthful cities to come into being, with inhabitants who 
draw a freer breath. 

Thus, anti-Semitism, too, probably contains the divine Will to 
Good, because it forces us to close ranks, unites us through pres- 
sure, and through our unity will make us free. 

My conception of God, is, after all, Spinozistic and also resem- 
bles the natural philosophy of the Monists. But I think of Spi- 
noza’s “substance” as something inert, so to speak, and that 
incomprehensible universal ether of the Monists seems too in- 
tangible and too vague to me. But I can conceive of an omni- 
present will, for I see it at work in the physical world. I see it as 
I can see the functioning of a muscle. The world is the body and 
God is the functioning of it. The ultimate purpose I do not and 
need not know; for me it is enough that it is something higher 
than our present condition. This I can again express w r ith old 
words, and I gladly do so. Eritis sicut dei, scientes bonum et ma- 
lum [Ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil]. 


In the course of our table-talk something unexpected hap- 
pened: Meyer-Cohn revealed himself as an adherent of the idea 
of Zion. This pleased me very much. 

After lunch I brought the manuscript of my Address to the 
Rothschilds from the hotel and started reading it to them in the 
empty dining room at Jochsberger’s. Unfortunately Meyer-Cohn 
had made a business appointment for four o’clock so I knew 
from the outset that I would not be able to finish. The session 
was not to be resumed until evening. In other respects, too, I was 
reading under unfavorable conditions. 

Meyer-Cohn carped in “parliamentary” fashion at every little 
detail that bothered him. As a result, I lost my temper for a mo- 
ment while rebutting these “interpellations.” 

In spite of this, the effect was considerable. I saw it in Giide- 
mann’s shining eyes. 

I had to break off at page thirteen because of M.-C.’s engage- 
ment. However, Giidemann, the “anti-Zionist,” was already won 

He said: “If you are right, all my views up to now fall to pieces. 

“But yet I find myself wishing that you are right. Hitherto I 
have believed that we are not a nation, that is, more than a na- 
tion. I thought that we have the historic mission to be exponents 
of universalism among the nations and therefore are more than 
a people identified with a specific area.” 

I answered: “There is nothing to prevent us from being and 
remaining the exponents of one humanity on our own home soil 
as well. To achieve this purpose, we need not actually continue 
to reside among the nations who hate and despise us. If we wanted 
to realize this universalist idea of a humanity without boundaries 
under our present circumstances, we would have to combat the 
idea of patriotism. However, as far as we can foresee, this idea 
will prove stronger than we are.” 

At six o’clock we met again, in my little hotel room. Because 
there were only two chairs, I sat on my bed and continued my 
reading. Meyer-Cohn went on carping at the ideas that he con- 
sidered Utopian. Giidemann was once more carried away. Even 


then I did not get to the end, but by half past eight the gist of 
the idea had been unfolded. We were about to leave for supper 
when Giidemann said: “You remind me of Moses.” 

I laughingly rejected the thought, and I was completely sincere 
about it. Now as before I consider the whole thing to be a simple 
idea, a skillful and rational combination which, to be sure, oper- 
ates with large masses. Purely as an idea, my plan is not a great 
thing. “Two times two is four” is, in abstract thought, as great 
as “two times two trillions is four trillions.” 

Giidemann further said: “I am quite dazed. I feel like someone 
who has been asked to come and hear some news, and when he 
arrives, there is placed before him not a piece of information, 
but two beautiful big horses.” 

This simile pleased me greatly, for it made me realize the plas- 
tic force of my idea. 

Back at Jochsberger’s I read the concluding section. The re- 
installation of a nobility displeased both of them. On the other 
hand, they saw poetic beauty in the yellow ribbon as a mark of 
Jewish honor. Accordingly, I shall drop the idea of a nobility. 

Giidemann also objected to the final apostrophe, and, natu- 
rally, so did Meyer-Cohn. 

We came to the conclusion that the Address must not reach the 
Rothschilds, who are mean, despicable egotists. The idea must be 
carried straight to the people, and in the form of a novel. 

Perhaps, so we thought, the stimulus will take effect and lead 
to the creation of a great movement. 

Of course, I am of the opinion that I would spoil the plan by 
making it public, but I have to comply. I can’t carry it out all by 
myself. I must believe Giidemann and M.-Cohn when they tell 
me that the “big Jews” will have nothing to do with it. 

I took Giidemann to the station. At parting he said with sober 
enthusiasm: “Remain as you arel Perhaps you are the one called 
of God.” 

We kissed each other good-bye. There was a strange gleam in 
his beautiful eyes when, from the compartment window, he once 
more took my hand and gave it a firm squeeze. 


August 19, Munich 

Novel, Chapter I. 

On Christmas Day, 1899, Moritz Fruhlingsfeld, the hero, re- 
ceives a letter from Berlin from Heinrich. 

He makes himself comfortable and reads it. 

It is the farewell letter written by the suicide. 

A profound shock. 

Chapter II. 

The unwed girl. The ruined stock-trader’s family with the 
father who failed to “provide a husband” for his daughter and 
tries to make it up to her by a thousand little kindnesses. 

This is where Moritz goes to overcome the first shock. He 
guesses that the forgotten girl loved Heinrich. She will later die, 
well-bred and silent. 

Chapter III. 

Departure on the trip to forget; on the advice of his friends (or 
parents) Moritz must travel in order to “get rid” of the dead 

He has taken other trips before, but never one like this. He 
used to have eyes for beautiful women, adventures, and scenery. 
Now he sees everything with new eyes, through Heinrich’s ghost, 
as it were. 

We are in no hurry to diel 

This is how the idea comes into being! 

August 21 

Letter to Meyer-Cohn: 

Dear Sir: 

I deeply regret not having seen you again before your depar- 
ture. So I am putting in writing the final conclusion from our 
meeting, which may not have been in vain. We are obviously 
antitheses. But I believe that we can pay each other no higher 
tribute than by admitting this frankly and becoming friends in 
spite of it. My idea was yours as well. I hope that you will not 
give it up just because I have demonstrated my way to realize it. 
That would be an odd outcome. 


I believe that we must first and foremost be Jews; only later, 
“over there,” will it be all right for us to split up into aristocrats 
and democrats. In the first twenty years of our movement, such 
divisions must be dormant. Later they will probably be useful, 
representing the free play of forces. In this there will also appear 
the Will to Good, by which, as you know, I mean “God.” The 
presumption of the aristocrats and the despondency of the demo- 
crats can cancel each other out, though amidst struggles. But, 
above all, we must stick together. 

I am setting a good example right away by modestly subordi- 
nating my idea to your counsel and that of our honored friend 

Should you feel impelled to reply to these lines, which may also 
be “Utopian,” please don’t do so before the 22nd of the month. 
On that date I shall again be at Villa Fuchs, Aussee. 

Greetings in friendship from 

Yours sincerely, 
Dr. Herzl. 

Letter to Giidemann: 

Dear Friend: 

Our great cause, which we discussed in Munich, naturally con- 
tinues to work in my mind, as it probably does in yours, and 
perhaps even in that of our third colleague M.-C. To many of 
the objections I have now found the answers which did not im- 
mediately occur to me. 

Above all, I can now say why it is no Utopia. 

M.-C.’s definition of a Utopia was quite wrong. The hallmark 
of a Utopia is not the details of the future presented as actualities. 
Every minister of finance uses estimates for the future in working 
out his budget, and he uses not only those which he constructs 
from the average of previous years or from data derived from 
other times and other countries, but also figures for which there 
is no precedent, as, for example, when a new tax is introduced. 
Only someone who has never seen a budget does not know this. 
But will anyone call a draft of a fiscal law Utopian, even if he 

knows that it will never be possible to stick to the estimate very 

Cl< Thf only valid thing about M.-C.’s objections would be, at 
most, that I gave too much graphic detail. And yet I had omitted 
from the version which I read to you countless features contained 
in my draft for it. I explained this in the Address itself by saying 
repeatedly, “You would otherwise take my plan for a Utopia.’’ 

What, then, differentiates a plan from a Utopia? I shall now 
tell you in precise language: the vitality which is inherent in a 
plan and not in a Utopia, a vitality which need not be recog- 
nizable to everyone and yet may be there. 

There have been plenty of Utopias before and after Thomas 
More, but no rational person ever thought of putting them into 
practice. They are entertaining, but not stirring. 

On the other hand, look at the plan called “The Unification 
of Germany.” Even in St. Paul’s Church it seemed only a dream. 
And yet, from the inscrutable depths of the national psyche there 
came in response to it an impulse as mysterious and undeniable 
as life itself. 

And out of what was this unification created? Out of ribbons, 
flags, songs, speeches, and, finally, singular struggles. Do 
not underestimate BismarckI He saw that the people and the 
princes could not be induced to make even small sacrifices for 
the cause all those songs and orations were about. So he exacted 
great sacrifices from them, forced them to wage wars. And those 
princes, who could never have been assembled in any German 
city to elect an emperor, them he led to a small provincial town, 
where there was a half-forgotten royal castle. And there they did 
his bidding. A nation drowsy in peacetime jubilantly hailed uni- 
fication in wartime. 

There is no need to attempt a rational explanation for this. 
It is a fact! So, too, I cannot explain life and its force; I can only 
state that it exists. 

As I noticed in Munich, you think in images. This fact, in ad- 
dition to others, only endears you to me further. You used an 
expression in Munich which touched and delighted me. You said, 


“I feel like someone who has been called to be given some news, 
and when he arrives, there is placed before him a pair of beauti- 
ful horses.” 

Why didn't you say, “He is shown a piece of machinery”? 

Because you had the impression of something alivel 

And that’s what it is. In my plan there is life. I shall prove it 
to you by referring to Hertzka’s Freeland. I had known this book 
only from hearsay as a Utopia. After your departure I immedi- 
ately looked for it in a bookstore. I had forgotten to ask you 
whether it was also about Jews. And I was worried for that 
reason. Not for my own sake, as a writer who is afraid of having 
come too late. ( Peream ego [Let my ego perish]!) No — rather 
because then I should have to fear being unable to accomplish 
anything either, because the plan would already have had cur- 
rency in the world without success. Freeland was not obtainable 
in Munich, but a more recent publication of Hertzka was: A 
Journey to Freeland ( Eine Reise nach Freiland, Reclam’s Uni- 
versal Library). 

This book gave me sufficient information, too. It is quite an 
ingenious fantasy, as remote from life as the equatorial mountain 
on which "Freeland” is located. 

You will understand the following comparison: 

Freeland is a complicated piece of machinery with many cogs 
and wheels; but I find in it no proof that it can be set in motion. 

As against this, my plan calls for the utilization of a driving 
force that actually exists. 

What is this force? The distress of the Jewsl 

Who dares deny that this force exists? 

Another known quantity is the steam power which is generated 
by boiling water in a tea-kettle and then lifts the kettle lid. Such 
a tea-kettle phenomenon are the Zion experiments and a hundred 
other organized efforts to "combat anti-Semitism.” 

But I say that this force is strong enough to run a great ma- 
chine and transport human beings. The machine may have what- 
ever form one pleases. 

I am right — although I may not prevail. 


But our force grows with the pressure that is exerted upon us^ 

I believe there are already enough senstble people to understand 

‘"‘in Munich'l'spe"! the day after your departure with Spitzer. 
the confidential clerk of the Paris Rothschtld. For years I have 
been asking him, "When are the Rothschilds going to liquidate?” 
He had!lwa y ; laughed a, this. This time he asked me "Who 
told you that this is being planned? Because it is a fact! Only the 

date is still uncertain.” f 

(You will not breathe a word about this news, if only for our 

own sake.) , . . , . 

I answered Spitzer: “I know everything that is a logical con- 
clusion from known premises.” Naturally, that was all I told him. 
Now you will recognize what this means to my plan! 

Mere liquidation would be idiotic suicide. I want to utilize the 
self-destruction of this enormous credit figure for our historic 
purpose. I want to stay his hand, saying, “Stop! Use your suicide 
for a world-historic task! And in so doing, get rich again as you 
never have been before! 

This is complicated in execution, but quite simple in thought. 
You said, “It was narrishkayt [foolishness] to address that vague 
letter to Albert Rothschild.” 

Yes, but how was I to know that he is such a parakh [bastard], 
giggji' men than this show-off associated with me in Paris. 
When I visited the Prime Minister or Foreign Minister, he then 
left his calling card at my place, and things of that sort. When I 
wrote to the former President of the Republic, Casimir-Ptrier, 
he gave me an immediate and courteous reply. 

Therefore, the fact that this Jew-boy is vilely arrogant does not 

prove folly on my part. 

For the rest, our agreement still stands. I shall take no further 
steps without first consulting with you. As a starter I shall discuss 
with you the manner in which I am to present the matter to 

After thorough deliberation, I find that Bacher is the necessary 

man now. 


I shall ask him to give me an entire Sunday for the discussion 
of a highly important matter, and explain everything to him. 
Then let him decide whether it calls for action or for novel- 

If I persuade him to act, he will assemble for us a group of 
men, himself included, who have enough authority and power 
to put the plan into effect. 

If he thinks it’s a novel, it is going to be one. 

Of course, for him as well as for everyone to whom I pose the 
question it is a rather uncomfortably great responsibility. 

But to participate in this historic project would be a tremen- 
dous honor for anyone. And without risk there is no honor. 

You can see the power of my idea from the simple fact that 
there is no evading it once I have expressed it. By saying Yes or 
No a man commits himself most heavily. 

Do I need to tell you how dear you have become to me in 

You have noticed it, felt it. 

With cordial regards, 

Yours sincerely, 

September 20 , 

Since my last entry a great number of little things have hap- 
pened which, with a peculiar aversion for writing, I allowed to 
go by unrecorded. I now intend to add them in a workmanlike 
fashion, although without the freshness of the actual moment, a 
freshness I had meant to preserve for a later remembrance when 
I opened this book. 

From Aussee I went to Vienna at the beginning of September. 
In the course of my very first talk with Bacher, which took place 
on the day of my arrival, I realized that he would be completely 
unreceptive to my ideas — in fact, might fight them tooth and nail. 
Thereupon I immediately gave our conversation a different turn 
and continued it on a theoretical plane. 

gather considers the anti-Semitic movement ephemera], though 

" d wTen C I b cailed his attention to the tact that all our young in- 
tellectuals are being turned into proletary, he admitted tha, it 
“raHmitv ” but said that this proletariat would have to 
struggle through or go under like any other proletariat. 

In a somewhat bad mood, I then went to lunch with two of my 
colleagues, Oppenheim and Dr. Ehrlich. Naturally, the Jewish 
Question was again our topic of conversation. They grasped my 
general conception better than Bacher who as they satd, assoc.- 
ated mostly with Gentiles-through his wife and her relatives. 
They also shared my concern about the immediate future. 

Afterwards I drove out to Baden where I a number of times 

met with Giidemann. 

Hp had grown 


hif lukewarm since Munich, but I 

thusiasm back on its feet. 

At Gudemann’s I once nailed an elderly rabbi named Fleissig 
against the wall with my arguments. That old gentleman wears 
his trousers tucked in his boots and a long frock-coat which is a 
shame faced caftan; and his thinking, which is narrow in a shrewd 
way, is equally antiquated. This sort of Jew performs, inside the 
cage of his world outlook, the thousand-leagued journeys of a 
squirrel on its wheel. 

His sons are well-known chess players. And thus we have count- 
less heads full of shrewdness which is hidebound and expended 
to no purpose. 

I agreed with Giidemann to present the matter to Dr. Ehrlich 
as a journalist specializing in financial affairs. 

One Sunday I went to Voslau to see Ehrlich, and after I had 
sworn him to secrecy, I brought him here. 

For two hours before and two hours after dinner we sat in a 
little summer house on which the hot sun beat down, and I read 
to him the “Address to the Family Council.’’ 

The result: He was gripped, shaken, did not consider me crazy 
at all, and actually had no objections from the point of view of 
finance and economics. The objections he did make only showed 


me that he took my outline completely seriously. For example, 
he said he was against the stock exchange monopoly. 

In the end he gave me the positive answer which I had desired 
and in just the way I had foreseen it. 

I asked him to answer yes or no to the question whether Bacher 
and Benedikt, one or both, might be won over for the cause. 

Ehrlich thought not. 

Who else in Vienna might be interested in it? Ehrlich didn’t 
know of any outstanding and prominent Jew. 

He thinks that the project could cause great danger for the 
Jews, that is, emigration could give rise to persecution. 

But this very apprehension on the part of Ehrlich shows me 
how right I am in the major points. For, if I can manage to make 
the problem an acute one, this is the only effective instrument of 
power at my disposal, and it is a terrifying one. That is why, for 
the time being, I must not make it into a piece of writing, but 
treat it as action. 

Ehrlich finally asked me to stop, saying that the discussion had 
been too much of a strain on him. 

He said he was my man and was ready to go along with kith 
and kin. 

• • # 

This is what I told Giidemann the following day. To me Ehr- 
lich’s judgment was gratifying and important even though he had 
thought the immediate realization of my plan through Bacher 
and Benedikt quite improbable. 

Meanwhile, Giidemann had been visited by a Paris member of 
the Alliance Israelite. About this man, Leven by name, Giide- 
mann told me wonderful things; what a concerned and also de- 
voted Jew he was. He was just the man to whom my project ought 
to be presented; he could then work in Paris for its advancement. 

Unfortunately Leven had left town after participating in a 
session of the Viennese Alliance Israelite (which has nothing to 
do with the one in Paris). 

I sent him a telegram in Giidemann’s name: “One of my 

friends wishes to speak to you on an urgent matter and is ready 
to follow you to Salzburg.” 

On the next day came an official wire saying that the addressee 

could not be located in Salzburg. ... , 

We had already forgotten the Leven incident when a week ago 
Gudemann received a reply from Leven to say that he was ex- 
pecting Giidemann’s friend in Salzburg or Munich 

Gudemann came to see me to the Herzogshof Hotel in a 
state of great excitement and said that his wife who knew about 
the matter and was enthusiastic about it was equally excited. She 
took it as a good omen that today, exactly four weeks after Giide- 
man’s departure, I was going to Munich again and was again 
stopping at the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten. 

Actually, I was only going as far as Salzburg. 

I immediately recognized Leven’s exact type: a temperament 
slow to set in motion, but a well-meaning person; a hater of nov- 
cities and a man hardly capable of changing his views or learning 
afresh. Here my experience with Hirsch repeats itself. Those who 
have already made experiments with the Jews, Zion and the like, 
are hard to turn in a new direction. 

Leven completely fails to understand the politico-economic 

aspects of my plan. 

His notions of political economy are still quite rudimentary. 

He has no idea of how the Jews who emigrated would make 
a living. He thinks that they are at present living at the expense 
of the ‘‘host nations”— which is a considerable piece of nonsense, 
easy to reduce ad absurdum. After all, economic life is not just a 
matter of some things that circulate; rather, new goods are pro- 
duced. I maintain that we produce more than our “hosts,” and 
would produce infinitely more if we were permitted to get rich. 

Nevertheless, the talk with Leven was not useless either. He 
named to me Grand Rabbi Zadoc Kahn of Paris as the next man 
to turn to. 

Zadoc, he said, was an ardent Zionist and shared many of my 
ideas, which were by no means original ones. 

This I liked best of the things Leven said, and I told him: 


“But I don’t want to be an innovator. The larger the number 
of people who share my universal idea, the better I shall like it.” 

Leven thought that especially in Russia I would find many 
adherents. In Odessa, for example, there had lived a man named 
Pinsker who had fought for the same cause, namely, the regain- 
ing of a Jewish national home. Unfortunately, Pinsker was al- 
ready dead. His writings are said to be worthwhile. Shall read 
them as soon as I have time. 

Another Jew in England, Colonel Goldsmith, was also an en- 
thusiastic Zionist and had wanted to charter ships for the recon- 
quest of Palestine. 

I will keep the Colonel in mind. All this is a confirmation of 
my thinking. We have the most wonderful human material that 
can be imagined. 

Leven did not listen to a reading of the “Address to the Fam- 
ily Council” in its entirety. When he showed signs of impatience, 
I stopped reading and presented the matter to him in the form 
of answers to his objections. 

Thus many a detail probably went by the board, but I think 
I did familiarize him with the main features. Of course, he has 
absolutely no understanding of the economic part, and in it lies 
the core of the whole matter. 

Still, I believe that I have won him over, too, to the extent 
that such a refractory personality can be won over to a cause that 
calls for enthusiasm. 

I then traveled back. 

* • • 

In Vienna, the City Council elections took place on the day 
before Erev Rosh Hashanah. All the mandates were won by the 
anti-Semites. The mood among the Jews is one of despair. The 
Christians have been badly stirred up. 

The movement is not really a noisy one. For me, who am used 
to the clamor of popular agitation in Paris, things are even much 
too quiet. I find this calm more sinister. Yet one sees looks of 
hatred everywhere, even if one does not seek them in people’s 

eyes with the watchful fear of a man suffering from a persecu- 
tion mania. . 

On election day I was outside the polls in the Leopoldstadt, 

taking a brief look at some of the hatred and the anger at close 

^^oward evening I went to the Landstrasse district. In front of 
the polling place a silent, tense crowd. Suddenly Dr. Lueger came 
out to the square. Enthusiastic cheers; women waved white ker- 
chiefs from the windows. The police held the crowd back. A man 
next to me said with tender warmth but in a quiet tone of voice: 
“That is our Fiihrer [leader] 1” 

Actually, these words showed me more than all the declama- 
tion and abuse how deeply anti-Semitism is rooted in the hearts 
of these people. 

September 20, 

Dr. Glogau, Director of the Press Bureau, has just been to see 
me and has offered me the editorship of a new daily. 

“Under certain circumstances I may be willing to accept,” I 
told him. 

October 15, Vienna 

Various steps forward and backward. 

Spoke to Giidemann a few times. I keep finding his ardor 
cooled and get him steamed up again each time. He cannot be 
induced to make any effort, being one of the many who will go 
along when everybody goes. No courage to lead the way. 

The negotiations about the newspaper continue. I can accept 
the editorship only if my independence is assured. 

Spoke to Professor Singer who gave me the impression even on 
his first visit at Baden that he intends to start a daily. 

I definitely need a newspaper for the cause. 

Singer is ready in principle to start a paper with me. 1 ex- 
plained to him the laying of the foundation through advertise- 


ments — the cellar, so to speak — as well as the Jewish idea — the 

He will go along with the Jewish cause up to a certain point. 
As for the complete evacuation of the present domiciles, he con- 
siders it neither desirable nor possible. 

This would be no obstacle to our reaching an understanding. 
But he wants a strong opposition paper. That would run 
counter to my purpose. I wish to be independent but moderate, 
otherwise the government will give me trouble that may endanger 
the whole Jewish cause. 

Therefore I must not work with Singer either. Incidentally, if 
I understand him correctly, all he is interested in is a representa- 
tive’s seat from Lower Austria. 

October 18 

Last night I had a three-hour conversation with Dessauer, the 
bank director — and won him over. 

He thinks it is possible to finance the migration of the Jews 
through the medium bankers. The Rothschilds cannot be counted 
on, he says. 

He would like to start the Society with only four million 
pounds and keep later issues of shares in reserve. Nor should the 
entire territory be acquired immediately. He would like to start 

I said to him: Then I’d rather not do it at all. A gradual infil- 
tration of Jews — no matter where — soon causes anti-Semitism. 
Then there is bound to come a moment when further immigra- 
tion is stopped, and thus our entire work will be destroyed. 

It is different if we declare our independence from the start. 
Then the influx of Jews will be greatly desired by the neighbor- 
ing states whose commerce we shall enrich. 

Dessauer finds that it would be “a nice thing” and “good busi- 
ness.” I believe all Jews will be quick to recognize that — in that 
way the State will be founded. D. also thinks it would have to be 
presented to the Rothschilds only as a business proposition, not 
as a national idea. 


Remarkable: Like everyone else so far, Dessauer too said: “You 
can count on me, but I doubt that you will find anyone else in 
Vienna.” And yet it makes sense to everyone I tell it to. 

I noticed how Dessauer’s eyes began to gleam. I arouse en- 
thusiasm in everyone whom I tell about the Jewish cause. 

October 19 

Spoke with Dessauer once more. In the meantime he had be- 
come lukewarm. 


October 20 

Today Benedikt’s column “Stock Exchange Week” was excel- 
lent, against the big Jews who are unenterprising and narrow- 
minded. Entirely in my spirit. 

Suddenly my decision was made: Win Benedikt for the causel 
I went to him right away and immediately plunged medias in 
res [right into it]. 

He immediately understood me so well that he made a wry 

While talking we walked as far as Mauer — a three-hours’ walk- 
ing tour over autumnal fields. 

I said that I would like best to do it in and with the Neue 
Freie Presse. 

He: “You’re confronting us with an enormous problem. The 
entire paper would take on a different complexion. Until now 
we have been considered as a Jewish paper but have never ad- 
mitted it. Now we are suddenly supposed to let down all our 
guards which have been protecting us.” 

I: “You don’t need any more guards. The moment my idea is 
made public the entire Jewish Question will be solved honestly. 
After all, we can stay in those places where people are satisfied 
with our good citizenship and loyalty to the fatherland. Where 
they don’t want us we shall move away. We are saying that we 
want to be Austrians. In the election the majority of non- Jewish 


citizens — no, all of them — declare that they do not recognize us 
as Austro-Germans (Russians, Prussians, Frenchmen, Rumanians, 
etc.). All right, we shall move away; but over there, too, we shall 
only be Austrians (Russians, etc.). We shall no more give up our 
acquired nationalities than we shall give up our acquired prop- 

He made various objections that were already familiar to me, 
though on a higher level than those of the Jews with whom I had 
previously spoken. I had an answer for everything. 

He definitely took the matter seriously, certainly didn’t con- 
sider me crazy, as my first listener, poor Schiff, had done in Paris. 
He recognized what was old about my plan, i.e., a universal idea, 
and what was new, i.e., a promise of victory. But he thinks that 
the governments’ immediate reply would be an export prohibi- 
tion and impediments to emigration. But that is exactly why I 
am founding the Society which will be in a position to negoti^fe 
with the governments, offer them compensations, etc. 

He said I should make the publishers a proposal as to my ideas 
about implementing the plan. 

I: “It could take two forms. Either you found a smaller paper 
for me in addition to the Neue Freie Presse, in which I may 
elaborate on my idea. Or you give me a Sunday edition with ‘The 
Solution of the Jewish Question,’ by Dr. Theodor Herzl, on the 
front page. I shall draw excerpts from my outline which will fill 
six or nine columns. Then the details, questions and answers — 
for I shall invite all of Jewry to contribute, and it will do so — 
will appear in a new column, ‘The Jewish Question,’ which I 
shall edit. 

“Never has a paper contained anything more interesting. The 
responsibility will be mine alone. You can preface my outline 
with a disclaimer on the part of the paper.” 

He: “No, that would be cowardly. If we publish it, we shall 
accept joint responsibility with you. Your idea is a powerful ma- 
chine gun, but it could also backfire.” 

I: “One mustn’t be timid. Incidentally, everyone will be able 
to choose his place: in front of the machine gun, or in back of 

it •• We walked and talked until we were tired. Benedikt .is going 
o let Bather in on the secret. Then 1 sha 1 read my Address to 

^Be^l'woVld Uke °hem“t“ I * * * * * * * * X «o ge, .mo the Neue Freie 

titious 6 , a newspaper for it to begin 

this address. I am ag • “arktncraticallv” through a 

with— that is, if I cannot do things aristocratica y gh a 

Rothschild syndicate. , , ^ ran 

I won’t get involved in organizational clap-trap. 

* * * 

This walk to Mauer was an historic one; I said so to Benedikt 

on the ride back. . . . 

I cannot conceal it from myself that it marked a decisive turn- 

ine point for me as well. I have set myself in motion. Everything 

up to now has only been dreams and talk. Action has begun be- 

cause I shall have the Neue Freie Prase either with me or against 


I shall be the Parnell of the Jews. 

October 27 

Today Dr. Glogau was here and an hour later he brought 
Herr v. Kozmian, Count Badeni’s confidential secretary, to see 
me. They made me a formal offer to take over the editorship of 
a big new government paper. 

In view of my Jewish project I cannot simply decline this offer 

as I certainly would have done before — prior to the idea! An 

extremely favorable unexpected chance for the execution of my 

plan is opening up. Once I am close to Count Badeni, I can con- 

fidentially develop my idea to him. After all, it is as friendly to 

Gentiles as it is to Jews, as fruitful for the conserved and conserv- 

ative state as it is for the one yet to be founded. I could bring 


Count Badeni the idee maitresse [outstanding idea] of his term 
of governmentl 

Badeni already seems to have a high opinion of me, as I can 
tell from the hints dropped by Kozmian, a fine old man. 

According to Kozmian, Badeni’s government by no means wants 
to be anti-Li beral if it is not forced to be (I take this to mean: 
if they go along with him), but one never knows. 11 ne s’en ira pas 
[he won’t abandon them], Kozmian said finally. 

I answered: “I could go along with the Count as long as it is 
compatible with my convictions — et puis, je m’en irais [and then 
I would part company with him].” 

We agreed that I should inform the publishers Bacher and 
Benedikt of the offer the very same day — tecto et ficto nomine 
[under a hidden and disguised name]. For, out of a sense of pro- 
priety I do not want to confront them with a fait accompli. But 
I explained to the two people who had made me the offer that I 
was not making this notification in order to get any compensatory 
financial advantages for myself. 

Glogau did not quite understand what I would really be noti- 
fying them of. After all, my notification would make sense only 
if I wanted to receive financial compensation. But Kozmian un- 
derstood, or said he did, that I was doing it out of moral consid- 

This is in fact one of my reasons behind which, to be sure, a 
greater moral consideration is concealed, the consideration for 
my idea. 

And this is how this delicate question of conscience shapes up 
for me: 

I shall prove my gratitude to the publishers of the Neue Freie 
Presse by not simply going to work for Count Badeni (whom I 
like very much) in order to realize the Jewish idea with his aid. 
I shall first offer my idea to them, bringing them fame and for- 
tune, as I see it, even at the great risk that I shall thereby carry 
out my idea more slowly or not at all. If they do not understand 
me, I shall be free — in fact duty-bound — to break away from 


Kozmian, Glogau, and I agreed that 1 should announce my de- 

cision within 24 hours. ... 

I immediately drove to Benedikt, who was not at home, and 

wrote to Bacher requesting an appointment for that evening. 

In the afternoon I went to Benedikt and explained to him the 
matter whose sine qua non- the Jewish cause-he is already ac- 

^°He found the situation difficult, complex, and the decision an 
extremely weighty one for the Neue Freie Presse 

I had prefaced my remarks with a few facts which I kept em- 
phasizing strongly, namely, that I did not want any personal 
advantage for myself, and that I would resolutely decline any 
financial compensation-a raise in pay or the like-even if 1 were 
offered it at this time. 

I am conducting the Jewish cause in a completely impersonal 
manner. It is up to the Neue Freie Presse to decide whether or 
not it wishes to aid me in its realization. I need some authority 
in the eyes of the world which I want to sweep along with my 
idea. Out of gratitude to the Neue Freie Presse , which made my 
career possible even though it cannot take full credit for it, I 
should like best to work with my present friends. But I am con- 
ducting the politics of the Jews and cannot let personal consider- 
ations induce me to give up my idea. 

Benedikt’s mind was again working in its full brilliance. 
“Thinking out loud” and without expecting me to answer him, 
he discussed the form that the newspaper involved could take. 
He immediately mentioned the old Presse which he had heard 
was to be reorganized. Then he spoke about the possibility of a 
“Jewish paper” and of a rival paper of the Neue Freie Presse with 
a large founding capital. In this way he gave me advice without 
asking me any questions. 

In the final analysis, he thought, it was a personal problem. 
Did I want to continue on my smooth course as a distinguished 
writer on the Neue Freie Presse, easily, comfortably, leaving the 
office at seven with not a care in the world? Or did I want to 


ruin my life the way he and Bacher had done — with neither a 
day nor a night to call my own? 

I said: “I am not an easygoing person. I have got twenty more 
years in which to set the world on fire. I would never do it in 
order to make money. But I have my ideal” 

Benedikt said finally: “Personally, I am in basic agreement 
with your idea. Whether our paper can be the vehicle for it I 
cannot decide. I don’t dare to. For us your idea is a bombshell. 
I believe you should first try to found a society d’etudes [study 
commission] in Paris or in London. We shall give you a leave of 
absence for that purpose and exert our influence on your behalf. 
I don’t know whether we shall become its journalistic representa- 
tives in the foreseeable future or ever, and I doubt if we can 
promise it to you. Someday there may be serious anti-Semitic 
riots — murder, killings, plundering; then we may be forced to 
make use of your idea anyway. In any case, it provides an issue 
behind which we can jump and thus save ourselves. But do you 
want us to tell you that we shall do it and thereby mislead you, 
so that you will reproach us for it later?” 

Then I went to Bacher, but he had to leave for the party con- 
ference of the United Left. I was only able to tell him in haste 
that I had an offer and that Benedikt already knew the details. 
Bacher was, or acted, more disconcerted than Benedikt. We ar- 
ranged a meeting for tomorrow. 

Then I wrote Glogau a line asking him for a twenty-four 
hours’ postponement. They will suspect that I am negotiating 
for compensation, after all. Painful as this suspicion of money is 
to me, there is nothing I can do about it. 

October 28 

A good night’s sleep, sleeping on it. 

Today is an even bigger day than yesterday. I am facing an 
enormous decision — and so is the Jewish cause. That also goes 
for the Neue Freie Presse. 

They will understand me. Superos movebo [I shall move the 

Actually, the battle of the Jews between me and the powerful 

Tews has already begun. _ , „ 

At first I thought that I would have to confront the Rothschilds 
with the dilemma. But I shall have to fight the first battle against 

the Neue Freie Presse. 

* * 


In the evening: _ , . 

The battle has been fought and lost by whom? 

From five to eight p.m. I read the Address to the Rothschilds 

to Bacher in his apartment. 

At least I achieved this: the man who a few weeks ago had re- 
fused me a limine [outright] now listened to me— and how! 

He the nay-sayer, had changed completely too. He found the 
idea great and staggering. But he said that he could not make a 
split-second decision on such an extremely vital question for the 

ne He P ^inted out to me what I would lose if I left the Neue Freie 

They really don’t need me, but they did create the post of 
feuilleton editor when I did not wish to stay in Paris. 

He found my Jewish idea generous— but hardly feasible. The 
Neue Freie Presse would be risking too much. The Jews might 

not respond to it — and what then? 

I pointed out to him that the Neue Freie Presse would not be 
able to evade this problem. Sooner or later it would have to show 
its colors. 

“Well,” he said, “for twenty years we didn’t print anything 
about the Social democracy either.” 

Actually, this was the most remarkable thing he said. 

From that moment on it has been clear that I must not expect 
the Neue Freie Presse to do anything for the cause. 

What the Neue Freie Presse was reproached with as short-sight- 
edness — its prolonged hushing-up of anti-Semitism* — was its pol- 
icy. I said: “In the end you will not be able to keep silent about 

• Translator's Note: Probably a slip for “Socialist movement." 


this matter any more than you were able to hush up anti-Semi- 

We were already in the street walking toward the editorial 
offices when I said that. He muttered, as though talking to him- 
self: “It’s a helluva thing.” 

I answered: “Yes, it’s a hell of an idea. There is no escaping 
from it today. Whether you say Yes or No, you make an awful 

Thereupon he said: “It is a big thing, and I can understand 
why a decent man would want to risk his life for it. But I doubt 
if you are going to find many more such Herzls.” 

The upshot: they cannot bring themselves to take that bold 
step. I, for my part, cannot allow myself and my idea to be 
stopped from forging ahead. Therefore, I shall have no other 
course but to part company with them. 

Bacher had found the Address to the R’s interesting, rather 
than exhaustive, a political appeal k la Lassalle. He said he knew 
that the cause was something enormous and that he might be 
turning down a lot of success and glory. 

* # * 

October 29 

Kozmian and Glogau came to see me first thing in the morning. 
They congratulated me on my — imminent — decision. 

I said that I would first have to speak with Count Badeni be- 
fore deciding whether to accept the editorship. 

* • * 

In the evening: 

Everything in doubt again. I had made the condition that the 
paper would have to be turned over to me in a year if the publish- 
ing company did not wish to run it any longer. 

What I had in mind was that I would then have the paper for 
my Jewish cause unless I had previously succeeded in winning 
over Count Badeni for my idea — or if I had attained the requisite 
authority with the big Jews. 


But the Press Chief, Privy Councillor Freiberg, won’t go along 
with this. If the paper goes badly, he will chum u for the govern- 

“This would have the additional drawback that 1 would be 
, ... Prpss Bureau. But I wish to work with 

Badeni exclusively, not with his privy councillors. After all, the 
personal contact with Badeni-i.e., ns value to .he Jem* cause 
His the very reason why I wanted to run the government paper 

in the first place. 

This is what I replied to Kozmian too. If cannot always deal 
directly with Badeni if the paper is successful, and keep it for 
mvself if it is unsuccessful, 1 won’t have any part of it. 

October 30 

In the morning Kozmian came to fetch me for my audience 

with Badeni. # n 

He asked: “Are we going to Badeni? 

I said: “No — unless my condition is met.’ 

He compromised: “Come along anyway; I shall introduce you 
to the Prime Minister not as editor-in-chief but only as the former 
Paris correspondent of the Neue Freie Presse. 

So we drove to the Ministry. It was my first time in the palace 
of an Austrian minister. Rooms in a gTand style, but bare and 
cold. On the staircase we made a comparison with the Frenc h 
government palaces. 

"f fl manque de tapis [there are no carpets],” I said to Kozmian. 
Through such jests I tried to keep up a good front for the de- 
cisive first meeting with a man through whom I want to help the 


We were admitted right after the Excellencies. The other peo- 
ple in the antechamber looked up when they noticed our prece- 

Court airl 

Badeni hurried up to meet us, gave me a very lively and vig- 
orous greeting. Evidently a smart, energetic person. 


He made me many compliments. He had already heard of the 
difficulty that had arisen; and since he mentioned the new paper, 
I spoke about it as well. 

I said: “C'e ne sont pas des considerations pecuniaires qui peu- 
vent me decider a accepter la direction du journal [It is not finan- 
cial considerations which can decide me to accept the editorship 
of the paper].” 

We spoke only in French. 

Badeni considered it understandable that I did not want to be 
dependent on his privy councillors. He begged me not to distrust 
Freiberg, not to let myself be stirred up against him. Of course, 
there would be no need for me to go to the Press Bureau, but I 
would send my men aux informations [for information]. But if 
he (Badeni) sent Freiberg or Schill to me, I should not receive 
them coolly. 

This I promised. But I said that I wished to deal only with him 

“I think I shall be able to champion your present policies, 
Your Excellency, and if I go along with you, je vous serai un 
partisan resolu et sincere [I shall be your resolute and sincere 
supporter]. It may be that from a certain point on I shall not be 
able to go along any farther; then I shall tell you so candidly and 
go my way. But if I am still with you by the end of your term 
of government — which is a long way off, I hope — I shall not leave 
you then.” 

Several times I mentioned the end of his government, which 
visibly disconcerted him, but since he had presumably never 
heard such talk from any journalist, perhaps not from anyone, 
this must have given him some respect for me. 

Right from the start I wanted him to get the right impression 
of me: that I was a partisan [supporter] and not a laquai [lackey], 
as I had already told Bourgoing in my first interview. 

I am conducting the politics of the Jews, today still unrecog- 
nized. What I am concluding today is not a semi-official hiring 
contract — which is what many will, unfortunately, take it for — 
but an alliance. 




Badeni said he thought of our relationship as a permanent one; 
he would see to it that the publishing company offered me a se- 

cure position. 

To my expressed desire that I be allowed to call on him at any 
time, comme un ambassadeur [like an ambassador], he said, Non 
seulement je le permets, mais j’y tiens [I not only permit it, I in- 

also talked about the conditions under which I would 
sever my connections with the Neue Freie Presse. I made it clear 
from the start that I always wanted to remember my old friends 
and would not carry on any injurious polemics against them 
unless I was attacked first. 

Badeni said he himself hoped that no opposition between us 
and the Neue Freie Presse would arise. 

Come to think of it, that was a highly important statement. It 
means that he wants to govern in cooperation with the German 

To be sure, he also said several times, "Je ne ficherai pas le 
camp [I shall not quit].” 

Thus there was an air of confidence about the whole conver- 
sation. While we were talking, my cigar went out a few times. 
Each time Badeni lit a fresh match for me— a detail which made 
me think, smiling inwardly: What would the small Jews of my 
acquaintance, and even the biggest ones, say to that? 

Badeni regards the matter as settled. 

• * * 

An hour later I was in the office. 

Bacher sent for me: “Well, how does your matter stand? 

“I could still refuse,” I answered. But he said nothing more. 

Even now I would still prefer it if the Neue Freie Presse took 
up my Jewish idea, now more than ever. I now have access to 
Badeni; the external advantages I care nothing about; and if I 
now gained the prestige of the Neue Freie Presse for my cause, it 
would surely be victorious! 

In the evening I shall speak with Bacher once more and pre- 


sent the alternatives sharply: I am ready to renounce all the ad- 
vantages I am offered if you promise me to publicize my solution 
of the Jewish question within six months. I demand nothing of 
you, no compensation, no personal advantage! 

(It should be noted that they cut my salary when I moved to 
Vienna and denied me the expected contribution to my moving 

Benedikt seems to be angry with me; I noticed this when I 
passed him. He understands the matter completely! Kozmian 
also told me that Benedikt was furious. Kozmian has this from 
a third party. 

* # • 

In the afternoon, when I was in the office, Benedikt again had 
an interview with this third party. In the evening, when Kozmian 
and I met at the house of Baron Bourgoing, he told me that my 
superiors are now afraid of my competition. They evidently 
suspect that in domestic Austrian politics I shall not deviate too 
far from their point of view. 

In the conference at Bourgoing’s house I developed the whole 
plan of the newspaper! I was going to retain all the old staff mem- 
bers of the Presse. Among them are two who made base attacks 
on me in earlier times, I said, Je ne peux pas les renvoyer — ce 
sont mes ennemis personnels [I cannot dismiss them, they are my 
personal enemies]." They laughed. 

But, at bottom, all evening I longed to remain with the Neue 
Freie Presse. An ingredient in this is obviously my cowardice in 
the face of the qu’en dira-t-on [what will people say], the turned- 
up noses of those who would probably like to change places with 
me and will vent their envy in the form of disparagement. 

Yet in the conference I gave the best suggestions for the pro- 
duction of a good, lively paper. If, contrary to expectations, I 
should return to the fold of the Neue Freie Presse, these sugges- 
tions will have been my payment for the opportunity which this 
offer has been. 


October 31 

Kozmian was supposed to send me word today on what Bene- 

dikt yesterday told the go-between about me. 

Rv’ eleven o’clock I had not received anything. It is possible 
that the delay of this message is due to some intrigue. I shall get 
o the bottom of this. If the Neue Freie Presse hatches some plot 
to prevent my being hired, this will be the casus bell, [cause for 

war] for me. 

Mnw 1 am writing to Dr. Bacher: 

Dear Dr. Bacher: 

With your permission I do not intend to come to the office 
today or as long as the decision is still pending. It is too embar- 
rassing a situation for me. For tomorrow you have, in any case, 
the feuilleton about Heine, unless something more timely arrived 
today. On Saturday there is no feuitlelon, and for Sunday there 
probably is a Wittmann piece on hand. 1 he contributions to 

date are in good shape. 

But if you want to talk to me I shall be at your disposal this 
afternoon from 3 to 5 or this evening from 6 to 10. Let me repeat 
once more that I shall stay with you if you want me to, at my pres- 
ent salary and in my present position. I am still ready to refuse 
all the external advantages offered to me — out of those moral 
considerations with which you are acquainted. 

Today I can still decline the offer. 

With cordial regards. 

Yours very sincerely, 

November 1 

By yesterday evening there was no reply from Bacher. The 
thought of making an enemy of the man whom I admire despite 
his pig-headedness has been very disagreeable to me and has 
grown more unbearable by the hour. Added to this is the possi- 


bility that I might not even be helping the Jewish cause with my 

Out of sorts, I attended a conference at Baron Bourgoing’s 
house where problems of typeface, heading, and newsprint of 
the new paper were discussed with the manager of the printing 
plant. I made my best suggestions, but I felt more and more 
clearly that these were not my kind of people and that I could 
not work with them. 

When I left the conference, I was deeply disquieted inwardly. 
It occurred to me to seek Gudemann’s advice although I had 
been angry with him for several days. He had “paid his respects” 
to Count Badeni, as I happened to have found out. He had gone 
to see Badeni without notifying me, thus actually demonstrating 
that he did not take me or my leadership seriously. At Badeni’s he 
had tearfully implored him for protection; and finally he had 
been so overcome by emotion that he asked the Count for permis- 
sion to bless him. 

Nevertheless, I wanted to hear his views. Giidemann was not 
at home. From there I drove straight to Bacher who had also 
gone out. But half an hour later I ran into him on a street in 
the Leopoldstadt. We walked on together and had a heart-to- 
heart talk. 

I told him that giving up his friendship would be unbearable 
to me. 

He was pleased, and, as a friend, he advised me against the 
newspaper experiment. He said that I had a great future with 
the Neue Freie Presse, but, above all, I would have much more 
of a chance to implement my idea there than I had through 

We finally agreed that, if the formation of the Society proved 
impossible, I was to publish a pamphlet which the Neue Freie 
Presse would review. 

Besides, he will give me the satisfaction of writing me a letter 
which I can show to Badeni and in which he declares on his 
word of honor that I neither demanded nor received financial 
compensation of any kind for remaining on the staff. 

On parting he said to me, “It would have hurt me deeply if 
you had forsaken us.” 

November 3 

At noon, called on Badeni. This time I had to wait in the 
antechamber somewhat longer. Gold-braided gentlemen, nervous 
frock-coated deputations, an old colonel with a petition. Every- 
body gently clears his throat, draws a deep breath, so as to be in 
good voice when he faces His Mightiness. 

Through it all I had a distinct feeling that I was not made for 
an antechamber nor for a privy councillor’s gold-braided collar. 

I was the only civilian there without a frock-coat. Then every- 
body looked up in astonishment when I was nevertheless ad- 
mitted ahead of the colonel and the privy councillors who had 
arrived before me. 

The Count again greeted me very amiably: “Well, doctor, 
what are you bringing me?” 

I spoke a few words of regret (actually, it now occurs to me, 
I did not thank him kindly enough for the honor he had intended 
for me), and gave him Bacher’s letter. 

Then we talked politics — the issue of the day: the confirma- 
tion of Lueger’s election. 

Badeni was mildly, almost imperceptibly, put out by my refusal 
and immediately treated me with caution, as an opponent. Per- 
sonally, he said, he would be disposed not to confirm Lueger. 
“I don’t like him — most of all, because he is a demagogue. 
Unfortunately, the Lueger question has been blown up into a 
difficult problem for me. I wish it had been solved before I took 
office. It would be helpful if the aura of prestige that surrounds 
me were not weakened by this sort of thing. As it is, so many 
indiscretions have already been committed in this affair on all 
sides that no matter what happens it will appear as though I were 
yielding to pressure. This is detrimental to my prestige. I can- 
not decide in the matter all by myself, anyway. I must consult 
my colleagues: many factors must be taken into consideration. 


especially the interests of the state and the will of the emperor.” 
I replied boldly: “I believe Lueger’s election as mayor must 
be validated. If you fail to do it the first time, you can never 
confirm him again, and if you fail to confirm him the third time, 
the Dragoons will ride.” 

The Count smiled: “Oh?!” with a goguenard [quizzical] ex- 
pression. I then substantiated my views and took leave of him. 
He said: “Whenever you care to come and see me, I shall always 
be very grateful.” 

But I suspect that the next time I pay him a call he will not 
have time for me. 

« * • 

That evening I related the whole affair to Giidemann, who 
keenly regretted that I had declined the offer. He thought it 
would have been nice if I had had “the ear of the Prime Minis- 

I got angry at his poltroonery and told him: “You are a Jew 
who is protected — I am a Jew who protects. Obviously you can- 
not understand me.” 

I explained to him what an attainment it was that the Neue 
Freie Presse was taking an interest in the cause, even though 
in a guarded manner, and that I considered this important 
enough to put aside my own personal interests, which would have 
been better served in Badeni’s employ. 

This again seemed to make some sense to him — though for 
how long I cannot say. I have already wasted too much time on 
him. It was our last long conversation together. Of a man he 
has only the beard and the voice. He implored me over and over 
again to leave the rabbis out of the whole business, for they com- 
mand no respect. 

But what most enraged me against him was his initial refusal 
to give me a letter of recommendation to Zadoc Kahn in the 
event that I should go to Paris next week. 

Only when I told him that I did not need his introduction 
and would get along without it did he consent. 


This conversation depressed me greatly. 

In conclusion I said to him: “It is hopeless. You, to whom 
I have spoken longest and most frequently about the matter, 
you keep deserting me. 1 am sorry to say that you still don’t un- 
derstand what it is all about. We are now standing at Donau- 
Eschingen, at the first trickle of the river. But I tell you it will 
yet be the Danubel 

November 5 

Yesterday evening some very bad moments. I went to the 
office again. No one saw anything noteworthy in it— that is, in my 
rejection of the offer. Rather, I had the feeling that I had lost 
favor with my colleagues. 

It is true that I rejected the government offer on account of 
the Jewish cause, just as I would have accepted it for that reason. 

But what are the prospects of the Neue Freie Presse's assisting 
me in its implementation? It would be terrible if I had been 
under an illusion about this and could more easily have gained 
prestige in the eyes of the Jews in Badeni s employ. 

Bacher and Benedikt received me with pronounced cordiality 
when I appeared in the office. But Benedikt immediately ex- 
cused himself for lacking the time to discuss the society d’etudes, 
[study commission] and Bacher only asked when I would supply 
a feuilleton again. 

Gudemann gave me something to think about; the project 
desinit in piscem [ends up as a fish tail].* If the Neue Freie 
Presse disposes of my pamphlet with a notice in the “domestic” 
section, I shall be greatly harmed. I hope they will scrupulously 
and completely fulfill the promise they have made me. Otherwise 
I would have to take it as a casus belli [cause for war]. 

* • * 

Spoke with Arthur Schnitzler and briefly explained the matter 
to him. 

• Translator’s Note: A phrase from Horace’s Ars Poetica. 


When I said: It is a renaissance as a finishing touch to this clas- 
sical century of inventions in communications — he was enthusi- 
astic. I promised him that he would become the director of our 

• * * 

Had supper again in the company of Jews at Tonello’s. 

The same speeches as those of a week ago. The boycotting of 
theaters praised as a saving device. This petty agitating is 
degenerating into busybodying clubmanship. Yet to me it is im- 
portant as a symptom. I am making the acquaintance of some 
usable agitators: Ruzicka, Billitzer the hatmaker (a crude popu- 
lar orator), Kopstein, Poliak the wine-merchant, Neumann the 
attorney, Dr. Kalman, etc. 

Funny that they should all regard it as a rather extreme course 
of action when they go to a minister to complain. 

There was also a speech by attorney Ellbogen, the “celebrated 
orator.” He is in favor of founding a “Liberal People’s Party” 
which is presumably supposed to send him to the Chamber of 
Deputies. He considers the situation of the Jews serious but not 
hopeless — “otherwise we should have no other course but to 
proclaim the nationhood of the Jews and to seek a territorial 
basis.” Ellbogen can also be used for agitation. 

Dr. Bloch made a clever reply to him, saying that Ellbogen’s 
“Liberals” would be only the Jews all over again. To work with 
the Socialist Movement would be no help against anti-Semitism. 
Evidence of this was Germany where despite Marx, Lassalle, 
and more recently Singer, anti-Semitism had originated and 
grown strong. 

Afterwards I introduced myself to him. He was very pleasantly 
surprised to find me in that place. 

November 5 

Today Dr. Ehrlich came to my office at the newspaper and 
said: “I heard that we have got you back.” 


I told him the course of events. He made a serious face. He 
thinks the publishers will not keep their promise. 

I started to boil and said: “If they break their word to me, 
the pillars of this house are going to collapse.” 

I went to Benedikt right away; later Bacher also came there. 
I demanded the promised “personal support” which, I said, 
must consist in a meeting of prominent Jews to take place the 
following Sunday at Bacher’s home or at mine. I would give 
a speech (my Address to the Rothschilds with the elimination of 
the Rothschilds from the text), whereupon those assembled 
would have to place at my disposal their connections in Paris, 
London, and Berlin. In those places, I shall then found the 
"societe d’etudes,” which does not require one centime as capital, 
or, rather, get assurances of its founding which must follow im- 
mediately upon the publication of my pamphlet. 

Benedikt said halfheartedly that he did not know any suitable 
persons among the big bankers here. But he said he would give 
me a recommendation to (with pathos) “Privy Councillor of 
Commerce Goldberger,” in Berlin. 

I replied: "I have known this Goldberger for eight years, so 
I don’t need your recommendation.” 

Then he recommended Moritz Leinkauf to me. 

I said: “He is my cousin’s husband!” 

In short, his suggestions were completely worthless or super- 
fluous. I am still loath to believe that he is doing it out of perfidy. 
That would be monstrous. 

Bacher kept silent. 

I told them: “I don’t need any agitators at the moment. That 
will come later. At present I need only the interest of the financial 
circles. But actually I am not dependent on anyone. I am simply 
notifying the people before I burst the dam.” 

I think they both sensed the threat. Nevertheless I took Bene- 
dikt’s advice and immediately drove to Leinkauf with whom I 
shall have a talk in the afternoon. 


Spoke with Leinkauf in the afternoon. We sat in the con- 
sultation room of the monumental Fruit Exchange. 

Leinkauf regretted that I had not asked his advice before de- 
clining Badeni s offer. He would have strongly advised me to 
accept it. 

Incidentally, Badeni should be handled with care. Leinkauf 
told me the following story. When Badeni was still governor of 
Galicia, a farm crisis broke out in that region. Because of a crop 
failure the farmers found it impossible to feed their cattle. A 
farm-aid project was initiated. Supplies of feed were to be bought 
and distributed among the needy. Badeni came to Vienna, sent 
for the grain dealer Wetzler (of the firm of Wetzler and Abeles), 
and invited him to put in a bid. Wetzler did so. Then Badeni sent 
for him again and said: “I don’t believe that you can make this 
delivery. According to my calculations you would have to charge 
about thirty per cent more to stay in business.” 

Wetzler got the point, took his first bid back from the Count, 
and put in a second one which was that much higher 
This the Count took back with him to Lvov and there the 
contract was given to some business associates— of whom B. him- 

w 'l ! , ^ ! JCen one ~ for a P^ce much higher than 
Wetzler s first bid and somewhat lower than his second one. 

Then I spent two hours giving Leinkauf my outline of the lew- 
ish project. J 

de Il m ' ely agaim ‘ “• He thinks the P ro K« is not 
feasible and very dangerous at the same time. All namby-pamby 

arguments. I explained to him: Either my pamphlet will cause 

no react, on ; then there is no danger. Or it will have the reaction 

that I expect; then the matter will be feasible. 

* * • 

said” “L»inlf ni f 8 1 repone f to Bacher on this conversation. I 
i t r® understand the matter. He has a land- 
lubbers mind; but one has to live by the sea in order to com- 
prehend my plan. I showed Leinkauf his own Fruit Exchanee 
and illustrated ,t this way: The grain trade had its rudimentary 


focal point in Vienna in the Cate Stierbock. You created an organ 
for the need, the Fruit Exchange on the Schottenring, and then 
this facility organized the trade and expanded it so greatly that 
now they have that palatial building on Taborstrasse. For this 
is how it happens in economic life: first comes the need, then 
the organ, then the trade. The need must be recognized, the 
organ must be created— the trade then comes by itself if the need 
has been a genuine one. Surely, no one will deny that in the case 
of the }ews there is a need which has grown into dire necessity. 
The organ will be the Society. First the small Study Commission; 
then, when it has convinced itself that the mood is there, the big 

That seemed to make sense to Bacher. He promised me to speak 
with David Gutmann and to tell him of my impending visit. 
Gutmann was a fanatical Jew, he said, although he did not live 
by the sea either. 

* # • 

Bacher joked: “The Jews will listen to you more peevishly than 
the Gentiles. You will become an honorary anti-Semite!” 

November 6 

A deeply discouraging day. Community Councillor Stem and 
others came to the office. They are all people who expect salva- 
tion to come from the government and who go on bended knee 
to the ministers. Therefore, they would have believed in me 
if I had become Badeni’s journalistic right-hand man. And so 
now I have no authority with them. 

# * * 

In the evening I was with Professor Singer and told him every- 

He raised my spirits again, saying I had done the right thing! 

If I had accepted a semi-official position I would have dis- 
graced myself and the cause. 


November 7 

Met Dr. Schwitzer in the street and took him into my confi- 

He is against my plan for the loftiest reasons. He does not want 
nations, but human beings. 

I said to him: “Primum vivere, deinde philosophari [First live, 
then philosophize]. Over there I shall build you a splendid ivory 
tower where you can pursue the loftiest thoughts untroubled by 

He said that in addition to the misery of the Jews there were 
many other kinds of misery. 

I said: “For the time being I can worry only about my people. 
Incidentally, with the seven-hour day and other social easements 
and innovations, we shall give a great example to the world. 

“It is a matter of drawing the right conclusions from the 
wonderful technical achievements of this century. The electric 
light was not invented in order to illuminate the drawing rooms 
of a few rich snobs. It was invented so that with its aid we might 
solve the Jewish Question.” 

* • * 

Bacher told me that he had spoken with David Gutmann 
and prepared him for my visit. I immediately wrote to Gutmann 
and asked him to set a date. 

Gutmann’s reply had a comical element. He gave me an ap- 
pointment for Sunday and signed his letter “Most respectfully 
yours,” which sounds a bit condescending. Unless this compli- 
mentary close is indicative of commercial man’s lack of refine- 
ment, it reveals that the man is not going to understand me. Yet 
I don’t want to be too lazy. Perhaps he will get scared. But I am 
not likely to stir up the good man who signs himself “Most re- 
spectfully yours.” 

November 9 

Spoke with David Gutmann “and Son” yesterday. The old 
man was a bit condescending at first but I cured him of that by 


crossing my legs and very nonchalantly leaning back in my arm- 
chair. He listened to me with growing seriousness. 

The young fellow wanted to joke about “the Jewish State 
and the Jewish balTnachomes.’ I lit into him. Don t make any 
foolish jokes! Anyone who makes such jokes will live to regret it. 
The jokesters will be stepped on by this movement and crushed 

Frightened, he stopped his witticisms. His father finally de- 
clared that he would have to give such a big matter a lot of 
thought. He also said that I should speak to the Rothschilds. 

jny rate, the big Jews have been informed, this much has 
been accomplished. Because obviously David Gutmann is going to 
talk about it to Albert Rothschild and to Hirsch. 

Unfortunately I forgot to say how I propose to liquidate Gut- 
mann’s coal business. 

The mines can either be bought by the Austrian state or ac- 
quired by the Society. In the latter event the purchase price 
could consist partly of landed property over there, partly of 
Society shares and cash. A third possibility would be the founding 
of a “Gutmann Joint-Stock Company” whose stock would be 
quoted in our State as well. A fourth possibility: continue to 
operate them in the present way, except that henceforth the 
owners would be foreigners. 

November 10 

Spoke yesterday with Giidemann. He gave me the letter of 
introduction to Zadoc Kahn. I am sending it to Schiff whom I 
am telling about the great events of the past months. Schiff is to 
transmit the letter to Zadoc. 

• • • 

Bacher is dampening my spirits again with his objections. To 
get away from it all, I plan to go to Paris on Wednesday. 

* # * 


Many Jews are foolishly jubilant over the non-confirmation 
of Lueger’s election to the mayoralty. As though Lueger were 
tantamount to anti-Semitism. I believe, on the contrary, that 
the movement against the Jews will grow rapidly now. 

The force of events will urge what I wanted to bring about by 
my constructive idea. 

Some other anti-Semite will wind up as mayor of Vienna in 
Lueger’s place. Lueger, however, will step up his agitation. All 
the anti-Semites are already closing their ranks against Badeni. 
Count Kielmannsegg, the governor of Lower Austria, who is not 
hostile to the Jews, will probably be overthrown in the near 

Yesterday there even circulated the anti-Semitic rumor that 
Count Badeni had resigned. If he stays, the Dragoons are going 
to ride, as I told him. 

They are already yelling in the streets: “Down with Badeni!” 

I believe that the non-confirmation of Lueger was a fatal mis- 
take which will cause serious crises. Badeni underestimated the 
strength of the anti-Semitic current. 

Prince Lichtenstein yelled “lie” at the Prime Minister in an 
open session of Parliament. The anti-Semitic papers talk about 
Badeni in an insolent tone that is unheard of in Austria. 

* * • 

Wrote to Stiassny, the Construction Councillor. Tomorrow 
I shall read him my Address to the Jews. He has connections 
with zealous Jewish political agitators everywhere. 

• • • 

Ferment in Turkey. Should the Oriental question be broached 
and solved by a partition of Turkey, at the European Congress 
we could possibly get a piece of neutral land (like Belgium, 
Switzerland) for ourselves. 

• • • 

Yesterday in our literary section we published a few posthu- 
mous letters of Lassalle. 


I spoke to Bacher about it after he had tried to tone me down. 
“What do you suppose Lassalle would be today if he were 
alive?” I asked. 

Bacher grinned: “Probably a Prussian Privy Councillor.” 

But I said: ‘‘He would be the leader of the Jews; of course 
I don’t mean the Lassalle of the age he would be today, but the 
man with the strength he had then. 

November n 

Have been to see Giidemann. He asked me to come to an 
election meeting intended to raise campaign funds for Bloch’s 
candidacy in Kolomea. I said that I did not wish to appear in 
public before I had developed my project. I don’t want to make 
a speech if I cannot present the conclusion. But I shall write a 
letter to Giidemann which he is to read to the meeting. I shall 
say that I am contributing fifty guilders, although on a number 
of points I do not approve of Bloch’s stand. At a very conservative 
estimate there are 200 Jews in Vienna who can contribute an 
equal amount much more easily. Then the campaign money 
would be raised. 

Rabbi Fleissig was at Giidemann s. The latter put his hand 
on my shoulder and said admiringly: ‘‘He is a wonderful fellow!" 

Giidemann told me that David Gutmann had blabbed about 
my plan. I was furious and immediately wrote to Ludwig Gut- 

Dear Dr. Gutmann: 

Because I have had no sign of life from you since our discus- 
sion of last Friday, I assume that my plan does not make sense to 

you two. . , c 

By way of precaution, however, I must remind you of some- 
thing that I may not have stressed sufficiently— name y, at 
what I told you was strictly confidential. I cannot empower you 
to tell anyone about it unless you first get my consent in eacn 
individual case. A careless treatment of the project cou ct 

dangers for the Jews which would necessarily affect you in the 

most serious way as well. , 

For this reason I have complete trust in the discretion of two 
men of honor who do not share my views but know well that 
they owe me absolute silence. 

With kindest regards, 

Yours very sincerely, 
Dr. Th. Herzl. 

# * * 

I had asked Bloch to meet me at Stiassny’s home in the after- 

Bloch had hoped that I had come on account of his election 
campaign. I noticed his disappointment when I only excusez 
du peu! [is that all?]— read the Solution of the Jewish question. 

Stiassny was full of enthusiasm. 

Bloch left before I had finished reading, saying he had to go 
home because he was leaving for Kolomea tomorrow. He also 
had many objections to my plan. 

As he left he asked me only to speak with David Gutmann — 
about money! Nevertheless, I am writing the following letter 
to Giidemann in support of Bloch’s candidacy: it is to be read 
at the rally: 

Dear Dr. Giidemann: 

I cannot take part in the discussion because I have to leave 
town. Dr. Bloch’s election seems to me to be necessary. I am 
saying this with the explicit reservation that my political views 
differ from those of Dr. Bloch, but he has always been a stalwart 
champion of the Jewish cause in Parliament. We owe him a debt 
of gratitude for that, even though we may not be in agreement 
with him on some, indeed many, points. They can kill us one by 
one, but if we stick together, never! 

I am contributing fifty guilders to the campaign fund. If two 
hundred Viennese Jews give an equal amount, the essentials will 
be assured. When I speak of but two hundred Jews of better- 


than-average means, I am underestimating the financial power 
of Viennese Jewry as well as overestimating my own. I should 
prefer doing without the very highest of the high-and-mighty 
to whom the plight of the Jews evidently still does not come 
closely enough home. 

With respectful greetings. 

Yours sincerely, 
Dr. Th. H. 

Paris, November 16 

Conversation with Chief Rabbi Zadoc Kahn. I read the Ad- 
dress to him. On the train to Paris I had already eliminated all 
references to the Rothschilds from it. 

Zadoc Kahn seemed to listen to my two-hour reading with 

Afterwards he also professed himself to be a Zionist. But he 
said that a Frenchman’s “patriotism” also had its claims. 

Yes, a man has to choose between Zion and France. 

Zadoc Kahn is of the breed of little Jews. I shall be surprised 
if I get any serious help from him. Actually, we exchanged only 
a few words after I had finished reading, because he had to leave 
for the synagogue. We made an appointment to meet again to- 
morrow; my Salzburg acquaintance, Leven, is to join us. I don’t 
expect much from the meeting. 

Paris, November 17 

Talked with Nordau. 

His was the second case of understanding me in a flash. The 
first was Benedikt. But Nordau comprehended me as an adherent, 
Benedikt, for the time being, as an opponent. 

Nordau will, I believe, go with me through thick and thin. 
He was my easiest conquest and possibly the most valuable to 
date. He would make a good president of our Academy or Minis- 
ter of Education. 

He recommended me to the Maccabean Club of London, 


which I first heard mentioned by him. But this club is quite 
plainly the ideal instrument for my needs: artists, writers, Jewish 
intellectuals of all kinds compose its membership. The name of 
the club itself really tells enough. Colonel Goldsmid is said to 
be a member, also Mocatta, who has likewise been mentioned to 
me several times. 

Nordau is giving me an introduction to the Maccabean, Israel 
Zangwill, who is a writer. 

I asked Nordau to come to London with me. He promised to 
come later if I needed him. 

In the afternoon at Zadoc Kahn’s home. 

My Salzburg acquaintance, Leven, was there — listless, tepid, 
and sluggish as he had been in Salzburg. From his objections 
I could tell that he had not comprehended my plan either on that 
occasion or on this one. 

Later, a few other Jews showed up. I suspect that they had been 
asked to come by Zadoc: Derenbourg, Feinberg, and a young 
rabbi who is Zadoc’s son-in-law. 

One by one I had to trot out all my arguments again. Not 
a single new note in the discussion. 

For the present, the French Jews apparently will not have 
anything to do with the matter. They are still too well off. 

I turned on Leven in no uncertain terms. “I must be very 
infelicitous in my use of language. For, things which I have ex- 
plained to you twice are still unintelligible.” 

When he emphasized his French nationality, I said: “What? 
Don’t you and I belong to the same nation? Why did you wince 
when Lueger was elected? Why did I suffer when Captain Dreyfus 
was accused of high treason?” 

At parting I said to him: “You and your kind will never go 
along with me!” 

The young rabbi said: “I will go with you!” 

Derenbourg, in dismay, kept silent. As a German Jew (Dem- 
burg) he obviously attaches great value to his French nationality. 


I explained to them that by founding the Jewish State I would 
be giving them an even greater possibility of becoming natural- 
ized Frenchmen. 

To Feinberg, who seems to be in Hirsch’s employ, I said 
that the existing colonization societies would have to subordinate 
themselves to our cause. 

“Wherever we find opposition, I said, we shall break it! 

Zadoc said soothingly: “But no one is offering you any opposi- 
tion yet.” 

Zadoc’s attitude satisfied me completely this time. He even 
seems to be favorably disposed to my plan. 

But I recognized the impression I had made on him most 
clearly of all when the door opened for a second and an elderly 
lady— presumably Zadoc’s wife— peered in through the crack 
with curiosity. This moment revealed to me what he must have 
told people about me. 

November 18 

In the afternoon with Zadoc Kahn again. His mood had 
changed. From his remarks I could tell that he had presented my 
idea to several people and had everywhere met with rebuff. 

The French Jews’ attitude toward the matter is a hostile one. 
I didn’t expect anything different. They are doing too well here 
to think of a change. 

“All this,” I said to Zadoc, “is in my plan. The first families 
will be the last ones to join with us. Let them only beware of 
three things: First, lest Jews in other parts of the world find out 
how enviable the situation of the Jews in France is, for this would 
bring about a harmful mass influx of Israelites into France. 
Second, lest they become too brilliant Frenchmen, advance too 
rapidly in the social scale, acquire too much visible power in the 
form of wealth or respected positions; in a word, let them take 
care not to rise in the world. And third, let them completely 
cease troubling themselves about the Jews of other countries. 
Such concern would only betray their solidarity to the Christians, 


but the other Jews would reject them. For these friendly experi- 
ments in colonization have not only a genial but also a malign 
aspect: they are supposed to check or divert the influx of Jews 
into France. However, anyone who does not declare himself 
ready to join the migrating Jews has no right to assign them 
places in various parts of the world. ‘Israelite Frenchmen’ — if 
there are such — are therefore no Jews in our eyes and our cause 
is none of their business.” 

Later on there came a college professor named Becker, a great 
chauvinist. “II n’est question que d’un grand project [it’s nothing 
more than a big scheme],” he said as soon as he had entered. It 
seems that Parisian Jewry has been very busy discussing the mat- 
ter since my arrival. 

This Becker is a typical Jew from the Latin Quarter. A sort 
of Bruneti£re translated into Hebrew. He reeks of books and 
conventional patriotism. With great glibness he started to “re- 
fute” me. He also trotted out that satirical anecdote about what 
things would be like in the Jewish State. Two Jews meet: 
"Qu’est-ce que tu fais ici [What do you do here]?” — “Je vends 
des lorgnettes. Et toi [I sell opera glasses. And you]?” — “Je vends 
aussi des lorgnettes [I sell opera glasses, too].” 

To this masterly argument I replied quite calmly: “Monsieur, 
ni vous ni moi nous ne vendons des lorgnettes [Sir, neither you 
nor I sell opera glasses].” 

Afterwards he apologized for having told this joke, and in the 
further course of the conversation he admitted that the Jewish 
State would be a great acaddmie [academy]. 

Through questions and answers I familiarized him with the 
plan and gradually forced him to the wall, using only the argu- 
ments from my “Address to the Jews.” 

His eyes grew bigger and bigger behind his spectacles, and 
finally he fell completely silent. 

November 19 

Nordau, so it seems, is completely won over to the cause. 

My discussions with him concern reservations of the highest 

type. ‘‘Are the Jews still anthropologically fit for nationhood?” 

and the like. 

Time will tell. 

Nordau thinks that the plan will need three hundred years for 
its realization. 

I believe, thirty — provided that the idea catches on. 

Nordau recommends that while in London I should contact 
Ha-maggid and the Jewish Chronicle . I am to arrange for my 
pamphlet to be translated into Yiddish, also into Hebrew, for 

the Russians. 

The campaign’s center of gravity is shifted to London. 

London, November 2 1 

Visit to Israel Zangwill, the writer. He lives in Kilburn, N. W. 
A drive in the fog through endless streets. Arrived a bit out of 
sorts. The house is rather shabby. In his book-lined study Zang- 
will sits before an enormous writing table with his back to the 
fireplace. Also close to the fire, his brother, reading. Both give 
one the impression of shivering southerners who have been cast 
up on the shores of Ultima Thule. Israel Zangwill is of the long- 
nosed Negroid type, with very woolly deep-black hair, parted in 
the middle; his clean-shaven face displays the steely haughtiness 
of an honest ambitious man who has made his way after bitter 
struggles. The disorder in his room and on his desk leads me to 
infer that he is an internalized person. I have not read any of 
his writings, but I think I know him. He must bestow all the 
care that is lacking in his outward appearance on his style. 

Our conversation is laborious. We speak in French, his com- 
mand of which is inadequate. I don’t even know whether he 
understands me. Still, we agree on major points. He, too, is in 
favor of our territorial independence. 

However, his point of view is a racial one — which I cannot 
accept if I so much as look at him and at myself. All I am saying 
is: We are an historical unit, a nation with anthropological di- 
versities. This also suffices for the Jewish State. No nation has 
uniformity of race. 


We soon get down to practical points. He gives me the names 
of several suitable men: 

Colonel Goldsmid, the painter Solomon, Rabbi Singer, Mo- 
catta, Abrahams, Montefiore, Lucien Wolf, Joseph Jacobs, N.S. 
Joseph, and, of course, Chief Rabbi Adler. 

I shall meet these men next Sunday at the banquet of the 
Maccabeans and arrange a conference for Monday at which I 
shall present my plan. 

Colonel Goldsmid — for me the most important — is stationed 
at Cardiff with his regiment. 

Zangwill is asking him by telegram to come here. Otherwise 
I shall have to go to Cardiff to see him. 

London, November 22 

Rode about all day. 

Called on Chief Rabbi Adler. He received me like an old 
acquaintance. He was in a hurry. Would I come and dine with 
him tomorrow at his other home in the City. In all haste he 
counseled me against the Maccabeans, saying they were young 
people without influence. I would be better advised to speak with 
Lord Rothschild and others. He gave me an introduction to Sir 
Samuel Montagu, M.P. 

I went to call on Montagu in the City. A busy day at the 
office. Montague sandwiched me in between two brokers. He 
invited me to have lunch at his home on Sunday. We could then 
talk. But he immediately drew my attention to his age, saying that 
he was no longer fit for any big undertaking. 

Then to Rabbi Singer. He, too, was in a hurry; I accompanied 
him to the beautiful synagogue in Bayswater. A few words about 
my purpose: I wanted to start a worldwide discussion of the 
Jewish Question. 

He smiled: “ You are ambitious ." * 

I said: “That is really the least fantastic aspect of my plan.” 

He made an appointment with me for Sunday — “to tea.” 

• In English in the original. 


My pet thought about the transitional phase: Am I not like 
a highclass Jewish “scholar” who travels about and is invited 
to free meals by rabbis and rich people? 

Upon Singer’s advice I wrote to Claude Montefiore at Brighton, 
asking him to come here on Sunday. 

Goldsmid has telegraphed Zangwill that he cannot come. 

November 25 

In the evening with the Chief Rabbi at his other house, in 
the City. He has two houses, and always stays in the one in the 
City from Friday to Sunday. 

So I drove up to Finsbury Square. I knocked on the door for 
quite a while. I only heard soft whispering behind it. At length 
the door opened on a dimly lit hall and I made out a surprising 
scene: a bevy of young girls who had waited in silence, as though 
afraid, and now withdrew into the semi-darkness. I thought the 
Rabbi was holding Sabbath School. He told me aftenvards that 
his daughter was giving a “young girls’ tea party,” with an ama- 
teur show, a musicale, and recitations. 

Later on, Mr. Joseph, Adler’s brother-in-law, came to dinner 
to meet me. 

Everything British, with old Jewish touches breaking through. 
Here I had a strong feeling that Jewish ways need not be lu- 
dicrous, as they are among us in Austria, where the heart has 
gone out of our practices. 

And so I put on my top hat after the meal, like the others, 
and listened to the Rabbi’s after-dinner blessing. 

Of course, I had told the Chief Rabbi, as I had told Zadoc 
Kahn and Giidemann, that I was not obeying any religious im- 
pulse in my project. But I shall certainly honor the faith of my 
fathers, at least as much as I would honor other faiths. 

After dinner we men sat by ourselv^ and later on we were 
joined by Elkan Adler, an attorney and the Chief Rabbi’s brother. 

I expounded my project. 


The Chief Rabbi said that this was the idea of Daniel 

I said: “I wouldn’t even want the idea to be a new one. It is 
2,000 years old. The only novelty is the method by which I 
launch the idea and later organize the Society and finally the 
State. That is to say, not I myself, for I shall withdraw from the 
execution of the project, which must be something impersonal. 
I am merely creating the instrumentality which is to direct the 

Mr. Joseph, a likable, completely anglicized, slow-thinking 
and prolix old man, an architect by profession, presented the 
familiar objections. The Jews are not suitable human material; 
the experience of the Anglo-Russian emigration committees has 
been distressing; the people are unwilling to work, etc. 

I explained to him that this was due to the faultiness of the 
experiments made thus far. The experiments were bad, the ma- 
terial is good. 

The stupid charity, I said, is to blame for everything. Charity 
must cease, then the shnorrers [beggars] will disappear. The exist- 
ing Jewish relief committees must subordinate themselves to us 
— or they will be dissolved. 

The Chief Rabbi said: "We shall submit your plan to the 
Anglo-Russian committee, and they will decide whether they 
will participate in your project.” 

I replied: “Of course this committee would take up the matter, 
but I am not submitting it to them. You can’t make me yield to 
majorities. Whoever goes along with me is welcome. I am first 
turning to notable Jews who have made a name for themselves by 
their past efforts, but I do not need them. It will only please me 
if respected people join with me. But I am not dependent on 

Elkan Adler has been to Palestine, and he would like us to 
settle in that country. We would have an enormous hinterland 
over there. 

During all this talk, we were drinking a light claret produced 
in a Zion colony. 


November 24 

Lunched at the home of Sir Samuel Montagu, M.P. A house 
of English elegance, in grand style. Sir Samuel a splendid old 
chap, the best Jew I have met thus far. At table he presides over 
his family— which is actually unfriendly, or merely wellbred— 
with the air of a good-natured patriarch. 

Kosher food, served by three liveried footmen. 

After lunch, in the smoking room, I expounded my case. I 
gradually roused him to enthusiasm. He confessed to me— in 
confidence— that he felt himself to be more an Israelite than an 
Englishman. He said he would settle in Palestine with his whole 
family. He has in mind a Greater Palestine rather than the old 


He will hear nothing of Argentina. 

He is ready to join our committee as soon as one of the Great 
Powers takes the matter seriously. 

I am to send him my pamphlet before its final publication. 

• * • 

In the evening with the “Maccabeans.” 

Skimpy dinner, but good reception. 

Everyone welcomes me cordially. 

The club members include mostly educated Jews. A strapping 
officer, Captain Nathan, who at one time was supposed to go to 
Vienna as a military attach^, but was rejected because of his 

After dinner Zangwill calls on me with a mildly satirical intro- 

I give my talk extemporaneously and in three parts. The first 
two in German. Reverend Singer takes notes as I speak and after 
each part gives an English resume of what I have said. 

The third part I deliver in French. 

My speech gets applause. They confer together in undertones 
and unanimously elect me as an honorary member. 


Then follow the objections, which I refute. 

The most important of these: English patriotism. 

* * * 

November 25, at Cardiff 

With Colonel Goldsmid. 

When I arrived at the station I was met by the Colonel, in 
uniform. Medium height, small black mustache, anglicized Jew- 
ish face, with kind, intelligent, dark eyes. 

A small dog-cart was waiting outside the station. The Colonel 
had his horse and rode on it either in front or in back of the 
wagon. We exchanged a few words as we rode through Cardiff 
to his house, “The Elms." 

He said to me with a cheerful expression: “We shall work for 
the liberation of Israel." 

Then he told me that he was Commandant of Cardiff and the 
surrounding district, and showed and explained to me the sights 
of the city. 

Mrs. Goldsmid awaited us at “The Elms” — a lean, refined 
Englishwoman, with her two young daughters, Rahel and Carmel. 
An English welcome, which makes you feel at once like an old 

In the afternoon I read my plan to the Colonel. He doesn’t 
understand much German; the exposition dragged a little. 

But he said: “ That is the idea of my life.” * 

He cannot undertake leadership in the project, for it is some- 
thing political, and as an officer he is not allowed to engage in 
active politics. 

But if the movement got started, he said, he would leave the 
British and enter the Jewish service. Only, instead of “Jews" he 
would prefer to say “Israelites,” because Israel embraces all the 

He showed me the flag of the Hovevei Zion, with the symbols 
of the twelve tribes. In contrast, I unfurled my white flag with 
its seven stars. 

• In English in the original. 

In spile of that, we understood, we understand, each other. 
He is a wonderful person. 

After dinner, while the ladies and the other English colonel 
in the party were in the drawing room, I went to the smoking 
room with Goldsmid. And then came the remarkable story. 

“I am Daniel Deronda,” he said. “I was born a Christian. My 
father and mother were baptized Jews. When I found out about 
this as a young man in India, I decided to return to the ancestral 
fold While I was serving as a lieutenant, I went over to Judaism. 
My family was indignant at this. My present wife was also a 
Christian of Jewish descent. I eloped with her, and we had a 
civil marriage in Scotland, to begin with. Then she had to be- 
come a Jewess, and we were married in a synagogue. I am an 
orthodox Jew. This has not done me any harm in England. My 
children Rahel and Carmel have had a strict religious upbringing 

and learned Hebrew at an early age.” 

That and his tales of South America, sounded like a novel. 
Because he has worked for Hirsch in Argentina and knows the 
local conditions, his advice is worth heeding: that only Palestine 

can be considered. 

The pious Christians of England would help us if we went to 
Palestine. For they expect the coming of the Messiah after the 

Jews have returned home. 

With Goldsmid, I suddenly find myself in another world. 

He wants to deliver the Holy Sepulchre to the Christians stone 
by stone: part of it to Moscow, another part to Rome! 

Like Montagu, he too thinks of a Greater Palestine. 

A good idea of his is to hit landed property with a graduated 

tax. Henry Georgel 

• * * 

The Viennese pianist Rosenthal happened to be in Cardiff. 
I wrote him to come to “The Elms.” He came after his concert. 

Rahel and Carmel listened in graceful poses. Truly, another 
world. In my mind’s eye I could already see the aristocratic 
Jewesses of the coming era. Exquisite creatures with an onenta 


touch, gentle and dreamy. And as a piece of bric-a-brac there lav 
on the drawing room table a Torah scroll in a silver case. 

November 26, Cardiff 

Goodbye to Colonel Goldsmid. I have already taken him to 
my heart, like a brother. 

_ . , _ November 26, London 

Evening at the Rev. Singer’s. 

I had asked Asher Myers of the Jewish Chronicle, Dr Hirsch 

the secretary of the Hovevei Zion, and the painter Solomon to 
meet me there. 

The gentlemen were already waiting when I arrived 

The conference degenerated into a theologizing discussion. 

Asher Myers asked: What is your relation to the Bible 7" * 

I said: I am a freethinker, and our principle will be: Let 

everyone seek salvation in his own way.” 

Hirsch asked whether I accepted the flag of the Hovevei Zion. 
I countered with my national-social flag: white field, seven 

stars. The Zion flag can serve those who want it as a Temple 
banner. r 

In the end I did not succeed in creating the Center I had had 
in mind. Singer would like to participate, but the intolerant 
Asher Myers told him: “You can’t do that.” 

Singer thought that the matter must first be submitted to the 
prominent Jews: Lord Rothschild, Mocatta, Montefiore, etc. 

I answered: “You can't make me yield to majorities. This is the 
cause of the poor Jews, not of the rich ones. The protest of the 
latter is null, void, and worthless. Nevertheless, I should like to 
have the project carried out by a committee, because it must be 
conducted in an impersonal way.” 

Asher Myers said: No, you are the man to conduct it. You 

must be the martyr to this idea. The orthodox Jews will join with 
you, but consider you a bad Jew. And besides, the Jews will not 
want to go to Argentina, but to Palestine.” 

• In English in the original. 

He asked me for a resumi of my pamphlet for the Jewish 

me ' He beUeVed that lhe 
As 1 ~ • : J, I desired would be created within the Mac- 

Study is brother .in-!aw Bentwich, he said, was filled 

“Enthusiasm. The club would devote several Sundays in sue 
cession to a consideration of my pamphlet. 

Good enough. 

Rev Singer accompanied me to the Charing Cross station. 
So as to be able to talk with him a while longer, I left at eleven 

o’clock instead of ten. . 

Thau send the pamphlet and the letters to h.m. For the tune 

being he is my chief representative in London. He does seem to 

be very devoted to the cause. , 

He was remarkably attentive during that final hour. 

Then a good, but I was ill when 1 amved m Pans. 
Nordau diagnoses it as bronchial catarrh. I must see to tt that 

I get home and finish the pamphlet. 

“A prophet must have sound lungs,” says N ordau. 

■•With such a winter coat a man isn't a prophet, I replied in 

^oriaTis more reserved now than he was before my departure 

f0 H^m"participate in the project “within the limits of pos- 

By contrast, Beer the sculptor was immediately heart and sou 
for the idea at my first intimation of it. He came in the evening 
when I took my catarrh to bed, and drew up plans: to make the 
desert arable, import humus soil into Palestine from Africa, plant 

forests, etc. 

Beer will be an excellent helper; I knew it from the start. 
Farewell visit to Zadoc Kahn. 


November 29 

He was very amiable again, saying that he considered my solu- 
non the only one, and why didn’t I speak with Salomon Reinach. 

said that 1 was too tired now. Actually, 1 don't expect a thing 
from the French Jews. r 6 

Zadoc said I should send my pamphlet to Edmond Rothschild. 
I: Wouldn t dream of it. 

Vienna, December 15 

In international dealings there is neither justice nor humane- 
ness. The absence of these two elements-so one could say jest- 
ingly— makes the Jewish Question an international one. 

. , December ir; 

Mimicry on the part of the Jews. 

In this we mainly lost our good qualities, because such national 
mimicry usually produces only bad ones. 

December 24 

I was just lighting the Christmas tree for my children when 
Gudemann arrived. He seemed upset by the "Christian” custom. 
Well, I will not let myself be pressured! But I don’t mind if they 
call it the Hanukah tree— or the winter solstice. 

* * # 

The Jewish publisher Cronbach in Berlin will not hear of my 
offer to bring out my pamphlet. He says that it runs counter to 
his views. I consoled myself when I noticed from the envelope of 
his letter that he publishes a hairdressers’ journal and the like. 

Then I wrote to Duncker & Humblot, who will not have any- 
thing to do with it, either. 

Publish it under my own imprint, then? If the pamphlet sells, 
I would look like a businessman! 


January 18, 1896 

Schidrowiu telegraphed today from London that my p«- 
. orfirle “The Solution of the Jewish Question," has 

" d in the Jewish Chronicle. The first step into the public 


January 19 

Signed a contract with the publisher Breitenstein 

He was enthusiastic when I read him a few passages from the 

text which I finished at last after long toil. 

I have changed the title-to Der Judenslaat [The Jewish 

^1 now have the sense of relief that comes from the completion 
of a job. 

Success I do not expect. 

I am returning calmly to my literary projects. First of all I 
shall rework the Ghetto play* 

January 22 

The first manifestation of support, from a London book dealer, 
P. Michael is, who places at my disposal his “devotion and en- 


January 23 

The second is from Rabbi A. Kaminka in Prague, who alls 
on me to form a national Jewish party in Austria. 

I am answering him that for the present I think I ought to 
refrain from any personal political agitation. 

January 25 

Dr. Lieben, Secretary of the local Jewish Community, came 
to the office. I spoke with him in Bacher’s room. Lieben has re- 
ceived an inquiry from London as to whether I was the author 


of that Utopia in the Jewish Chronicle. He had replied that he 
thought not, “for I know him as a sensible person ” 

In the course of our talk he brought up, one by one, the famil- 
iar, basic objections. 

When I stated that I was a nationalist Jew, he said: “That’s 
what you make yourself believe.” 

I did not take any further trouble with him. 

January 27 

Gudemann has read the first proofs and writes me full of en- 
thusiasm. He believes that the tract will strike like a bombshell 
and work wonders. Chief Rabbi Adler has written him that he 
considers the matter impractical and at the same time, dangerous. 
The Chief Rabbi has too good a position to find my project to 
his liking. None of these things irritate me. 

, , . February 1 

The pamphlet is ready in final proofs. 

At the office they already have wind of it. 

Oppenheim has read the Jewish Chronicle article and derides 
“the Jewish Jules Verne." He sees in it "material" for a humorous 
weekly entrefilet [sketch]. 

In line with my basic idea about the transitional phase I rec- 
ognize in him the scoffer in the street who laughs at the prophet 
or people’s spokesman. 

I said to him, naturally in a polite tone of voice: “The man 
who makes jokes about it I shall make jokes about in return— 
and I can make wicked jokes.” 

He replied: “The wickedest joke of all is your making the 
matter public. If that article in the Chronicle appears in German, 
the anti-Semites will raise a hullaballoo over it. Yes, that would 
suit them just fine." 

Another colleague (from the Economist) remarked that he 
and his fiancee had read the Chronicle and decided not to join 
the movement. I disposed of him with a smile. 


r r the rest 1 already see clearly what opposition I shall en- 
F r and from what quarters. Journalists making fun of the 
h n K areThe mJimmediate danger now. 71 fauira leur 
Ion' rrr, que fai Upmlt terrible [I will have to show them that 

' C Thh uThe wm'i believe matters will go: It the thing catches 

„„ they will content themselves with sullen envy. 

i the explosion is only an explosion de rne exploston of 
laughter], then I shall be marked down for a fool. Tins ts the 
acrlfice-apart from the sacrifices I can on ly surmtse now, 
nshlv much greater ones-that I am quite deliberately mak- 
T for the Jewish cause. 1 am being 'taken seriously/' I have 
already been offered the editorship of a newspaper; other offers 
of his kind, far better ones even, would agatn be made. M, job 
•' itself is good enough and would improve every day. I be- 
lieve that 1 am endangering my own job-because, in spue of the 
pledge Bacher made me that time, I shall probably find myself in 
conflict with my editors. It will take a lot of d, p omade skill on 
my part to postpone this conflict as long as possible. Even now 1 
fell that regardless of my able work I am making them uncom- 
fortable. Perhaps things will change if my pamphlet is a success 
-the kind that does not result in the “hullaballoo that Oppen- 
heim talked about. But if I fare badly. I think they will leave me 
in the lurch and perhaps compel me, through the nature of the 
XL against my pamphlet, to leave the staff as a matter of 


February 2 

Bloch, the former deputy in Parliament, came with a letter 
from Gtidemann and asked me to let him have a few chaptm 
from my pamphlet for publication in his U oche 
schri/t. Gudemann is enthusiastic and writes: Your co gu 

ought to place wreaths upon your brow. . . 

Bloch seems to have confidence in the cause. I ni t pro e 


politicians like Bloch. The only thing is that he believes the pro- 
ject to be dependent on the participation of the Rothschilds. I 
believed that too in the beginning, but I no longer do. Bloch 
thinks it is out of the question that people will take the whole 
thing as a joke, and says that 1 worry too much about this point. 
Well, I believe that the first impression will determine at least 
the speed of the development. 

February 2 

In the afternoon met Gudemann in the Prater. He said: “I 
was just thinking of you. You have no idea what a great thing 
you have done.” 

He was quite enthusiastic and expects an enormous reaction. 

Gloomy atmosphere at the office. Talked with Bacher. He has 
many grave and great misgivings. The chief danger: my saying 
that we cannot assimilate. The anti-Semites will seize upon this, 
just as they will in general pick out of my text any “plums” 
that they can use and keep quoting them. There is something 
similar in Levysohn’s letter which arrived today and in which 
he announces that he will fight me vigorously. He says that I 
was right in shifting the ground of the discussion; but this shift 
works to our disadvantage. 

While I was talking to Bacher, Goldbaum came in. Strangely 
enough — and as I immediately recognized, with malicious intent 
— he handed me a protest from a would-be contributor to our 
literary page who complained that a manuscript of his had not 
received any attention. It was just as if he wanted to weaken fur- 
ther my position on the staff, which he already considered shaken. 

His conversation, too, was full of barbed allusions. He spoke 
about the Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand and Count Goluchowski 
who was about to be deposed because his innovations were caus- 
ing embarrassment and he constituted a menace. 

When we were leaving he handed me the page proofs of my 
pamphlet which had been loaned to him and said: “You have 
moved me but not convinced me.” 


After these cordial-sounding words I was ready to believe that 
in my nervousness I had misinterpreted his behavior in Bather's 

But when I came home I saw that in two places he had not 

even cut the pages of my pamphlet. 

Once more, before leaving, 1 went to Bacher s room. Benedikt 
came in and made as if to go out again when he saw me. I asked 
him whether he had read my pamphlet. He replied: “I cannot 
dwell on trifling fault-finding here and there in the text. One 
has to take the whole thing or leave it alone." 

His voice dropped when he spoke the words “leave it alone.” 
That was all. Still, a downright dramatic touch. Storm clouds 
hovered over this brief conversation. We had understood each 

other and, as though nothing serious or momentous were under 

discussion, we passed on to indifferent matters, spoke about the 
Easter number, to which Lemaitre was to be requested to con- 
tribute an article, and the like. 

February 3 

At night. 

I have sized up Benedikt correctly. This evening he came to 
my room and asked-fie asked me/— if he could have a talk with 
me He wanted to discuss the matter with me not as the \eue 
Freie Presse, but as an individual.” I was to take no decisive ac- 
tion before our talk, nothing that could not later be undone. 

I said: “I shall not bring the pamphlet out before then, but 1 
cannot stop the printing of it. Later changes would entail ex- 
pense.” ft 

He answered: “Money can take care of that. 

I don’t know if I understood him correctly. Does he want to 

offer me money to desist from publication? 

In any case, my answer tomorrow or the next day- w enevCT 
this momentous encounter takes place is determined in a 
vance. I shall, I must tell him: My honor is pledged. Even it 
wanted to, I could no longer backtrack. My idea has 


pressed in the Jewish Chronicle article. It no longer belongs to 
me. If I kept silent, if I withheld the pamphlet which I have 
promised publicly, it would appear that I had sold myself to the 
rich Jews who oppose my plan.— I shall go along with small al- 
terations that he may desire, but make him pay the printing 
costs involved. Such payment must in eventum [for the futurel 
furnish the proof that I may need some day. J 

But how right I was when I told my parents this afternoon that 
I was already in the thick of the fight. 

Yes, I believe that the hardest battle is now taking place. There 
is in it an almost pantomimic silence, a dramatic climax with 
little talk, but every word is a tragic action. 

The Neue Freie Presse is wrestling with me, the boss with his 
employee. He has all the strength of his superior position; I have 
justice on my side. 

If I am driven into a corner, there is one utmost concession I 
can make: waive my claim to the promised article, which was to 
be my entire compensation for declining that editorship. 

February 3 

Was at the printing office and talked with the managers, the 
Hollinek brothers. Both are presumably anti-Semites. They 
greeted me with sincere cordiality. They liked my pamphlet. 
One of them said: It was necessary that a man stand up and un- 
dertake the task of mediation. 

February 4 

Lay awake for hours during the night, reflecting about the 
situation at the Neue Freie Presse. There is no doubt that I am 
in the thick of the battle. Bacher said yesterday: “You are burn- 
ing your bridges behind you I" 

When I speak with Benedikt I must make him understand 
what faces them if they do not keep their promise to me. 

If he forces me to leave the paper, I must immediately have 
another paper at my disposal. If worst comes to worst, I shall 


Jte another pamphlet telling dispassionately of all happenings. 

In this campaign 1 have long been prepared for the first battle. 
I 0 nlv marched straight ahead. Suddenly, a small skinnish that 
does not look like anything, just a few shots back and forth. 

And yet I already know that the big battle, perhaps the decisive 

one, has begun. 

I must remain hard and firm, agree to no procrastination, ao 
cept no more promises. Ehrlich’s words are in my mind: “The, 

will not keep their promise to you." 

1 am slaking a lot, my entire pos.tton-but so ts the Ne tte 

Freie Presse! 

February 4 

My publisher Breitenstein wants to have a first printing of 
only 3.000 copies. He has no confidence as yet in its commercial 


February 4 

Showdown discussion with Benedikt. 

He said: (1) No individual has the right to take upon himself 
the tremendous moral responsibility of setting this avalanche in 
motion and endangering so many interests. (2) We shall no 
longer have our present fatherland and not yet have the Jewish 
State. (3) The pamphlet is not yet ripe for publication 

He said there was a personal danger for myself in that 1 was 
risking my established prestige. By doing this I was also harming 
the paper, for among its assets was my literary reputation. Fur- 
thermore, I was in direct opposition to several principles of the 
Neue Freie Presse. He wants me to refrain from publication. 

I answered: “My honor is pledged. I have already published 
the idea in the Jewish Chronicle. It no longer belongs to me, but 
to the Jews. If I kept silent now, I would endanger my reputa- 
tion all the more.” , , « 

He begged me to think it over once more. At least I s 

postpone the publication for a few months. He himse wou 
help me do the necessary re-writing. I asked: When? 


He answered: “In the summer— when I take my vacation.” 

I merely laughed to myself. 

He threatened me in no uncertain terms, although he ex- 
pressly conceded my right to publish the pamphlet. He force- 
fully warned me “as a friend,” “as an experienced journalist.” 
He “strongly advised,” he “urgently desired.” He said: “You are 
really not an Austrian at all, but a Hungarian.” 

I replied: “I am an Austrian citizen.” 

He told me some tale, dragged in by the ears, with the point 
that it was his habit to “swing with my fists when something gets 
too much for me to take.” 

He mentioned in passing that he had many young friends in 
literary circles (which implied the threat that I could easily be 
replaced as literary editor). 

He tickled my vanity: “It is not a matter of indifference if Dr. 
Theodor Herzl publishes such a piece of writing. You are one of 
our most outstanding collaborators, an integral part of the Neue 
Freie Presse. If you do publish the pamphlet, at least you should 
not put your name to it.” 

I said: “That would be cowardice, and, what’s more, needless 

In the end, he asked me to think it over for another 24 hours. 
Presumably I am supposed to be racked by deep psychic strug- 


In the evening I went to Bloch and then took him along to 
Gudemann. I told them everything. 

At first Gudemann believed that I wanted his consent to re- 
treat, and consequently counseled me to do what two excellent 
men like Bacher and Benedikt advised me. 

But I put my problem on the right plane. Desisting from pub- 
lication was out of the question, I said. I am not a little boy who 
backs out of something at the last moment. I shall follow this 
through. I said it was only a question of the following. Bloch 
wants to publish in his weekly a translation of my article in the 


Jewish Chronicle. I gave him the original manuscript and he had 
' “ in , vpe I cannot step on Benedikt's toes, must not supply 
him With the casus belli [cause for war] which he would welcome. 

1 do not want, then, to create a fait accompl, in Vienna before I 

am acquainted with all his reservations. 

Therefore I am withdrawing my manuscript from Bloch-of 
course, I could not prevent him from printing the translation of 
mv article which Professor Kaufmann has sent him. 

This is how we finally left things. Bloch is going to return my 
manuscript but will publish Kaufmann s translation on his own. 

Now however, Gtidemann said that 1 was right in no, re, real- 
in.. Finally, he wen, so far as to remark that Benedikt was be- 
having like a rather petty businessman. When they were afraid 
mat I might found a rival newspaper, they promised to support 
my pamphlet; now, they actually want to stop me from publish- 

ing it. 

February 5 

Saw Benedikt, but had no talk with him-i.e., we spoke only 

about ordinary political affairs of the day. 

In the evening Bacher came to my room, was very affable, but 

talked about all sorts of other things. 

He was waiting for me to bring up the subject of the pamphlet. 
But all I talked about was contemporary French literature. 

February 6 

Alexander Scharf called on me. He had heard from Bloch that 
I had written a magnificent pamphlet. He would 1 ike to get 
ahead of the dailies, because his weekly, published on Monday, 
takes a long time to produce. I was unable to give him permis- 
sion to reprint anything from it, in view of what was happeni g 

3t BuVwe'got ,0 talking, and 1 answered his objections with argu- 
ments from the pamphlet. For the objections he made were y 
the expected ones. 


After the first half hour, he compared me to Hertzka the 
author of Freeland, and reminded me of the story about the 
lunatic in the asylum who said: “Look at that poor fool; he 
thinks he’s the emperor of Russia, when I am.” 

After another half hour, he compared me to Christ. 

He said I was the second Christ who would do the Jews griev- 
ous harm. 

Amused, I rejected both comparisons, and said: “I am, quite 
simply, a modem and, at the same time, natural and unaffected 
person. I am doing the whole thing without any nonsense or 
fanciful gestures. I can even contemplate with equanimity the 
possibility that my enterprise will come to nothing.” 

He: “This merely shows me that you are a hokhem [clever 
person]. At first people will certainly make a laughing-stock of 
you. The Jewish-owned papers will call you the Mahdi of the 

“Just let them,” I laughed. 

Finally he said: “If I didn’t know that you can’t be bought, 
and if I were Rothschild, I would offer you five million to sup^ 
press the pamphlet. Or I would assassinate you. For you will do 
the Jews terrible harm. 

Incidentally, I shall read your pamphlet with care; and if you 
convince me, I shall honestly acknowledge that I am on vour 
side.” 7 

I lent him the pamphlet on his word of honor that he would 
not publish anything from it without my authorization. 

Then I tried to make him understand that my tract was not a 
danger to the Jews, but a boon. I used the simile of a U-tube. 
Relief for all Jewry begins with an outward flow. In the arm 
marked Jewish State,” the level gradually rises, while it sinks 
in the arm representing the places where Jews now reside. No 
one is ruined; on the contrary, the foundations of new wealth are 
laid. And through the progressive improvement of the standing 
of the Jews who emigrate, the situation of those who remain be- 
hind improves. 


In the evening I met Dessauer, the bank director, and strolled 
with him through the wintry, snow-covered Stadtpark. 

Dessauer sees no danger but only benefits in my publication. 
He thinks that a new and better tone will be introduced into the 
lewtsh Question. Nor does he see any danger to the Neue Freie 
Presse from my tract. He thinks it odd of the Neue Freie Presse 
to believe that it is not regarded as a Jewish paper. For the rest, 
its publishers should not even take a stand themselves, but sim- 
-lv i«ve my pamphlet reviewed by some Heidelberg professor. 

Then we spoke of future developments. Dessauer had a nice 
idea He said it would be interesting to see the Jewish State a 
hundred or two hundred years from now. To see what had come 
out of my idea. He thinks it quite as likely that the Jewish State 
will come into being during our lifetime as that « will not be 
established until decades after our death. In fifty years t, me, he 
believes the lewish State will already be in existence. He thinks 
it will be a great state, for, as the case of England proves, the 
strength of a state does not depend on the number of its cit.rens, 
but on their intelligence. 

We did a bit of dreaming about the future achievements of 
the Jewish people for the welfare of mankind. 

• * * 

February 7 

Bloch’s weekly is out and the issue does not contain the Kauf- 
mann translation. At the same time there comes a letter from 
Bloch in which he excuses himself for not publishing it by saying 
that he found the translation unsatisfactory; he preferred waiting 
another week in order to be able to publish my original. 
Actually, he has left me in the lurch. He is evidently afraid of 

the Neue Freie Presse. 

That, too, is all right with me. This, like everything e se 
far, just goes to show again that 1 have no support whatever, that 
I have to do everything myself. 


And Scharf told me yesterday that Bloch had boasted of having 
assisted me in the writing of the pamphlet. 

And yet every line, every word, is my own work. 

February 8 

In the Diet of Lower Austria, Deputy von Pacher yesterday 
demanded that anyone ivho is demonstrably of Jewish ancestry 
might be deprived of his civic rights. 

* # # 

My good friend, the Rev. Singer, writes me from London that 
my scheme has scarcely been discussed in public, but in all the 
more lively fashion in private. He himself has spoken of it from 
the pulpit. But on the whole, it still does not come closely enough 
home to English Jews, for anti-Semitism there is not calamitous. 

* # * 

In the Berlin monthly Zion there is a friendly review of my 
Chronicle article from the pen of Dr. J. Holzmann. However, he 
is against a language federalism. 

I am writing him that we should not conjure up any differ- 
ences among ourselves at this time, but save wrangling for later. 

February 9 

Met Bloch who told me that in response to my article repro- 
duced in Zion a delegation of students had called on me while I was 
out. They also wished to invite me to Giidemann’s lecture in 
the Lesehalle. I went there with Bloch. On the way he told me 
that Scharf had been to Giidemann to request G. to prevail upon 
me as well as my father not to publish my treatise. Scharf also 
said that the community would hold it very much against Giide- 
mann if he failed to dissuade me. 

I said: “I shall give Giidemann a letter to the effect that he 
made every effort to dissuade me from my purpose.” 


This only goes to show again that no one helps me, in fact, 
that everyone tries to hinder me — the very people who will un- 
doubtedly claim later, if success comes, that they were my col- 

As for those who tremble for their possessions — Scharf owns 
several houses in Vienna — I shall simply tell them this. If you 
want to cover yourselves against possible losses, simply subscribe 
for shares in the Jewish Company. What you lose here through 
the moving out of your Jewish tenants, you will gain over there 
by their moving in. The U-tubel By the same amount that you 
sink here, you will rise there. And besides, you can have the same 
houses again on the other side. The Company will build them 
for you.” 

• * • 

In the Jiidische Akademische Lesehalle I was greeted with 
enthusiasm. When the chairman welcomed the guests, my name 
received the longest and most tempestuous applause — which, if 
my eyes did not deceive me, may have piqued one or another 
among the guests of honor. 

After Giidemann’s lecture, a few of the young people came up 
to me, and I spoke extemporaneously for an hour. There were 
some hundred of them — many erect figures, all eyes sparkling 
with intelligence. They stood crowded together and listened with 
mounting enthusiasm. A great success — as I had expected. I had 
long ago pictured the entire scene just as it happened. As I drove 
away, they stood in the street and shouted after me through the 
night a loud, many-voiced “ Prosit [Cheers]!” 

February 9 

One of the students in my audience yesterday, Carl Poliak, 
came to see me, because he had to “give vent to my enthusiasm.” 
He said that right after my speech a few people who had 
hitherto been lukewarm declared that they would get behind 
the national idea. 


February 10 

Read today the pamphlet entitled Auto-Emancipation which 
Bloch gave me. 

An astounding correspondence in the critical part, a great sim- 
ilarity in the constructive one. 

A pity that I did not read this work before my own pamphlet 
was printed. On the other hand, it is a good thing that I didn’t 
know it — or perhaps I would have abandoned my own under- 

At the first opportunity I shall speak about it in public, and 
possibly write an article about it in Zion. 

February 14 

Days of excitement, full of palpitations and shortness of breath. 

Talked with Ludassy today. The Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung 
should lead it off. After a quarter of an hour he got the point. 
He asked: “Shall I review it as a friend or a critic? In the latter 
case, I may draw blood.” 

To which I said: “Hanc veniam damus petimusque vicissim 
[we pardon and ask for pardon in turn].” Whoever whacks me, 
I shall whack in return. Je ne me laisserai pas faire [I won’t 
stand for it]. I’ll fight hard. But those who go with me will all 
become famous figures in history.” 

He said: “I will go with you.” 

• • • 

My 500 copies came this evening. When I had the bundle 
carted to my room, I was terribly shaken. This package of pam- 
phlets constitutes the decision in tangible form. My life may now 
take a new turn. 

Then I went to the office. I recalled the fisherman on the “See- 
wiesen” at the Alt-Aussee Lake who said: “The most remarkable 
thing is a man’s never giving up hope.” 


February 15 

My good papa comes and tells me that the pamphlet is already 

on display in Breitenstein’s window. 

Will there be a fight at the office todays 

# * * 

Spoke again with Ludassy. He is already dropping off. He has 
changed his mind. He “must write the way my readers want it." 
There was “a difference between what a writer of feuilletons says 

and what an editorial writer says. 

When I replied that I believed the masses would share my 
views, he remarked: “I shall always be able to wheel round.” 
That’s all right, too. 

Aftenvards went to see Szeps. He seemed to understand the 
matter, but he too has nothing but misgivings. “A newspaper 
must not be original,” he said. “Newspapers cannot propagate 

new ideas.” 

He wants to think it over. 

Meanwhile, the pamphlet has appeared in the bookstores. For 
me, the die is cast. 

February 15 

At this point my good father is my only standby. All those with 
whom I have conferred on the subject up to now are cautiously 
keeping in the background, watching events, biding their time. 
At my side I feel no one but my dear old dad. He stands firm as 
a rock. 

Oppenheim made some jokes last night at the office. He wants 
to have my pamphlet bound. “If you are meshugge [crazy], have 
yourself bound,” he said, after I had given him a copy at his own 

I must be prepared for this sort of thing. The grown-up street 
urchins will be on my heels. But a man who is to carry the day in 
thirty years has to be considered crazy for the first two weeks. 

At the Stock Exchange, too, there is supposed to have been a 


lot of discussion of the pamphlet yesterday. If anything, the mood 
seems to be hostile to me. 

February 16 

Dr. S. R. Landau came to see me. I believe I have in him a 
devoted and capable supporter. 

He seems to be an ardent enthusiast, with the main fault of 
that type of person: intolerant zeal. 

But a good, stalwart man. Properly controlled, such energies 
can work wonders. 

February 17 

Not a single local paper has expressed itself yet. Still, the pam- 
phlet begins to be a known quantity. Acquaintances ask me: “Is 
that pamphlet people are talking about by you? Is it a joke or 
something meant to be serious?” 

I answer: “Deadly seriousl Of course, anyone who undertakes 
a thing of this kind must expect that at first the street urchins will 
run after him. And there is such a thing as grown-up street ur- 

February 18 

If nothing happens at the office today, I shall send the following 
letter to Badeni: 

Your Excellency: 

When I last had the honor of being received by you, I took the 
egregious liberty of steering the conversation to the pending prob- 
lem of the day. 

That happened to be — at the end of October — the Lueger 
question. I noticed your consternation, Excellency, when I said: 
If you do not confirm his election, you will be endorsing Jew- 
hatred as a whole. 

The reason I said that was the pamphlet which I herewith beg 
to put in Your Excellency’s hands and which was already finished 


at that time. I wanted to imprest mysell on your memory by a 
IRtle short-term prophecy, so that you m.ght later read my pol.t- 

iral treatise with some attention. 

Th.s pamphlet will presumably cause a certain commotion: 

laughter outcries, wails, abuse, misunderstand, ng, stup,, 

b Tface all these things with the utmost composure. Les chiens 
aboun,-la caravane passe [The dogs bark the caravan passes]. 
Rut I would want Your Excellency to read my polmcal treatise, 
which is of great practical interest to you, before it is distorted by 
wild discussion. To read it with your own unprejudiced eyes. 
You will then notice that I have only touched lightly upon many 
matters that are of the highest importance . . . (interrupted). 

February 18 , evening 

At noon the university lecturer Feilbogen called on me at the 
office and said he had to talk to me about the pamphlet- It is 
the most significant thing that Zionist literature has produced 
to date,” etc.— paeans of praise. 

In the afternoon he came to my house and opened the corner- 
sation by asking whether my pamphlet was meant to be taken 
seriously or whether it was not a satirical presentation of Zionism. 

I was quite taken aback and answered: “lam too old for such 
Alcibiadic jests.” 

Then, for hours on end, he split hairs, harping on this, carping 
on that. 

1 was so sickened by it all that I was unable to go on writing 
the letter to Badeni, and, in fact, didn’t feel like doing anything 
any more. 

In the evening, however, I heard at the office that the Deutsche 
Zeitung (anti-Semitic) is going to publish an editorial on the sub- 
ject tomorrow. Presumably abuse. But important in any case, be- 
cause of the attitude the other papers will take in reply. 

Now I again feel like writing to Badeni. 




(Continuation of letter to Badeni). 

Every state has a rightful claim on its Jews— what is to become 
of these claims? This is one of the many politically delicate points 
which I barely touched upon in my tract. I am prepared to give 
Your Excellency quite detailed and perhaps satisfactory explana- 
tions on this as well as all other points. 

I believe the Jewish State to be a world necessity— and that is 
why it will come into being. 

Anyone who issues such a call will, first of all, have the street 
urchins running after him with amusement — and there are also 
grown-up street urchins. As for the masses, they will look up and 
perhaps join in the laughter, but in any case they will not under- 
stand immediately. And part of the masses is a certain section of 
the press, on both sides, which has an ear cocked for the confused 
babble of the public and allows itself to be led by everybody and 
his brother, instead of leading them. 

These words of yours, Excellency, caused me at that time to 
consider your offer which I later had to decline so regretfully 
when an appeal to my sense of gratitude was made. I would have 
wanted you first to get to know me as a dependable person 
through closer association, and at some later date I should have 
liked to be able to point to this way out from the calamitous sit- 
uation of the Jews. Today’s editorial in the Deutsche Zeitung is 
quite naive and self-contradictory; the writer simply fails to un- 
derstand my pamphlet, because he does not understand the con- 
ditions of modem life. What I am proposing is actually no more 
than the regulation of the Jewish Question, and certainly not the 
emigration of all the Jews. Least of all can and will it entail the 
economic weakening of the countries which are at present anti- 

However, through the same door which I am trying to push 
open for the poor masses of Jews, a Christian statesman who 
seizes the idea aright will enter world history. I will not even 
emphasize the fact that immediate, direct political advantages 
are also bound up with it. 

Should Your Excellency wish to become acquainted with all 


• „( thought on which my pamphlet ts silent, I beg 

these trains of th 8 • aud ience— perhaps some evening 

you to summon me to a secret <* 

° r 0ther ‘ M zaver learn of our conversation through me. 

Excellency's most respectful and obedient servant, 

Dr. Th. Herzl 

(Mailed on the evening of February 19)- 

* • * 

February 19 

Old Heit, a dealer in textiles and property owner on the I ranz- 
Josefsquai, was here and invited me to attend a lecture at the 

hitherto anti-Zionist Union. 

He said that up to half an hour before reading my pamphlet 
he had thought it quite impossible that he could ever get in er 
ested in a thing of this sort. But I had converted him completely, 
and he was prepared to sell his real estate, even at a loss, and go 


February 20 

Wilhelm of the Fremdenblatt informs me in a “humorous” 
letter that I am rumored to have become “ meshugge [crazy]. Is 
that true, he asks. 

February 21 

Yesterday a students’ party at the Kadimah. The students gave 
me a great ovation. I had to make a speech, and the speech was 
temperate— and mediocre. I didn’t want to arouse any beery 
enthusiasm, urged them to study hard, and warned them against 
unhealthy fanaticism. We might never get to Zion, so we must 
strive for a Zion within us. 

Attorney Ellbogen came from another meeting and told us 
that Dr. Feilbogen had made an excellent speech there in support 
of my idea. 


Dr. Landau proposed to me the founding of a weekly paper 
for the movement. That suits me, and I shall look into it. This 
weekly will become my organ. Landau had another good idea. 
Newlinsky, the publisher of the Correspondance de I’Est, is a 
friend of the Sultan’s. He might be able to procure for us a status 

of sovereignty— for baksheesh [gratuity]. 

I am also thinking of Kozmian. I shall send Landau to him and 
try to interest him in the matter. 

February 23 

At the Concordia Club yesterday Government Councillor 
Hahn from the Correspondence Bureau tried to make fun of me: 
“What do you want to be in your Jewish State? Prime Minister 
or President of the Chamber of Deputies?” 

1 answered: “Anyone who undertakes the sort of thing I am 
undertaking must naturally be prepared that at first the street 
urchins will be on his heels.” 

Whereupon he crept away sadly. 

* * * 

At the Volkstheater I spoke with many journalists. My pam- 
phlet is the talk of the town. Some people smile or laugh at me, 
but in general, the earnest tone of conviction about my treatise 
appears to have made an impression. 

Hermann Bahr told me he was going to write against me, be- 
cause people cannot do without the Jews. Pas mal [not bad]! 

February 23 

Dr. Landau was here. I asked him to speak to Kozmian so that 
I might personally discuss the matter with him. Landau thinks 
that 1 neglected agriculture in the Jewish State. The answer is 
simply that we shall have agricultural cooperative societies and 
agricultural small industrialists, both with credit lor machinery 
from the Jewish Company. 

We then got on the subject of the language. Landau, like many 


Zionists, is in favor of Hebrew. I think the main language must 
gain acceptance without constraint. If we found a neo-Hebrew 
state it will be only a New Greece. But if we do not close ourselves 
off in a linguistic ghetto, the whole world will be ours. 

In Vienna they are making jokes about me. 

Julius Bauer says: “It’s all right with me if we go to Palestine. 
But I want a republic with a Grand Herzl* at its head. 

February 26 

In the Westungarischer Grenzbote there is an editorial on my 
book by the anti-Semitic deputy Simonyi. He refers to me in a 
chivalrous manner. 

February 27 

The Daily Chronicle publishes interviews with the painter 
Holman Hunt and Sir Samuel Montagu about The Jewish State. 

Holman Hunt claims priority on the idea, because he had writ- 
ten a letter to an English Jew before my article appeared in the 
Jewish Chronicle. 

Montagu thinks that one might offer the Sultan two million 
pounds for Palestine. 

* # * 

Neumann of the Fremdenblatt writes me that in financial cir- 

cles the most extravagant praise and blame are being heaped on 
my book. I knew that it would leave no one indifferent. 

• * # 

Kosmian came to the office to see Bacher. I ran into him in the 

anteroom. Landau had called on him. But even before that he 
had heard about my pamphlet — possibly from Badeni. Kosmian 
said: “II parait que c’est tris excentrique [It seems that it is very 
eccentric].” I replied: “C’est un derivatif [That’s irrelevant].’ 

• Translator’s Note: Grossherzl, a pun on Grossherzog, the German word for 
"Grand Duke.’’ 


February 28 

Yesterday’s election to the Vienna City Council again proves 
me right. Since September the anti-Semitic vote has again in- 
creased enormously. Big majorities everywhere, even in the 
“strongholds” of liberalism: the Innere Stadt and the Leopold- 

Our editorial today is quite resigned. 

* # • 

Received from Nordau an enthusiastic letter which fills me 
with pride. He thinks that my Jewish State is a “great accom- 
plishment,” a “revelation.” 

March 1 

Ludassy attacks me in the Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung. “Zion- 
ism is madness born of desperation. Away with such chimeras!” 
One of his staff humorists makes a little derisive quip about 
the “Maccabees of Flight.” 

In the Zeit Professor Gomperz makes an attack on Zionism, 
using as a “point of departure” my book — which he says he has 
not read. 

The Zionists Bimbaum, Jacob Kohn, and Landau paid me a 
joint visit and wrangled among themselves. 

Kohn is against Landau, Kadimah against Gamalah. 

Bimbaum wants the agitation to be confined to scholarly week- 
lies, Landau wants to agitate everywhere, Kohn only in Vienna. 

It is downright disheartening to observe their rank hostility 
toward one another. 

Bimbaum is unmistakably jealous of me. What the baser sort 
of Jews express in vulgar or sneering language, namely, that I am 
out for personal gain, is what I catch in the intimations of this 
cultured, refined person. 


The predicted rancor, from within and from without, is al- 
ready here. . , , . _ , 

I regard Birnbaum as envious, vain, and dogmatic. I hear he 

had already turned away from Zionism and gone over to Social- 
ism when my appearance led him back to Zion again. 

* * * 

March 2 

Hermann Bahr came to see me. He tells me that the Jews of 
the higher intellectual circles, who in Old Vienna formed the 
literary salons, the circle around Bauernfeld, and the Grillparzer 
cult, are horrified at me. 

That was to be expected. 

# * * 

One Professor Schneidewin in Hamlin writes me that my Jew- 

ish State has convinced him that the solution he had presented 
in a pamphlet was wrong. At the same time he sends me this 162- 
page booklet which embodies the standpoint of the “better" anti- 

March 3 

A fashion-goods dealer at Semlin, S. Waizenkorn, writes me thst 
all the Semlin Jews are ready to emigrate, bag and baggage, as 
soon as the Jewish Company is founded. 

March 4 

My warmest adherent so far is— the Pressburg anti-Semite Ivan 
von Simonyi, who bombards me with flattering editorials and 
sends me two copies of each. 

# # * 

Dr. Birnbaum today wrote me a letter in which he bemoans 
his financial straits. I gave him twenty guilders, which I record 


here, because I am certain that he is hostile to me and will grow 
more so.* 

In conversation with me, he disparaged Landau. In the eve- 
ning, at the meeting called by Landau, he made a socialistic 
speech, and from Landau’s report I gather that it contained a 
barb against a discussion of my pamphlet, which was on the 

These are rather discouraging observations. 

Landau further writes that Birnbaum wants to become the 
Socialist leader in Palestine. We haven’t got the country yet, and 
they already want to tear it apart. 

March 6 

The vilest attack so far has appeared in the Miinchner Allge - 
meine Zeitung, by A. Bettelheim. He calls my tract “the found- 
ing prospectus of a Jewish Switzerland.” The contents are repro- 
duced by splicing heterogeneous quotations together. 

March 7 

Bacher is charming to me now. This is attracting attention in 
the office and apparently makes people well disposed toward me. 

• • # 

In the Berlin Allgemeine Israelitische Wochenschrift, Klausner 
(of the Borsen-Courier ) pounces on me and “pans" my book 
roughly in the foul-mouthed tone of Berlin theater hyenas turn- 
ing thumbs down on a premiere performance. 

The editor of this weekly invites me to answer as sharply as I 
please. I am not going to answer at all. 

March 7 

The local Zionists want to stage rallies in support of my tract. 
• Translator's Note: This last sentence was crossed out by Herzl. 


March 9 

The Berlin association “Young Israel” invites me to give a 
public lecture before a big audience. Rejected this, as well as 

similar invitations. 

March 10 

The newspaper Ha-am in Kolomea places itself at my disposal. 

An enthusiastic letter from Dr. Bierer, Sofia. The Chief Rabbi 
there considers me the Messiah. This Passover, a lecture on my 
publication will be given in Bulgarian and Spanish before a 

large audience. 

• * * 

The Rev. William H. Hechler, chaplain to the British Embassy 
in Vienna, called on me. 

A likeable, sensitive man with the long grey beard of a prophet. 
He waxed enthusiastic over my solution. He, too, regards my 
movement as a “prophetic crisis”— one he foretold two years ago. 
For he had calculated in accordance with a prophecy dating from 
Omar’s reign (637-638) that after 42 prophetical months, that is, 
1260 years, Palestine would be restored to the Jews. This would 
make it 1897-1898. 

When he had read my book, he immediately hurried to Am- 
bassador Monson and told him: the fore-ordained movement is 

Hechler declares my movement to be a Biblical one, even 
though I proceed rationally in all points. 

He wants to place my tract in the hands of some German 
princes. He used to be a tutor in the household of the Grand 
Duke of Baden, he knows the German Kaiser and thinks he can 
get me an audience. 

March 14 

Great excitement at the University of Vienna. 

The “Aryan” duelling associations have decided that they will 


no longer give satisfaction to Jews with any weapon, on the 
grounds that all Jews are devoid of honor and are cowards. 

My young friend Poliak and another Jew have challenged two 
anti-Semites who happen to be reserve officers; and when they 
refused to fight, the two Jews reported the matter to the General 
Command. There they were referred to the District Command. 

A great deal depends on this decision — namely, the future po- 
sition of Jews in the Austrian army. 

I got Benedikt, whose son is now at the University, and Bacher, 
all steamed up about the matter. 

March 15 

Benedikt publishes in the Economist a peremptory appeal to 
the rich not to let the Jewish battle be fought out by the poor 
and the young alone. 

With the exception of my conclusion, Benedikt stands in this 
article completely on the ground of my political treatise. 

March 16 

Yesterday, Sunday afternoon, I visited the Rev. Hechler. Next 
to Colonel Goldsmid, he is the most unusual person I have met 
in this movement so far. He lives on the fourth floor; his win- 
dows overlook the Schillerplatz. Even while I was going up the 
stairs I heard the sound of an organ. The room which I entered 
was lined with books on every side, floor to ceiling. 

Nothing but Bibles. 

A window of the very bright room was open, letting in the 
cool spring air, and Mr. Hechler showed me his Biblical treas- 
ures. Then he spread out before me his chart of comparative 
history, and finally a map of Palestine. It is a large military staff 
map in four sheets which, when laid out, covered the entire floor. 

“We have prepared the ground for you!” Hechler said trium- 

He showed me where, according to his calculations, our new 
Temple must be located: in Bethel! Because that is the center of 

.p country. He also showed me models of the ancient I emple: 

“We have prepared the ground for you. 

At this point we were interrupted by the visit of two English 
1 di es to whom he also showed his Bibles, souvenirs, maps, etc. 

After the boring interruption he sang and played for me on the 
organ a Zionist song of his composition. From the woman who 
aives me English lessons 1 had heard that Hechler was a hypo- 
crite * But I take him for a naive visionary with a collector’s 
ouirks However, there is something charming about his naive 
enthusiasm, and I particularly felt it when he sang his song to me. 

Afterwards we came to the heart of the matter. I told him: I 
have <mt to establish direct contact, a contact that is discernible 
on the outside, with a responsible or non-responsible statesman 
—that is with a minister of state or a prince. Then the Jews will 
believe in me, then they will follow me. The most suitable man 
would be the German Kaiser. I must be given help if I am to 
carry out the task. Up to now I have had nothing but obstacles 
to combat, and they have been sapping my strength. 

Hechler immediately declared that he was ready to go to Berlin 
and speak with the Court Chaplain as well as with Prince Gunther 
and Prince Heinrich. Would I be willing to give him the travel 


Of course I promised them to him at once. They will come 
to a few hundred guilders, certainly a considerable sacrihce in my 
circumstances. But I am willing to risk it on the prospect of 
speaking with the Kaiser. 

At the same time I fully realize that Hechler, whom I don t 
know yet, may only be a penniless clergyman who likes to tra\el, 
and that he may come back with the word: it was impossible to 
get to the Kaiser. 

But even if he is granted an audience, I have no idea of how 
he will strike these princely families. Actually, here is a major 
enigma in my path. My previous experience tells me that highly 

• Translator’* Note: One of the occasional puns in the Diaries. The German 
word for "hypocrite” is “Heuchler." 


placed persons do not reason any more broadly or see any more 
clearly than do the rest ol us. It is therefore quite as likely that 
the German princes will laugh at this old tutor for his collector’s 
quirks as that they will go along with his naive fancies. The ques- 
tion now is this: when he comes to Berlin, will they pat him on 
the shoulder ironically and say, “Hechler, old man, don’t let the 
Jew get you all steamed up?” Or will he stir them? In any case, 
I shall take the precaution of impressing upon him that he must 
not say he “came at Herzl’s behest.” 

He is an improbable figure when looked at through the quiz- 
zical eyes of a Viennese Jewish journalist. But I have to imagine 
that those who are antithetical to us in every way view him quite 
differently. So I am sending him to Berlin with the mental res- 
ervation that I am not his dupe if he merely wants to take a trip 
at my expense. 

To be sure, I think I detect from certain signs that he is a 
believer in the prophets. He said, for example, “I have only one 
scruple: namely, that we must not contribute anything to the 
fulfilment of the prophecy. But even this scruple is dispelled, for 
you began your work without me and would complete it without 

On the other hand, if he only faked these signs which have 
made me believe in him, he will all the more be a fine instru- 
ment for my purposes. 

He considers our departure for Jerusalem to be quite immi- 
nent, and showed me the coat pocket in which he will carry his 
big map of Palestine when we shall be riding around the Holy 
Land together. That was his most ingenuous and most convinc- 
ing touch yesterday. 

• * * 

In the evening I heard from Leo, my wife’s brother-in-law, all 
the snide gossip current among the Jews of his circle, who can- 
not understand “why he has undertaken this thing in view of 
his position, and without needing to.” 


i amwered him with a few words which Professor Leon Kellner 
Jd to me the other day: "There are jews who on Jewry, and 

Which° wilT not prevent these same Jews who now make sport 
„f my Quixotism from calling me, in envy, a shrewd speculator 

afterwards, when success has come. 

This people must be educated-and by our example. 

. • • 

In Vienna people are saying that the students’ conflict over 
satisfaction may be attributed to my pamphlet. 

* ♦ # 

An editorial in last Thursday’s issue of the Norddeutsche Allge- 
meine Zeitung about my pamphlet caused a stir here, and of 
course a much greater one in Berlin, I imagine. 

March 17 

Yesterday Heinrich Steiner, the editor of the Wiener Mode, 
came to see me. He impresses me as a good, capable, resolute man 
with definite convictions. He offered me his services. I gave him 
my ideas about how the necessary publicity should be organized 
in the beginning. I told him to buy the Wiener Allgemeine Zei- 
tung or Szeps’ Tageblatt and turn it into a Zionist paper; I 
would assist him behind the scenes. In this way I could imme- 
diately give our first associates in Vienna (Landau, Bimbaum, 
J. Kohn, etc.) their earliest rewards by procuring good positions 
for them. 

I spent two hours and a half talking to Steiner, and when 1 
spoke some powerful closing words to him on the street, he an- 
swered in a voice choked with emotion: “What I am feeling non 
is a lot for me.” 


March 17 

Letter to Martin Furth, Secretary of the Prince in Sofia: 

Dear Friend: 

I have to write you again even before I have your reply to my 
letter. By wiring for the Congress catalogue (which goes off to 
you today), you brought yourself to my attention at the exact 
moment when I discovered a bit of meanness which you could 
advise or help me in combating. 

The perfidy with which certain Jews in Vienna attack me be- 
cause of my pamphlet defies description. At first they tried to 
make me out a madman. After this lovely expedient had failed 
and the attitude of respected “Christian” papers — notably an edi- 
torial in the Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung — forced people to 
take me and my plan quite seriously, there were other dirty tricks. 
Yesterday I was informed that the following lie was disseminated 
from a certain journalistic nest where the shabbiest among my 
opponents are based: They say that I published my pamphlet 
only “in order to get even with Baron Hirsch for rejecting (my) 
application for the post of general manager of his Jewish colo- 

At the same time someone told me that this lie was supplied 
to the journalistic nest by a person close to the local Alliance Is- 

I would be very pleased if someone had the courage to publish 
this slander in a tangible form, because then I could take a few 
of those rascals by the ears and pin them down. Unfortunately 
I shall have to wait some time for that, because at present they 
are giving me the “silent treatment” in Vienna. The result of 
this silence is that my project is being discussed steadily and ex- 
citedly among all classes and circles in Vienna. But this also gives 
the vulgarities of my opponents underground publicity, and I 
have to think about a remedy. 

What do you think? Can this mendacious statement be trace- 
able to the circle around Baron Hirsch? If the answer is yes, what 
person do you consider capable of it? Hirsch himself I regard as 


a ruthless man but not one who will strike any low blows. Maybe 
vou could provoke him into making a declaration in which he 
aives the true state of affairs, namely, that I did not apply to him 
for anything, but, using the same arguments that are contained 
in my pamphlet, merely tried to convince him in an interview 
and in several letters that his efforts to date have been misguided. 

He could make such a declaration in a few lines in a letter ad- 
dressed to you. You will know best in what way you can ask him 
to do this. If he is the grandiosely constructed fellow that I take 
him to be, although I now have no use for him and may later 
pit myself against him sharply, he will loyalement [loyally] con- 
firm the truth immediately if you write him a few lines about 
my righteous indignation. 

As for the little curs that are now yelping at me, I shall break 
their necks with kicks. J’ai fait du chemin [I have made some 
headway] since we discussed the Jewish Question around the 
Cirque d’£te. It won’t be long before you will hear something 
very, very surprising. But one must keep one s mouth tight shut 
about a bonne surprise [good surprise]. That is what I am doing. 

Please let me know quickly to what extent I can count on you, 
for you can imagine that I am not going to take this rotten at- 
tack lying down. If this method does not work, another will. 

With cordial regards, 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. Herzl. 

March 17 

Dr. Beck, my parents’ old family physician, has examined me 
and diagnosed a heart ailment caused by excitement. 

He cannot understand why I concern myself with the Jewish 
cause, and among the Jews he associates with, no one under- 
stands it either. 

March 26 

Breitenstein the publisher tells me that Giidemann has de- 
clined to give a lecture on my Jewish State. My standpoint, he 


says, is political, whereas his is religious. From his point of view 
he must disapprove of my attempts to anticipate Providence. 

In other words: he does not dare; he no longer finds it oppor- 
tune; he is afraid of the rich Jews who are against it. 

Earlier he was supposed to write an article about the subject in 
Bloch’s Wochenschrift. 

* * * 

The “Sion” society of Sofia sends me an enthusiastic resolu- 
tion in which I am proclaimed the Leader. 

Met Dessauer the bank director in the street. He is ready to 
finance the newspaper I need. I require a million guilders for 
the paper. With this paper I shall subdue the other sheets and 
the refractory Jews of high finance. 

But Dessauer has his moods. A week from now he will plead 
some fatigue or other. In any case, my next step must be to put 
our publicity campaign on a sound foundation. 

March 29 

Seder of the Jewish student association Unitas. Friedmann, a 
lecturer at the University, explained the history of this festival 
which, after all, is our most beautiful and most meaningful one. 
I sat next to him. Later he spoke briefly with me in private, re- 
minded me of Sabbatai Zvi, “who enchanted all people,” and 
winked in a way that seemed to say that I ought to become such 
a Sabbatai. Or did he mean that I already was one? 

March 30 

My strange adherent, the Pressburg anti-Semite Ivan von 
Simonyi, came to see me. A sexagenarian, a mercurial, loquacious 
man with an astonishing amount of sympathy for the Jews. His 
conversation is a mixture of the sensible and the nonsensical; he 
believes in the ritual murder lie, but along with it has the bright- 
est, most modem ideas. Loves me! 


April 3 

The three Marmorek brothers announce their adherence to 
my movement with a certain flourish of solemnity. The Parisian 
Marmorek, of the Pasteur Institute, called on me at the office 
with his younger brother, the lawyer, in order to declare “in our 
own name and in that of our brother, the architect" that they are 
joining in with me and are enthusiastic about it. 

April 5 

Dr. Schnirer and Dr. Kokesch, of the Vienna “Zion” society, 
brought me a resolution to the effect that I should continue my 
work° confident of the Zionists’ support. Schnirer wants to have 
an appeal circulated among Jewish intellectuals all over the 
world. A committee of 15-20 people is to be formed here, each 
of whom is to send the appeal to three or four of his friends in 
other cities. In this way thousands of signatures are to be col- 
lected. This would give me a substantial backing. 

April 7 

During the last few days, several conferences with Steiner and 
Dessauer for the purpose of financing the needed daily paper. A 
wretched job. 

April 9 

Dr. Beer-Hofmann has the following idea for an "initial in- 
stitution”: a great medical school, to which all Asia will stream 
and where, at the same time, the improvement of sanitation in 
the Orient will be developed. He also has a design for a monu- 
mental fountain: Moses Striking Water from the Rock. 

April 10 

A “free-lance scholar” by the name of Carl Bleicher called on 
me. At first I took him for a shnorrer [beggar] who was out for 
modest donations for a book. But he would not accept anything 


from me and placed himself at my disposal as a propagandist. I 
am recording this because it is a sign of the way the poor have 
been moved. This old man, who lives on donations of guilders 
and ten-kreuzer pieces, opened his purse, showed me what he 
had, and refused my donation. This is the most important dif- 
ference between my effectiveness and that of Baron Hirsch. They 
beg from him but do not love him. I am loved by the beggars. 
That is why I am stronger. 

April 13 

Dr. Alfred Stem, the “liberal” Community Councillor, came 
to see me in the office today and unmistakably tried to get closer 
to me. He said it was nice that someone was championing the 
Jewish cause and speaking the way I was speaking. I said to him: 
“Join us and I shall guarantee you popularity. Make this public 
declaration: I, Alfred Stern, whom you have known as a quiet 
person, am joining the Zionist movement! — That will have a 
great effect. Hundreds will follow your example.” 

He replied: “I think so too. Personally, I would have no ob- 
jections. But I would be taking on the responsibility for hundreds 
and thousands.” 

I countered: “Our party will soon relieve you of this responsi- 
bility. When you run for office again, the organized Zionists will 
come to your election rallies.” 

This gave him pause for a bit. 

April 14 

The English clergyman Hechler came to me in the afternoon 
in a state of great excitement. He had been to the Burg, where 
the German Kaiser arrived today, and spoke to Dryander, the 
General Superintendent, and another gentleman from the Kai- 
ser’s retinue. He strolled through the city with them for two 
hours and told them the contents of my pamphlet, which greatly 
surprised them. 

He told them the time had come “to fulfill prophecy.’’ * 

• In English in the original. 


Now he wants me to join him tomorrow morning on a trip to 
Karlsruhe to see the Grand Duke; this is where the German 
Kaiser is going tomorrow evening. We would beat him there by 
half a day. It was Hechler’s idea to call on the Grand Duke first 
thino tell him what it was all about, and say that he had brought 
me to Karlsruhe against my will, so that I might give the gentle- 
men further information. 

I declined to go along, because it would make me look like an 
adventurer. If then Their Highnesses did not feel inclined to 
admit me, I would be standing in the street in an undignified 
posture. I told him to go there by himself, and if they wanted to 
speak to me, I would immediately follow a wired invitation. 

Hechler asked me for my photograph in order to show it to 
the gentlemen; he apparently thinks that they would picture me 
as a “shabby Jew.” I promised to give him a photo tomorrow. 
Strange that I should just have had my picture taken— something 
that had not occurred to me in years — for my father s birthday 

Then I went to the opera, sat in a box diagonally across from 
the imperial box, and all evening studied the motions of the 
German Kaiser. He sat there stiffly, sometimes bent affably to 
our Emperor, laughed heartily a number of times, and in general 
was not unconcerned about the impression he was making on the 
audience. At one time he explained something to our Emperor 
and underlined it with firm, vigorous, small gestures with his 
right hand, while his left hand rested permanently on the hilt of 
his sword. 

I came home at eleven o’clock. Hechler had been sitting in the 
hall for an hour waiting for me. He wants to leave for Karlsruhe 
at seven in the morning. 

He sat with me until half-past twelve making gentle conversa- 
tion. His refrain: fulfill prophecy!* 

He firmly believes in it. 

In English in the original. 


April 15 

Hechler left as scheduled this morning. I went to his place to 
inquire about it; that is how improbable it still seemed to me, 
despite everything. 

April 15 

In the evening, at the offices of the Wiener Mode with Steiner 
and Colbert. The latter is well qualified to secure the financial 
backing for my newspaper. He outlined a clever plan which in- 
volves the expansion of his present enterprise by adding a paper 
factory and by incorporating the paper which I am to direct with 
limited liability. 

April 16 

Hechler wires me from Karlsruhe: 

Everyone enthusiastic. Must stay through Sunday. Please hold 
yourself in readiness. Hechler. 

April 17 

The invitation to come to Karlsruhe has not arrived yet. I am 
beginning to believe that Hechler is creating illusions for himself. 

April 17 

The most stalwart people so far have been the Zionists in 
Sofia. Today there arrived a resolution which was passed in the 
synagogue of Sofia under the chairmanship of the Grand Rabbi. 
Six hundred signatures. Enthusiastic words. 

April 18 

From two sources I hear that Privy Councillor Baron Erb, 
a former Section Head in the Ministry of the Interior, is greatly 
interested in The Jewish State and would like to have a talk with 

• • 



Adiardi the Papal Nuncio, spoke with my colleague Mum 
some time’ ago and told him he was prepared to receive me. 
Unfortunately I did not go to him right away. Now he has been 
railed to Rome by the Pope and is supposed to represent h.m at 
the coronation of the Czar. If I had spoken with the Nuncio and 
won him over, the matter would immediately have been brought 
before the Pope and the Czar; their consent is necessary because 

of the Holy Sepulchre. 

* * * 

No word from Hechler. I now explain it to myself this way: 
with his telegram Hechler wanted to let me down easy about 
the failure of his mission. But since, in any case, he will have 
brought my pamphlet to the attention of the Grand Duke and 
perhaps even to that of the Kaiser, his travelling expenses are 
worth it to me. I shall give them to him without making a face, 
because that way I shall make all the more certain of his good 
services in the future. 

April 18 

Hechler wires from Karlsruhe: 

Second conversation with H. M. and H. R. H.* yesterday 
excellent. Must wait some more. Hechler. 

April 2 1 

Heard nothing more from Hechler. Meanwhile the Kaiser has 

left Karlsruhe and gone to Coburg. 

Wrote to Nordau and gave him the diplomatic assignment of 
putting out feelers toward Hirsch. If Hirsch hands over a few 
million, we can give the project a tremendous resonance and can 
spread some of the money around for baksheesh [gratuities] in 

• Translator’s Note: The initials stand for His Majesty (i.e. the German Kaiser) 
and His Royal Highness (i.e. the Grand Duke of Baden). 


April 2 i, afternoon 

I began the letter to Nordau yesterday and finished it today. 

Between yesterday and today Baron Hirsch died on an estate 
in Hungary. 

I learned of it an hour after I had mailed the letter to Nordau. 
So I had to recall this letter by telegram. But what a strange 
coincidence. The pamphlet has been finished for months. I gave 
it to everyone except Hirsch. The moment I decide to do so, 
he dies. His participation could have helped our cause to success 
tremendously fast. 

In any case, his death is a loss to the Jewish cause. Among the 
rich Jews he was the only one who wanted to do something big 
for the poor. Perhaps I did not know how to handle him properly. 
Perhaps I ought to have written that letter to Nordau two weeks 

It seems to me as though our cause has grown poorer this day. 
For I still kept thinking of winning Hirsch over to the plan. 

• • * 

Hechler telegraphs from Karlsruhe: 

Third conversation yesterday. Fourth today, four o’clock. Hard 
work to make my wish prevail. Nevertheless, all goes well. Hech- 
ler Zirkel 2. 

April 21, at night 

I had intended to go to Pest tomorrow morning. Late this eve- 
ning I received Hechler’s call to come to Karlsruhe. 

A curious day. Hirsch dies, and I make contact with princes. 
Now begins a new book of the Jewish cause. After my return 
I shall add Hechler’s last two telegrams to this full notebook. 

Book Three 

Begun April 22, 1896 
On the way to Karlsruhe 

April 22 

A sunny Spring day. Today at seven I wanted to take the boat 
to Pest. And now I am sitting in a compartment of the Orient 
Express, going to Karlsruhe. 

I am writing these pages in pencil and in shaky handwriting 
directly into the diary which I am holding on my knees, because 
later I shall probably have no time to make a clean copy. If I 
did not have a chance to do this when the Jewish cause was only 
in its beginnings, what will it be like in the future when we pass 
from the dream into the reality! For now it may be presumed that 
every day there will be interesting events, even if I should never 
get to the point of founding the State. 

The fact that the Grand Duke has sent for me is the plainest 
evidence that he — and consequently also the Kaiser, who was 
with him three days ago — takes the matter seriously. And this 
fact is the most momentous, the most improbable. If it is true, 
it will affect the world like a thunder-clap and will be the “suc- 
cess” which Bierer is praying for in Sofia. 

• * # 

A delightful day, a lovely one. A flush of green on the beckon- 
ing meadows. On a wooden hill the trees are divided, giving 
the appearance of a broad hair-parting. Through them one can 
see as a delicate background the pale Spring sky — and at this 
moment my thoughts turn to the dead Baron Hirsch. 

The living are right. I am right — as long as I am alive. 

The Jews have lost Hirsch, but they have me. 

And after me they will have someone else. Progress must go on. 

A Vienna morning paper said in its obituary today: Hirsch 
was unable to help the poor because he was rich. This was the 
general idea — and it is right. I am tackling the same task differ- 
ently, and, I believe, better and more forcefully, because I am 
not using money but an idea. 

* • * 



Before my departure I received another telegram from Hech- 

Cannot possibly remain here till Saturday. Conference with 
H. R. H. set for Thursday for both of us. Must I really return 
with mission half accomplished? ... I must leave tomorrow if 
you cannot come by Thursday noon. Hechler. 

He had interpreted my yesterday’s message that I was leaving 
for Pest as a reply to his second telegram of yesterday, which it 
was not. It is a good thing that he thought it necessary to urge 
me again. But today, beaming with joy, he will report to the 
Grand Duke that I am coming after all. 

* * * 

I really don’t know much about the Grand Duke: only that 
he is an old man and was a friend of Friedrich. At present he 
seems to have Wilhelm’s ear, too. Therefore, a great deal depends 
on this conference and on the impression I make upon him. 

Yet I must not become dizzy on these heights. I shall think of 
death and be earnest. 

I shall be cool, calm, firm, modest but determined, and speak 
the same way. 

April 23, Karlsruhe 

I arrived here at eleven last night. Hechler met me at the sta- 
tion and took me to the Hotel Germania, which had been “rec- 
ommended by the Grand Duke.” 

We sat in the dining-room for an hour. I drank Bavarian beer, 
Hechler milk. 

He told me what had happened. The Grand Duke had re- 
ceived him immediately upon his arrival, but first wanted to wait 
for his privy-councillor’s report on my Jewish State. 

Hechler showed the Grand Duke the "prophetic tables” which 
seemed to make an impression. 

When the Kaiser arrived, the Grand Duke immediately in- 
formed him of the matter. Hechler was invited to the reception, 


and 10 the surprise of the court-assembly the Kaiser addressed 
him with the jocular words: “Hechler, I hear you want to be- 
come a minister of the Jewish State.” 

Contrary to etiquette, Hechler replied in English, whereupon 
the Kaiser continued in English: “Isn’t Rothschild behind this?” 

Naturally, Hechler answered in the negative. And with that 
the “conversation” seems to have been at an end. 

So far, then, the results have been rather meager. 

On the other hand, Hechler had better luck with the Grand 
Duke. There he was received a number of times. The Grand 
Duke spoke of the late Prince Ludwig, whose tutor Hechler had 
been, and wept freely. Hechler comforted him and read him a 
psalm in which Zion is mentioned. 

Then the Grand Duke was open to further conversation. His 
main misgiving was that his action might be misinterpreted if 
he went along with my plan. People would assume that he wanted 
to drive the Jews out of his country. Also, my status as a journal- 
ist gave him pause. Hechler guaranteed that nothing would get 
into the papers. 

At that point the Grand Duke asked what he could actually 
do for the cause. 

Hechler said: It was Your Royal Highness who, first among 

the German princes at Versailles, proclaimed King Wilhelm 
emperor. What if you were to participate in the second great 
founding of a state in this century, too! For the Jews will become 
a grande nation [great nation].” 

This made an impression on the Grand Duke, and he consented 
to Hechler s calling me here, in order that I might expound the 
matter to him. 

I am to come to a private audience at four o’clock this after- 

I accompanied Hechler to his quarters through the clean, 
deserted streets of this nice capital. Now and then, night owls, 
coming from a tavern, raised a loud and cheerful shout. 

A pleasant provincialism revealed itself to my eyes in these 
night scenes and in Hechler’s stories. The sentinel in front of the 


, ,. listened complacently while Hechler told me where 

castle gate d Duke and of the Grand Duchess 

the a P a,t ™"“ " f ht , re hc himself had once lived. Nostalgically 
I"" ?d to the ele^nt windows. I accompanied him to his 
SSt staying m one of the outlying court buildings. 

• * * 

My task this afternoon will be to get the Grand Duke to rec- 
My , ,„ the Kaiser for an audience, and also to interest the 

ommend meto he Katser ^ father . in . law , i„ the cause. 

Then thet^r might 'talk about it in St. Petersburg, when he 
attends the coronation of the Czar. 

Walked and rode about with Hechler. We viewed the mnuo- 
leum of Prince Ludwig, which is just completed. Wtth a 
solemn beauty this red sandstone chapel stands in the charming 
taming forest next to the Wolfsgraben, where young Ludwig 

h»dH«hler give me details about the grand-ducal family, so 

as to know with whom I would be talking. 

I also took a good look at the photographs of the Grand Duke 
which are displayed in the shop windows. Looks like a well-mean- 

‘ESEKKE, wuu-w-i- 

cemed lest the departure of the Jews might also involve an 

enormous exodus of money. 

I shall accordingly reassure him on this point. 

# # * 

Hechler related how Napoleon I came to Karlsruhe one day 
and forced the Margrave Karl to marry his step-daughter on the 
spot— otherwise his days as a ruler would be over. The margrave 
complied and in return was made a grand duke. 




The lay-out of the city of Karlsruhe is enchanting. Everything 
radiates from the castle. Behind the castle, a park and beautiful 
forests. In front, the peaceful town. 

April 23 

Lunched with Hechler. He had brought his decorations along 
and was more excited than I was. I did not change my clothes 
until after lunch, half an hour before the audience. Hechler 
asked me if I did not want to wear tails. I said no, for too formal 
an attire on such an occasion can also be tactless. The Grand 
Duke wishes to speak with me, as it were, incognito. So I wore 
my trusty Prince Albert. Externals increase in importance the 
higher one climbs, for everything becomes symbolic. 

The rainy morning had turned into a delightful afternoon 
when we came out of the hotel. It was only twenty minutes to 
four o’clock, so we were able to stroll about a bit. 

In good spirits I said to Hechler: “Remember this fine day, 
the lovely Spring skies over Karlsruhe! Perhaps a year from 
today we shall be in Jerusalem.” Hechler said he planned to ask 
the Grand Duke to accompany the Kaiser when the latter went 
to Jerusalem next year for the consecration of the church. I 
should also be present then, and he, Hechler, would like to go 
along as a technical adviser to the Grand Duke. 

I said: “When I go to Jerusalem, I will take you with me.” 

Although we only had a few more steps to go, we took a cab 
and drove up in front of the castle in style. We went up the little 
ramp, something that struck me as a touch of special refinement 
about our visit. It was the first time I had driven up before a 
princely castle. I tried not to let myself be overawed by the 
soldiers on guard. The door-keeper treated Hechler like an old 
friend. We were led into the first waiting-room. It was the 
Adjutants’ Hall. And this did take my breath away. For here 
the regimental flags stand in magnificent rank and file. Encased 
in leather, they rest solemn and silent; they are the flags of 1870- 
1871. On the wall between the flag-stands is a painting of a mili- 


„„ review the Grand Duke parading the troops before Kaiser 
Wilhelm I. One might say that only now did 1 realize where I 

"T tried to divert myself from becoming excessively impressed 
by taking an inventory, like a reporter: furniture upholstered in 
ateen velvet; the brown, curved wooden legs of the chairs 
trimmed with gilt beading; photographs of the three German 

'Tortunately, Hechler chattered without a break, too. He told 
me about the first time he was in this hall when as a young fellow 
he brought a petition to retain an Inspector of Secondary Schools 
who was to be dismissed. At that time an adjutant had come up 
to him and said: “Don’t be afraid! The Grand Duke is only a 

man like ourselves.” 

I thought to myself, smiling inwardly, That s good to know, 

^Then the Gentleman of the Bed-Chamber appeared and in- 
vited us to step into the next salon. The Grand Duke was taking 
a little stroll among his pheasants and would come shortly. 

This second salon is rococo. Red silk damask tapestries, the 
arm-chairs covered with the same material. Large photographs 
of the German emperors. On the wall, oil portraits of a former 

grand duke and his wife. 

Hechler continued to bolster my spirits by his prattle. he 

did this intentionally, it was very discreet. 

He had, in general, prepared me in a most tactful manner. 
For instance, he had remarked on our way to the castle that I 
must unglove my right hand, in case the Duke offered me his 

hand to shake. 

Insertion: At lunch I had told him that the Vienna Nuncio, 
Agliardi, had sent me word (through Dr. Miinz) that he wanted 
to have a talk with me. I told him this so that he might induce 
the British ambassador, Monson, to speak with me. Hechler 
immediately warned me against Agliardi and Rome. He bade me 
be careful. Meanwhile I thought to myself: just let them be 


jealous of one another, Englishmen and Russians, Protestants and 
Catholics. Let them contend over me — that way our cause will be 

While we were sitting in the red salon, Hechler told me about 
the deceased Grand Duke whose portrait hung on the wall: he 
was reputed to be of dubious parentage. At least that is what the 
house of Bavaria had asserted. Bavaria wanted to drive out the 
reigning family of Baden and had a secret agreement with Austria. 
Austria had promised the Palatinate to Bavaria and secretly paid 
her two millions a year, up to 1866. And then, in order to justify 
the claims upon Baden, the Caspar Hauser myth was started in 
Bavaria. I listened to Hechler’s story absent-mindedly. I don’t 
even know if I am reproducing it correctly now. 

It only pleased me to hear of these egotistic wranglings among 
the gTeat, because it made me feel a bit superior in the purity 
of my own movement and gave me more self-assurance. 

Suddenly the door from the study opened, and there entered 
an old general who looked robust but not obese — the Grand 
Duke. We jumped up from our arm-chairs. I made two bows. 
The Grand Duke shook hands with Hechler — but did not avail 
himself of my fittingly bared right hand. He motioned to us to 
follow him. I went in last and closed the door behind me. I have 
no idea how the study looked, for 1 had to keep my eyes on the 
Grand Duke, either speaking or listening, all the time. He is 
seventy years of age, but looks six to eight years younger. 

Three arm-chairs were in readiness. The one I got faced di- 
rectly against the light. The arm rests were not far enough apart 
to let a man drop his arms by his side. These arm-chairs may be 
very comfortable for relaxing, leaning back, and propping one’s 
forearms on the rests. But since it would not have been proper 
for me to lean back, I sat for two and a half hours in a strained 
position, which may also have affected my manner of delivery. 

At first I spoke self-consciously. I felt constrained to speak 
in an undertone, which eliminated the usual self-intoxication of 
speech. In response to the first polite questions about what kind 


of a trip I had had and where I lived, I told him what my pro- 
fession was and also mentioned my former position m Pans 
The Grand Duke said: "I take the Neue Fre.e Press*. He 
inquired about Paris. I described the parl.amentary cnsts and 

Darticularly the present Bourgeois cabinet. 

After a few minutes he interrupted me: But we were going 

to talk about other things." ....... 

Whereupon I came right to the point and asked him to in- me with queries wherever my exposition was not clear 

en So S I h unfolded the entire subject. Unfortunately I had to com 
cemrate so much while I was speaking that I was not able to 
observe well. Hechler said afterwards that the conversation should 
have been taken down stenographically. He thought I had spoken 

quite well and had found some felicitous expressions. 

All I know is that the Grand Duke kept looking straight into 
my eyes with his beautiful blue eyes and calm, fine face, that he 
listened to me with great benevolence; and when he himself 
snoke he did so with ineffable modesty. After exerting my en- 
t!Te brain power for two hours and a half, I was so exhausted that 
I can no longer remember the exact course of the conversation 
In any case, the Grand Duke took my proposed formation of 

a state quite seriously from the beginning. 

His chief misgiving was that if he supported the cause, people 
would misinterpret this as anti-Semitism on his part. 

I explained to him that only those Jews shall go who want to. 
Since the Jews of Baden are happy under his liberal reign, they 
will not emigrate, and rightly so. In the course of his conversa- 
tion I reverted several times more, and from different angles, 
to his friendliness toward the Jews and used it in various ways 
as an argument. If he supported our cause, I said, it would no 
longer be possible to regard it as something hostile to the Jews. 
Moreover, it was our duty, as leaders of the Jews, to make clear to 
the people that the establishment of the Jewish State would con- 
stitute an act of goodwill and not of persecution. 

Further I said: “If Your Royal Highness’ benevolent attitude 


toward the Jews became known, your duchy would get such an 
influx of Jews that it would be highly calamitous.” 

He smiled. 

(Continued on the train, returning home, on April 24) 

‘‘Quite generally,” I said, “it is part of the Jews’ misfortune 
that their well-wishers don’t dare to concern themselves with 
them at all. During their long martyrdom they have grown so 
sensitive that one can’t even touch them.” 

The Grand Duke then reformulated the same thought. He said 
he was afraid of offending his Jewish subjects if he publicly en- 
dorsed my plan. To be sure, it was common knowledge how he had 
felt about the Jews up to now, but people would probably mis- 
understand him anyway and believe that he had simply changed 
his mind. He said he had never had reason to complain about his 
Jewish citizens. “For twenty-five years a Jew was my Minister 
of Finance,” he said, “and he always did his duty to my satisfac- 
tion. He governed well. He has adhered to your religion to this 
day. But even here in Baden conditions are no longer what they 
used to be. A Jew named Bielefeld, with whom I was working on 
a literary project, advised me himself to omit his name from the 
publication, because nowadays this might cause trouble. We have 
had other difficulties caused by anti-Semitism, especially in the 
judiciary. We have Jews at all levels of legal life, and this has 
caused certain difficulties. 

“And yet the Jews have many good qualities. I have yet to see 
a drunken Jew. They are sober-minded and thrifty; they always 
know how to shift for themselves. A cattle dealer, out on the 
road all day, will still keep away from the taverns — in fact, he 
eats nothing from early morning until he gets home at night. 
In addition to frugality there is also great intelligence, which, 
to be sure, sometimes applies itself to fraud. But, on the other 
hand, if one looks at the blockheads who allow themselves to be 
outwitted like this, one can’t help saying, ‘it serves the fools 

“At all events, you will have very intelligent human material 

for the founding of your state. 

“But how do you imagine the practical implementation will 

° I then presented the entire plan, which he had actually known 
only in Hechler’s version— that is, in its “prophetic” aspects, 
which, of course, I don’t have much to do with. 

The Grand Duke thought that the governments could take 
a closer interest in the matter only if they liked the looks of the 
Society of Jews. 

Naturally I advocated the opposite course. Some princes should 
manifest their favorable disposition; this would enable the Soci- 
ety of Jews to act with more authority from the outset. And 
authority was necessary if such a big movement was to be carried 
out in an orderly way. For even during the migration the Jews 
would stand in need of education and discipline. 

(Continued in Munich, April 25) 

The Grand Duke mentioned the degradation which, accord- 
ing to newspaper reports, existed among the Russian Jews who 
had emigrated to London. 

I said: “In order to bring this under control, we need a strong 
authority. This is precisely why it is indispensable that we be 
recognized by the Great Powers at the start.” 

The Grand Duke said: Actually, Germany cannot very well 
take the initiative in this. In the first place, she is not interested 
in the question to the same great extent as, for example, Austria. 
In that country, of course, there are great anti-Semitic problems, 
due to Lueger. Germany has no excessive number of Jews. Their 
departure would not even be welcomed by the economists. 

I then explained how only the trop plein [surplus] was to be 
drained off; how movable property can never be considered as 
tied to any particular country; and how, after this solution of the 
Jewish Question, it will have to come back all the more. I said 
that at present such capital was creating trouble for the domestic 


economy by stimulating industry in remote lands with cheap 
labor. There is no need to bring the Chinese to Europe; factor- 
ies are being built for them out there. In this way, after agricul- 
ture has been imperiled by America, industry is being threatened 
by the Far East. 

To offset this, my movement wants to help on two fronts- 
through draining off the surplus Jewish proletariat, and through 
keeping international capital under control. 

The German Jews cannot but welcome the movement. It will 
divert the influx of Jews from Eastern Europe away from them. 

The Grand Duke repeatedly punctuated my observations with 
a murmured “I wish it were so.” 

He then half turned to Hechler: 

“I suppose that cooperation between England and Germany 
is not very likely. Relations between the two are, unfortunately, 
badly disturbed at present. Would England go along?” 

I said: “Our English Jews will have to see to that.” 

The Grand Duke said, somewhat ill-humoredly: “If they can 
manage that . . 

I said; “If it were known that the Grand Duke of Baden took 
an interest in the matter, this would make a profound impres- 

He cried. That is not true. My position is not great enough. 
Ah, if the German Kaiser or the King of Belgium did it!” 

I persisted: Oh, but if an experienced prince, one who helped 
to fashion the German Empire, one to whom the German Kaiser 
turns for counsel, endorses this new enterprise, it will make a 
great impression. Your Royal Highness is the Kaiser’s adviser.” 
He smiled: I advise him, but he does what he pleases.” 

I: I would make an effort to explain the merits of the matter 
to the Kaiser, too. If he consented to receive me, it would remain 
as secret as our present conversation.” 

The Grand Duke: “I think you ought to create the Society of 
Jews first. Then we shall see whether one can have any dealings 
with it.” 

I: Then there will already be more heads than one. The pri- 

mary steps, the first rising bubbles, would presumably still have 

The' Grand Duke: "In any case, the project can succeed only 
if few people know about it. Public discussion immed.ately dis- 

Hechler now came to my aid: "Would not Your Royal High- 
ness oermit Dr. Herzl to tell a few trustworthy men in England 
that the Grand Duke of Baden takes an interest in the matter?" 

The Grand Duke assented to this, with the repeated stipulat.on 
that the matter might be discussed only outside the borders of 
his country. Then he asked me whether I had taken any steps 
yet with the Sultan. 

Thinking of Newlinsky, I said that someone had already of- 

fered to speak with the Sultan. 

At that point I set forth the advantages which the project 
would bring to the Orient. If Turkey were partmoned in the 
foreseeable future, an etat tampon [buffer state] could be created 
in Palestine. However, we could contribute a great deal toward 
the preservation of Turkey. We could straighten out the Sultan’s 
finances once and for all, in return for this territory which is not 

of great value to him. 

The Grand Duke wondered if it would not be better first to 
send a few hundred thousand Jews to Palestine, and then raise 
the question. 

I said with determination: “I am against that. It would be 
sneaking them in. The Jews would then have to confront the 
Sultan as insurgents. But I want to do everything open and 

above-board, fully within the law.” 

At first he looked at me in surprise when I spoke so forcefully, 

then he nodded approval. 

Next I expatiated on the general advantages of the Jewish 
State for Europe. We would restore to health the plague-spot 
of the Orient. We would build railroads into Asia — the highway 
of the civilized peoples. And this highway would then not be in 
the hands of any one Great Power. 

The Grand Duke said: ‘‘That would also solve the Egyptian 


question. England clings to Egypt only because she must protect 
her passage to India there. Actually, Egypt costs more than it is 

Hechler said: ‘‘Could Russia have designs on Palestine?” 

The Grand Duke said: “I don’t think so. For a long time to 
come, Russia will have her hands full in the Far East.” 

I asked: “Does Your Royal Highness consider it possible that 
I shall be received by the Czar?” 

He said: “According to the latest reports, the Czar is accessible 
to no one. He receives only his ministers when necessary, and no 
one else. However, one might try in Hesse to place your book 
in his hands. I believe that the Czar is not hostile to the Jews, but 
he must take the mood of the Russian people into account. An 
autocrat by no means always rules autocratically.” 

I asked the Grand Duke for permission to write him from time 
to time, and he graciously consented. What modesty and plain- 
dealing, all around! I felt inwardly ashamed at having wished 
to reduce him to the commonplace before I had even spoken with 
him. He is of a grand, noble naturalness. I no longer recall at 
what points in the conversation he discussed parliamentarianism, 
the standard working day, and other things. 

He deplored the decline of parliamentary government and 
said he was ‘‘a genuine constitutional ruler.” The legislative 
process is getting worse and worse. Many laws are being passed 
that are worthless. 

A propos of my seven-hour working day with overtime, he 
spoke about experiments that have been made with the standard 
working day in Switzerland. The workers themselves are not sat- 
isfied with it. 

To illustrate the psychology of the worker, I told him an 
incident from Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain, how one Sunday 
afternoon Tom has to whitewash his father’s fence as a punish- 
ment, and how he turns this to profit. Tom does not say to his 
chums, “I have to,” but “I am allowed to whitewash the fence.” 
Then they all importune him to let them help him. 

The Grand Duke smiled: “Very pretty.” 


He then told me about the hatred people have for anything 
new how someone wanted to establish a useful credit-bank in 
Baden and how this proved impossible, because hidebound pri- 
vate interests put up a fight against it. When relating or explain- 
in- something, he repeatedly used the expression “You will agree 
with me,” or something similar. With all his dignity he has a 
chivalric modesty. 

When Hechler took the floor afterwards and discoursed on 
the imminent fulfilment of the prophecy, the Grand Duke lis- 
tened silently, magnificently, and full of faith, with a strikingly 

peaceful look in his fine, steady eyes. 

Finally he said something that he had said several times before: 
“I should like to see it come about. I believe it will be a blessing 

for many human beings.” 

An addition just occurred to me. 

I had spoken of the communications I had recei\ed from 
Semlin and Great-Becskerek, where a number of families want 
to start out right away. 

To this he said: “That is a sad sign of the conditions there.” 

I also told him about the beggar who refused to take anything 
from me, and that I had concluded from this incident that I had 
found a path straight to the heart of the poor. He nodded. 

Against parliamentarizing I said: “I cannot have such high 
esteem for the Word. In the beginning was the Deed.” * To this 
he also nodded. 

Now that I think back to it, I feel that I have won him over. 

After two hours and a half, which were exhausting for him 
as well, for he often held his head when I was discussing some 
difficult point— after two and a half hours he terminated the 
audience. This time he shook my hand and even held it for quite 
some time, while he spoke kind words of farewell: he hoped that 
I would reach my goal, etc. 

Together with Hechler I went past the lackeys and guards 
who wondered at the length of the audience. 

• Translator’s Note: A paraphrase of a quotation from Goethe’s Faust, Part I. 


I was slightly intoxicated with the success of our conference. 
I could only say to Hechler, “He is a wonderful person!” 

And so he is. 

However, as a contribution to the psychology of the visitor, 
I did take note of this slight intoxication following an audience. 

The fear that comes before an audience is later balanced by 
the intoxication that comes after the audience. 

The more naturally and simply the giver of an audience be- 
haves, the greater will be the intoxication of the man who was 
overawed at first. 

I still had time for a walk in the castle park, while Hechler 
packed his things. 

There was a lovely evening mood in the park. A few quiet 
strollers, boys walking on stilts in the moat. Loud singing of 
birds in the rejuvenated tree-tops. The clear light of evening, 
peace, the cloudless mood of Spring. 

* * * 

Later I accompanied Hechler, who was on his way to Basel, 
to the station. He was very pleased with the result; the next day 
he was going to send a telegram from Basel to the “Prophetic 
Assembly” in London, saying that he had spoken with two sover- 
eigns about the Jewish State, whose realization he considered 

I asked him not to send such a telegram, because the Grand 
Duke might not approve of it. 

Now I regret having kept him from sending it. It would have 
caused a sensation in England, and the Grand Duke would not 
even have been mentioned. 

April 26, Vienna 

When I boarded the Orient Express at Munich yesterday at 
noon, Hechler was on it. From Basel he had gone to Karlsruhe 
again and there boarded the Orient Express. “I will pay the dif- 
ference in fares out of my own pocket,” he said. 


Naturally I wouldn’t hear of it. The whole trip shall be at my 
expense. In my present circumstances this is a bit of a sacrifice, 

to be sure. . , , , 

We had a comfortable trip. In the compartment he unfolded 

his maps of Palestine and instructed me for hours on end. The 
northern frontier ought to be the mountains facing Cappadocia; 
the southern, the Suez Canal. The slogan to be circulated: The 

Palestine of David and Solomon! 

Then he left me to myself, and I drafted my letter to the Grand 
Duke. Later Hechler found fault with some things. His criticisms 
are excellent, although it is then that his anti-Semitism occasion- 
ally comes through. Self-confidence on the part of a Jew seems 
insolence to him. When it was getting dark, he even treated me 
to a downright anti-Semitic story. He had once put a Jew up 
at his home, and by way of thanks the Jew had robbed him. A 
Talmudic scholar, to whom he told his troubles, answered him 
with a comparison of flowers and nations, saying the rose was the 
English, the lily the French etc., the fat thistle on the dung-heap 
the Jewish flower. 

I disposed of him rather drily: “If you take a hundred Jews and 
a hundred Gentiles into your house, you will have more bad ex- 
periences with Gentiles than with Jews.” 

This man Hechler is, at all events, a peculiar and complex 
person. There is much pedantry, exaggerated humility, pious eye- 
rolling about him — but he also gives me excellent advice full 
of unmistakably genuine good will. He is at once clever and 
mystical, cunning and naive. In his dealings with me so far, he 
has supported me almost miraculously. 

His counsel and his precepts have been excellent to date, and 
unless it turns out later, somehow or other, that he is a double- 
dealer, I would want the Jews to show him a full measure of 

Letter to the Grand Duke of Baden: 

Your Royal Highness: 

Upon my return home I feel impelled to express to you my 
respectful thanks for your kind reception in Karlsruhe. 

The thought that I was sitting across from one of the co- 
founders of the German Empire, the friend and adviser to three 
emperors, made me self-conscious. Yet the cause must not suffer 
from the weakness of its representative, and I beg Your Royal 
Highness’ permission to put a few points in even sharper focus 
than I may have done orally. 

The Jewish Question is probably not so burning a problem 
in present-day Germany as it is in Austria, Russia, Rumania, etc. 
But this very respite, which cannot possibly be of long duration, 
may make it appear desirable to tackle the solution of the prob- 
lem. The state’s authority cannot yield before the clamor of ir- 
responsible street-corner politicians. However, if this authority 
is not being hard-pressed, it can support a beneficial project all 
the more readily. 

For it is our hope that a stream of happiness will flow from 
our project for many people, and not only for the Jews by any 

If it is God’s will that we return to our historic fatherland, 
we should like to do so as representatives of Western civilization, 
and bring cleanliness, order, and the well-distilled customs of 
the Occident to this plague-ridden, blighted comer of the Orient. 
We shall have to do this so as to be able to exist there, and this 
obligation will educate our people to the extent that they need 

The details are outlined in my work The Jewish State. On 
pages 16, 77, 78L there is information about how economic 
damage to the countries that will be abandoned can and must 
be prevented. 

There is, incidentally, no thought of a complete evacuation. 
Those Jews who have been, or still can be, assimilated, will re- 


main. The emigration will be voluntary, and the Jews, who will 
have been informed in good time, will not regard it as an expul- 
sion but as an act of mercy on the part of their sovereigns. 

But our movement will have two results — and this is some- 
thing that I barely hinted at in my pamphlet, which is intended 
as the basis for public discussion; I should like to direct Your 
Royal Highness’ especial attention to these two effects: our weak- 
ening of the revolutionary parties and our breaking of the inter- 
national financial power. If we find support, these will be not 
merely presumptuous words. 

If Your Royal Highness should feel impelled to place my plan 
before His Imperial Majesty, I most humbly ask you to empha- 
size these points. 

I beg Your Royal Highness to accept the expression of my 
respectful devotion. 

Dr. Theodor Herzl, 
Vienna IX, 
Pelikangasse 16, 

April 26 

Budapest, May 3 

Dionys Rosenfeld, editor of the Osmanische Post of Constan- 
tinople, called on me here. 

He offered his services as an intermediary. He claims to be on 
good terms with Izzet Bey, the Sultan’s favorite. I told him in a 
few words what it was all about. We shall bestow enormous bene- 
fits upon Turkey and confer big gifts upon the intermediaries, 
if we obtain Palestine. This means nothing less than its cession 
as an independent country. In return we shall thoroughly 
straighten out Turkey’s finances. 

We shall acquire the lands belonging to the Sultan under 
civil law — although in that country there probably is not such 
a marked contrast between sovereignty and private property. 

Rosenfeld says the moment is very propitious, for Turkey 
is in serious financial straits. However, he believes that sov- 


ereignty would not be relinquished — at best, a status like that 
of Bulgaria. This I reject outright. 

Rosenfeld wants to hurry up and go home; he believes he can 
procure for me the necessary audience with the Sultan for the 
end of May. Vederemo [We shall see]. 

I declared that in any case I would come to Constantinople 
only if Izzet Bey expressly assured me of the audience with the 
Sultan in advance. 

May 7, Vienna 

Kozmian published a very flattering article about The Jewish 
State in the Lvov official gazette, the Gazeta Lwowska. 

Today I paid him a visit in order to thank him and to resume 
the threads of our association. I found him still in bed. 

Sitting on the edge of his bed, I described to him the situation 
into which Badeni has got himself by capitulating to Lueger. He 
will either have to continue collaborating with the anti-Semites 
and thus incur the insidious hatred of the Jews, or he will again 
seek contact with the Jews, and then the anti-Semites, heartened 
by their success, will quickly overthrow him. 

He can no longer lean on the decaying Liberal Party in the 
next House of Deputies. He will seek and find more conservative 
helpers. That will net him the full hatred of the remaining lib- 
erals. Then the only way out will be to court the Zionist move- 
ment and thus create a split among the Jewish opposition. 

Kozmian intends to talk to Badeni about this. 

May 7, evening 

Newlinsky came to see me after I had telephoned him. 

In a few words I brought him au courant [up to date]. He told 
me he had read my pamphlet before his last trip to Constantino- 
ple and discussed it with the Sultan. The latter had declared that 
he could never part with Jerusalem. The Mosque of Omar must 
always remain in the possession of Islam. 

“We could get around that difficulty,” I said. “We shall extra- 


territorialize Jerusalem, which will then belong to nobody and 
yet to everybody — the holy place which will become the joint 
possession of all believers. The great condominium of culture 
and morality.” 

Newlinsky thought that the Sultan would sooner give us 
Anatolia. Money was no consideration to him; he had absolutely 
no understanding of its value — something that may frequently 
be observed among rulers. But there was another way of winning 
the Sultan over: through supporting him in the Armenian situa- 

Newlinsky is even now on a confidential mission on behalf 
of the Sultan to the Armenian Committees in Brussels, Paris, and 
London. He is to induce them to submit to the Sultan, where- 
upon the latter will “voluntarily” grant them the reforms which 
he refuses to accord under pressure of the Great Powers. 

Newlinsky now asked me to procure for him the support of 
the Jews in the Armenian situation; in return he would tell the 
Sultan that Jewish influence had rendered him this service. The 
Sultan would show his appreciation of this. 

This idea immediately struck me as excellent, but I told him 
that we shall not give our aid away free, i.e., give it only in re- 
turn for positive counter-services to the Jewish cause. 

At this, Newlinsky proposed that no more than an armistice 
be obtained from the Armenians. The Armenian Committees 
were preparing to strike some time in July. They ought to be 
persuaded to wait for a month. We would use that period for 
negotiations with the Sultan. Since Newlinsky himself is becom- 
ing an interested party to the Jewish cause, he wants to drag out 
the Armenian matter profitably, so that one cause may promote 
the other. 

I said: “The Jewish cause will bring you greater returns than 
the Armenian. I have nothing to do with money matters, to be 
sure, but I shall give you a recommendation to our wealthy men.” 

Newlinsky, whose close acquaintance with the Sultan is com- 
mon knowledge, claims that with this approach we shall be able 
to succeed. But on no account should official diplomatic circles 


intervene; in fact, it would be better if they put difficulties in 
our way. Then the Sultan would do what we desire out of spite. 

* * # 

In the evening I had my wife’s cousin explain Turkey’s finan- 
cial situation to me. 

As I see things now, the financial plan will have to consist 
in our eliminating the European Control Commission and taking 
the payment of interest under our Jewish auspices, so that the 
Sultan will be relieved of this humiliating control and can raise 
new loans ad libitum [at will]. 

* # # 

Today I also wrote to the Sculptor Moi'se Ezechiel at Rome. 
He is said to be a Zionist and well acquainted with Cardinal 

May 8 

The Hassid Ahron Marcus of Podgorze again writes me a fine 
letter in which he holds out the possibility that the three million 
Hassidim of Poland will join my movement. 

I am answering him that the participation of the orthodox will 
be most welcome — but no theocracy will be created. 

May to 

Newlinsky came to say goodbye before leaving for Brussels. 

He will in any case work on the Sultan in our behalf, and 
even if we do not bring about a settlement of the Armenian 
matter, he will tell him that we helped him. 

He is relying upon the generosity of the Jews, in case he 
achieves anything for us. 

He tells me that Kozmian said about me that I reminded him 
of one of the great Jews whom Renan writes about, but that my 
effort was Utopian. 


May 1 1 

Nordau writes that he has tried to establish contact with 
Edmond Rothschild through Zadoc Kahn. However, Rothschild 
was a proponent of infiltration. 

I am writing to Nordau about the Armenians and requesting 
his support. 

# # * 

Talked with Hechler and asked him to notify Ambassador 
Monson that a semi-official agent of the Sultan has set out for 
Brussels and London in order to conciliate the Armenians. 
Monson should inform Salisbury. For Salisbury this would be 
a great and effortless diplomatic success. 

May 12 

Hechler was here. The news was very welcome to Ambassador 
Monson, because England desires peace in Armenia. I advised 
that Salisbury be induced to renew his conciliatory pronounce- 

May 12 

Great things need no solid foundation. An apple must be put 
on a table so that it will not fall. The earth floats in mid-air. 

Similarly, I may be able to found and stabilize the Jewish 
State without any firm support. 

The secret lies in motion. (I believe that somewhere in this 
area of thought lies the invention of the dirigible airship. Weight 
overcome by motion; and not the ship but its motion is to be 

May 13 

Letter to Newlinsky at London: 

Dear Sir:* 

I have done some work for you and hope that you will see the 
results of it. In particular, I have had Lord Salisbury aproached, 

• In French in the original. 


and it seems to me that we may expect a favorable attitude in that 
quarter. As regards my co-religionists, I have already got them 
going, in Paris as well as in London. But among my friends there 
are some who raise a rather serious objection. They say that we 
run the risk of doing the King of Prussia’s work and that once 
the pacification is achieved, we shall quickly be forgotten. One 
of our most influential friends, who is absolutely opposed to this 
intervention, thinks that the dissolution of this great force would 
be more advantageous for us. 

However, as I told you then and there, I am of the contrary 
opinion that it is to our well-considered interest to move in the 
direction you indicated. I want to preserve and strengthen 
the present powers which will soon realize that they are dealing 
with friends. 

For the rest, at the first evidence of good will accorded to 
our cause, the objectors will rally to my side. 

Please write me if there is any important news. I wish you the 
fullest success. 

With kindest regards. 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. H. 

May 13 

Nordau telegraphs: "No!” 

This means that he will have nothing to do with the Armenian 
affair. Whether he has had enough all around I do not know, but 
I am anxiously awaiting his next letter. 

May 14 

S. Klatschko, who is taking care of the Russian translation, was 

When, in the course of our conversation, he told me that he 
used to be a Nihilist, I asked him whether he knew the Ar- 
menian Committees. 

He does! The leader at Tiflis, Alawerdoff, is the fiance of a 


ladv who lives in Klatschko s house; and Klatschko has a connec- 
tion with the London chiel, Nikoladze, through the Russtan 

tasked' him to write to Zaikowski that I have learned the 
Sultan desires a reconciliation and has dispatched a negotiator 
for that purpose. The Armenians may confidently deal htm. 
I consider the peace offer a genuine one, but naturally can answer 
for the negotiator only to the extent of what I have earned from 
him. But the Armenians wouldn’t be risking anything. II alter 
their honorable submission the Sultan still does not grant the 
reforms within the stipulated period of time, they can openly 
declare that they have been cheated and make the enure nego- 
tiations public. Klatschko promised to write to London immedt- 

ately to this effect. 

May 14 

Received at last a long-awaited letter from the Rev. Singer 
I was beginning to think he had dropped off, like Gudemann and 

others who had gone with me for a distance. 

He writes that Montagu wants to avoid public notice, for 
several reasons; but Montagu has given a copy of my book to 
Gladstone. Should Gladstone express an opinion, his words will 
be given retentissement [reverberation] in the press. 

I am answering Singer by informing him for Montagu s bene- 
fit that I do not wish to address an “appeal” to the Sultan (whic 
would be a typically English notion), but will negotiate with him 
secretly and possibly summon Montagu to Constantinople so that 

he may support me. 

1 also wrote to Goldsmid and to Solomon that 1 am planning 
to come to London in July to make a big speech (probably at 
the Maccabeans) about the results achieved to date. Singer n 
thought that I should hold a big meeting “with an admission fee^ 
But this I reject. I do not address paying audiences. Although, 
for all I know, this may be the usual thing in England. 


May 15 

Letter to Newlinsky: 

Dear Sir:* 

I have just received your telegram. The day before yesterday 
I wrote you at the Berkeley Hotel, Piccadilly; please claim my 
letter there. 

I shall briefly repeat its contents. I have had the ground pre- 
pared for you with Lord S., and I have asked my friends to make 
contact also with the heads of the Armenian movement. In Lon- 
don, I believe Mr. Nikoladze is the man to talk to. One of my 
friends has also undertaken to take steps with the head of the 
Russian Committees** at Tiflis. 

You will have to overcome the mistrust of the Armenians. 
Their leaders will believe that we want to compromise them 
by a fruitless submission which will cripple the entire movement. 
Actually, on the basis of information which I received last night, 
we could get them to conclude an armistice without any detri- 
mental effects. 

The Tiflis leader may come to Vienna, and then I shall see him. 

With kindest regards. 

Yours sincerely, 

May 15 

Second letter. 

Dear Sir:*** 

I have made a mistake. The head of the movement in London 
is Avetis Nazarbek, and he directs the paper “Hutschak.” Some- 
one will contact him. 

Best regards, 

• In French in the original. 

••Translator’s Note: Probably a slip of the pen for Armenian Committees. 
•••In French in the original. 


May 16 

Had a good letter from Nordau which makes up for the "No” 

teleeram that had shaken me a bit. 

After he had written me that letter, he talked with Edmond 

Rothschild yesterday afternoon. Zadoc Kahn took him to the 

R Th L at r“ thschild should have this distinguished man of letters 
brought to his office rather than his home is somewhat snobbish 
and recalls my rendez-vous with the coal-Gutmanns. 

May 18 

Nordau reports that he went with Zadoc to Edmond Roths- 
child. The "audience" lasted 63 minutes, out of which Rothschild 
spoke S3 and Nordau “with difficulty and rudeness only ten. 
^ Rothschild will hear nothing whatever of the matter; he does 
not believe that anything can be accomplished with the Sultan, 
and at any rate will not cooperate. He considers what I am do- 
in. dangerous, because I am rendering the patriotism of the Jews 
suspect, as well as injurious-namely, to his Palestinian colonies 
Accordingly, we shall pass over him and on to the order o 

tlic day 

After this, there is something comical about today s dispatches 
from Paris, which report street demonstrations against the Jews 
and in particular the Rothschilds. In front of the same house on 
the Rue Laffitte where on Friday E. R. had rejected my friend 
Nordau, the mob cried on Sunday: "Down with the Jews! 

May 19 

Agliardi the Nuncio sent me word yesterday through our col- 
league Miinz that he would receive me today, at ten a.m. sharp. 

At ten I entered the Nuncio’s quarters, on the “Am Hof’ 
square, looking around furtively, like a man entering a house of 
ill repute. I must record this feeling here, because it was the most 
noteworthy one. 

• Translator's Note: “KohlengutmSnnern”; Herzl puns on their name. 


Anyone who saw me enter there could easily have misunder- 
stood my errand. 

The nunciature is a musty, chill, old, run-down little palace. 
No stately servants, and on the staircase a shabby carpet. 

My card was quickly handed to the Nuncio; he quickly had me 
shown in and just as quickly came to the point. 

He made the one reservation that this must not be an “inter- 
view!” Naturally, I promised him this. 

Then I briefly presented him the proposal, which he knew 
only in general outline. 

I spoke in French, but was not really in good form today, 
although not in the least self-conscious. It seems that I am be- 
ginning to lose my self-consciousness. 

Agliardi listened in fine style. He is tall, slim, well-bred, and 
stiff — come to think of it, exactly the way I had pictured a papal 
diplomat. His grey hair is sparse; while talking he frequently 
adjusts his violet skull-cap. His nose is fine, large, and aquiline. 
His eyes are searching. 

He interpolated some questions in bad French. Was I keeping 
the difficulties in mind? In what way was the government of this 
new “kingdom” to be established and how would the Great 
Powers be induced to recognize it? Would the Jewish “grand- 
seigneurs” — Rothschild and others — contribute money for this 
purpose? And the like. 

I said: We do not want a kingdom, but an aristocratic repub- 
lic. We need only the consent of the Great Powers, and in particu- 
lar that of His Holiness the Pope; then we shall establish our- 
selves, with Jerusalem extraterritorial ized. We shall straighten 
out the Sultan’s finances. 

Agliardi smiled: “He will be very pleased at that. So you pro- 
pose to exclude Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth, and pre- 
sumably set up the capital more to the northr” 

“Yes,” I said. 

He thought it was doubtful whether the Great Powers would 
give their consent, particularly Russia. Nor did he believe that 
this was the solution of the Jewish Question. 


“Let us assume,” he said, “that you will be able to withdraw 
ao ooo of the 130,000 Jews in Vienna. 100,000 would still remain. 
Suppose only 50,000 remained in Vienna. They would continue 
to cause anti-Semitism-the mild sort of persecution that we are 
witnessing now. How do matters stand with us in Italy? We have 
perhaps 10,000 Jews in the entire country. 5-6000 of these are in 
Rome a few thousand in Leghorn and Mantua, the rest scattered 
about.’ Now then, these 10,000, or let us say, 20,000 Jews, out of 
a total population of 30 millions, give rise to the same complaints 
as do the Jews here. People say that they dominate the stock 

exchange, the newspapers, and so on. 

“It seems, my good man, that you Jews possess a particular 

energy which we lack, a special gift from God—” 

At that moment the servant knocked on the door. 

“Avanti [Come in]!” called the Nuncio. 

The servant announced: “Sua Excellenza V Ambasciatore di 
Francia [His Excellency the Ambassador of France]!” 

The Nuncio rose and asked me to come back another time. 
In the ante-chamber waited Loz£, the French ambassador. 
Result of the conversation: I believe Rome will be against us, 
because she does not see in the Jewish State the solution of the 
Jewish Question and perhaps even fears it. 

May 2 1 

Sylvia d’Avigdor reports from London that Samuel Montagu 
gave her translation of my Jewish State to Gladstone and that 
he then commented favorably on it in a letter. 


Tomorrow it will be a year since I started the movement by 
my visit to Hirsch. If during the coming year I make proportion- 
ate progress, as from the zero point at that time to today’s achieve- 
ments, then we shall be leshonoh haboh birusholayim [Next year 
in Jerusalem]. 

# # # 


Attorney Bodenheimer of Cologne invites me to come to Berlin 
to attend the Convention of German Zionists at the end of June. 
I am answering him, inter alia [among other things]: 

“I have grateful admiration for what the Zionists have done 
up to now, but I am fundamentally opposed to infiltration. If 
infiltration is allowed to proceed, it will increase the value of land 
and it will become harder and harder for us to buy it. The idea 
of a declaration of independence “as soon as we are strong enough 
over there” I consider to be impracticable, because the Great 
Powers would certainly not recognize it, even if the Porte had 
weakened enough. My program, on the other hand, is to halt 
infiltration and to concentrate all energies on the acquisition of 
Palestine under international law. This requires diplomatic 
negotiations, which I have already begun, and a publicity cam- 
paign on the very largest scale.” 


Newlinsky wires and writes from London that he is unable 
to accomplish anything; he wants me to recommend him to Law- 
son of the Daily Telegram and support him with “the Prime 
Minister who doesn’t want to do anything.” 

I am wiring him a recommendation to Lucien Wolf of the 
Daily Graphic and will try later to send Hechler to Monson. 

To Newlinsky I am writing: “La chose a ete mal emmanche 
et surtout trop tard [The whole thing has been started badly and, 
above all, too late].” I told him to come back; I would take mat- 
ters in hand. 


Two fellows from the Kadimah, Schalit and Neuberger, called 
on me. At the University the assimilationists seem to be gaining 
the upper hand again. At the Lesehalle no one wants to hear 
about Zionism. They also told me that a proposal was afoot to 
recruit a volunteer battalion of one or two thousand men and 


to attempt a landing at Jaffa. Even if some might have to give up 
their lives in the attempt, Europe would start paying attention 

to the aspirations of the Jews. 

I advised them against this fine Ganbaldian idea, because these 
thousand men, unlike the men of Marsala, would not find a 
nationally-prepared population awaiting them The landing 
would be suppressed within twenty-four hours, like a schoolboys’ 


May 26 

Newlinsky wires: “S veut pas recevoir. Faites possible [Salis- 
bury) refuses to receive. Do what you can]. 

I am answering him: 

Advise return home as soon as possible. May procure admission 
to S. end of June myself. Let us go to your principal* first. 

* # * 

Letter to Rev. Singer (reply): 

Dear Friend: 

I am not writing to Sir S. Montagu directly because I cannot 
express myself well in English, and clarity is important. There- 
fore I ask you to trouble yourself again and explain the matter 
to him incisively. None of us knows how much longer he is going 
to live — I did not tell Baron Hirsch this when I had an important 
conversation with him a year ago yesterday, although I thought it 
to myself. Today this man, who had so much feeling for the 
Jews, is dead, and all he accomplished was philanthropy that 
is, things for the shnorrers [beggars]. When he could have done 
something for the nation! 

Have a serious talk with Montagu, for our cause is an exalted 
and serious one. In him I see a suitable force for part of the task. 
No material sacrifices of any kind are being asked of him; he 
need not give a penny. 

•Translator's Note: The reference is to the Turkish Sultan. 


If he does not want to participate, we shall simply have to get 
along without him. 

I am sorry that the beginning of July should again be an un- 
favorable time. But I cannot leave here before the middle of 
June and I want to go to Constantinople first. However, should 
my trip there have to be postponed for any reason, I will come 
to London first. You will be notified of this in ample time, so 
that the evening with the Maccabeans can perhaps be scheduled 
for the twenty-first of June. 

If I go to Constantinople, and for the time being this must be 
kept a closely-guarded secret, I shall give you sufficient notice 
of this as well, so that you may prevail upon those members of 
your Community* whose presence, when I get there, will be de- 
sirable, to stay in London until July 5. 

In that case we would meet with the Maccabeans on that date. 

In a previous letter I asked you to give me the names of some 
persons whom we could elect to the Society of Jews. This Society 
is to consist of a large Committee on which we shall put distin- 
guished Jews — Englishmen, for the most part — and of an Execu- 
tive Committee. On the latter I should like to have you, Gold- 
smid, Montagu, Nordau, etc. 

Please let me have an early reply on this last point. 

With cordial regards, 

Yours sincerely, 

May 29 

Our colleague Schiitz visited Count Leo Tolstoy on his estate 
near Moscow and wrote a feuilleton about it. 

At the same time he sent me a postcard informing me that 
Tolstoy mentioned my pamphlet. But all the feuilleton says is 
that with reference to the Jewish Question Tolstoy expressed 
opposition to the Jewish State. This is the first time that The 
Jewish State has been mentioned in the Neue Freie Presse — 
without my name being given and without anyone being able 

• In English in the original. 


to understand what is actually meant. At this moment, the prin- 
ciple of dead silence becomes downright comical. 

May 31 

Already a split among the young Zionists. Already symptoms 
of the inoratitude which I expect. A student called on me and 
told me how the Jewish-National organizations are wrangling 
amon- themselves; then he made veiled but comprehensible allu- 
sions that he and possibly others as well consider my amiability 

toward the young people as play-acting. 

I was highly indignant and immediately gave him a piece of 
my mind. If they sour me on my efforts, I shall simply give them 
up* and if I notice ingratitude — of course, not on the part of indi- 
viduals, who are a quantile negligeable [negligible quantity], but 
from the masses— I shall withdraw completely. 

* # * 

Similarly as with the students, however, a certain dissatisfac- 
tion with my results already seems to be astir among the adult 
Zionists. I hear that “counter-currents” are being formed— so 
soon! I am told that Dr. Jacob Kohn wants to establish a “bloc” 
that is supposed to take an active part in Austrian domestic poli- 
tics, i.e., have seats on the Municipal Council, the Diet, and the 
Reichsrat. It is obvious to whom these will go. 

I received another invitation from Dr. Bodenheimer to come 
to the Berlin Zionist Convention. At the same time, he sent me 
the “Principles” of the Cologne Zionists which I fully subscribe 
to — with the exception of infiltration, which I should like to 
see stopped. I wrote Bodenheimer that if I were prevented from 
going to Berlin he should initiate resolutions there for use at 
our London meeting on July 5. Also, a delegation should be sent 
to London and arrive two or three days ahead of time, so that 
we might agree on a plan of action. For the Berlin Zionists I 
also made a brief sketch of the composition of the Society , which 
is to include the Grand Committee and the Executive Commit- 


tee. Both committees, composed mainly of Englishmen, are to 
be reinforced by coopted members from other countries. 

* # # 

Rosenfeld writes from Constantinople that his contact wants 
to know what financial forces are behind me, because he would 
be risking his head if the negotiations broke down. Since Rosen- 
feld made his debut in Budapest by asking me to advance him 
some money, I shall have no further dealings with him for the 
time being. Incidentally, there is good news from Newlinsky in 
London. I think I can gather from his brief letters that he has 
confidence in the cause. If this is so— and I shall find out when 
he returns— we shall apparently go to Constantinople the middle 
of June. 

* * * 

Received an interesting letter from Klatschko about the steps 
he has taken with the Armenians in London. His informant writes 
from Harrow that he has spoken with Nazarbek, who distrusts 
the Sultan but thanks the “leader of the Jewish movement” for 
his kind sentiments. 

* * * 

Klatschko s letter, like Nordau’s about his conversation with 
Edmond R., will have to be inserted in this notebook according 
to their dates. 

June 1 

My yesterday’s feuilleton , “The Dirigible Airship,” was quite 
generally taken as an allegory on the Jewish State. 

* * # 

Today the London news services carry Gladstone’s letter to 
Montagu about my Jewish State. In our office this news item was 
handled like a hot coal. The editor for British affairs, Vincenti, 


sent it to the city editor, Oppenheim, who cautiously left it alone. 
Thereupon I simply took the bull by the horns and showed the 
dispatch to Benedikt, who was especially pleased with me today 

on editorial grounds. . . , „ , 

“Are you going to run this?” I asked him in the hallway when 
he was just about to leave. He read the item attentively and said: 

“Yes ” 

“Should someone write a few lines of introduction?” I asked. 
“No ” he said. “Simply run it under the caption ‘Gladstone 
on Anti-Semitism,’ quite casually, as though we had already writ- 
ten about it. Also send for the novel which Gladstone mentions; 
but when you write about it, you mustn’t discuss your Jewish 

State.” „ T , . 

“Have I ever given you any trouble? I asked gently. 

* * * 

And so, on June 2, 1896, the skimpy item which I am pasting 
in at this point was the first to appear in the newspaper on 
which I have worked for years. But I should be very mut h mis- 
taken if it did not produce a great effect. For the other papers, 
which have been thinking that a deep rift exists between the 
publishers and myself, will take this as an important sign of 
reconciliation; and the readers of the Neue Freie Presse will 
start talking about the Jewish State. 

Gladstone on Anti-Semitism: 

Gladstone has addressed the following letter to Sir Samuel Mon- 
tagu, M.P., who had sent him Dr. Theodor Herzl’s pamphlet 
The Jewish State: “The subject of the publication which you were 
good enough to send me is highly interesting. For the outsider it 
is not easy to form a judgment regarding it, nor perhaps perti- 
nent, having formed a judgment, to express it. It surprises me, 
however, to see how far-reaching is the distress among the Jews. 
I am, of course, strongly opposed to anti-Semitism. In a curious 
and arresting novel, The Limb, you will find a rather unusual 
treatment of Judaism.” 


June 5 

Nordau writes that he would not at any price sign an appeal for 
money unless it also included the names of well-known million- 
aires. He apparently does not want to join the Executive Com- 
mittee either — only the big showcase and honorary committee 
of the Society. 

I am answering him that I, too, would not be naive and un- 
sophisticated enough to sign an appeal for money which was 
not above suspicion. But I have made sufficient financial sacri- 
fices, considering my means, and henceforth must leave it to the 
Jewish people to decide whether they want to do anything for 
themselves, and if so, what. 

June 6 

Newlinsky has been in town for three days and has not shown 
his face. Has he swung away? I am writing him: 

Je compte partir le 75 juin. Ltes-vous avec moi? Mille amities, 
votre devoue [I count on leaving on June 15th. Are you with me? 
Kindest regards, yours sincerely] 

June 7 

Newlinsky came to see me today while I was in Baden. Ques- 
tion is, is he still with me or has he lost confidence in the cause — 
if indeed he ever had any? 

June 8 

I called today on Newlinsky who gives me the impression of 
having cooled. He said the present moment was not propitious 
for the trip to Constantinople; the Sultan thought of nothing but 
the Cretan riots, etc. 

Perhaps everything he said to me before his trip to London 
was said only that I might support him there. Now he backs out 
and says he cannot come to Constantinople uninvited. 


June 9 

Newl insky spent an hour and a half with me this morning. 

I had a showdown talk with him, in the course of which I tried 
to instil in him confidence in our cause again. Obviously his 
courage has gone out of him in London, and also here. I worked 
on him very forcefully. I spoke in a strong, determined, imperi- 
ous voice. I paraded our resources before him, I advised him to 
serve us while he could derive great benefits from it— that is, 
early, at the beginning of our operations. 

He told me that in journalistic circles, and consequently in 
financial and government circles as well, my project was regarded 
as Utopian. The director of the Ldnderbank had declared it a 
fantasy, our editor Benedikt, madness. All the journalists were 
laughing at it. 

I answered him* U Z) ici uti an toutc ccttc vacaille me lecheva les 
bottes [A year from now this whole rabble will be licking my 

He thought I should not go to Constantinople at present, for 
no one there now had his mind on anything but the Cretan 

I said that if he did not want to join me I would go alone— 
although I have no such intention. For, official recommendations, 
provided I get them in the first place, will hardly procure me a 
private audience. And whether Rosenfeld, who wants to take 
me to Izzet, is reliable seems more than doubtful to me. 

Newlinski described his English impressions. People there be- 
lieve in the impending downfall of Turkey. No English prime 
minister can dare to declare his support of the Sultan because 
he would have public opinion against him. There is some 
thought of making the Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand, because he 
is a Coburg, heir to the Turkish empire. If this is no diceria 
[rumor], it is most interesting. Newlinsky thinks the only salva- 
tion for the Sultan would be to make an alliance with the Young 
Turks — who for their part are on good terms with the Mace- 
donians, Cretans, Armenians, etc. — and to carry out the reforms 


with their help. He said he had given this advice to the Sultan in 
a report. Now I said he should add to this program the fact that 
he was bringing the Sultan the means to carry this out, in the 
form of Jewish aid. Let the Sultan give us that piece of land, and 
in return we shall set his house in order, straighten out his 
finances, and influence public opinion all over the world in his 

Newlinsky skeptically referred to the attitude the Vienna 
papers were taking toward me. To this I replied that if I wanted 
to, I could make them all tractable, without exception, by starting 
rival papers. 

I told him that the Zionists’ declaration addressed to me had 
already been signed by three thousand holders of doctor’s degrees 
— a fact I had learned on Sunday from my cousin Lobl. 

He left me, I believe, shaken and half re-won. I urged him 
to write the Sultan immediately and get himself summoned. This 
he promised to do. 

* * * 

In the Delegation at Budapest, Goluchowski today made a 
speech full of serious warnings to Turkey. Thereupon I am 
writing to Newlinsky: 

Dear Sir:* 

The Budapest speech gives you an excellent opportunity of 
renewing your no less excellent advice at Constantinople. Be 
energetic and highlight all the advantages which we would be 
able to confer. 

If you decide to travel with me, I certainly hope that you will 
give me the honor and pleasure of making that trip as my guest. 

With kindest regards, 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. Herzl. 

In the afternoon at Hechler’s home I met the English Bishop 
Wilkinson, a clever, slim old man with white whiskers and dark, 

# In French in the original. 


intelligent eyes. The Bishop had already read my pamphlet and 
thought it was “rather a business.” * I said categorically: “/ 
don’t make businesses. I am a literary man.” ** Whereupon the 
Bishop declared that he had not meant this as an insult. On the 
contrary, he regarded the matter as a practical one. Even though 
it might start as a business, it might become something great. 
After all, England’s Indian empire had also come into being un- 
consciously. In the end he blessed me and invoked God’s blessing 
on the project. 

June 15 

At night on the train, having boarded the Orient Express in 
Vienna, alone. 

Newlinsky won’t get on until 2 a.m., at Budapest. 

I shall now hastily add here the events of the past week, dur- 
ing which I was so overworked that unfortunately I didn’t have 
a chance to capture my impressions when they were still fresh in 
my mind. 

After his return from London, Newlinsky was in no mood to 
go to Constantinople with me. 

He resisted in several forthright conversations; he was evi- 
dently under the influence of adverse comment on the cause from 
my own group. Par ricochet [in a roundabout way] I learned from 
a few of them that he had made inquiries about me. 

I finally won him over by showing my determination to go to 
Constantinople by myself. This might have made him concerned 
lest others reap the great benefits which he has in prospect if he 
supports me. 

On Friday, after a lengthy conversation, we agreed that we 
would each sleep on the question of leaving on June 15 for Con- 
stantinople: I, as to whether I would go ahead with the matter 
without him, i.e., with the aid of my “other Constantinople con- 
nections — he, whether to participate. 

• In English in the original. 

, Translators Note: In English in the original. Herzl obviously misunderstood 
the Bishop s use of the word “business/* 


On Saturday I went to see him again. I really no longer ex- 
pected anything and had practically abandoned the dubious expe- 
dition. He asked me with subtle watchfulness: “Eh bien, partez- 
vous [All right, are you leaving]?” 

I guessed what was hidden in this question, and answered 

“Je pars [I am].” 

Since he now realized that I would go in any case, even with- 
out him, he said he was ready to go with me, and even begged 
me “to take along no further introductions.” Bon [Good]. 

Yesterday we got together again and made the final arrange- 
ments for our departure. He said he would go on ahead to Pest 
this afternoon and catch the Orient Express during the night. 

His questions, for which I was really not prepared, then led us 
to the financial plan. It had been quite a while since I had oc- 
cupied myself with the details, and some of them I had yet to 
look into. 

Unprepared as I was, I merely told him that we imagined we 
would give twenty million pounds in return for Palestine. (Mon- 
tagu offered only two million in the Daily Chronicle.) 

Afterwards I went to Baden and telephoned Reichenfeld, my 
wife’s cousin, to come out the same evening in order to give me 
some information. 

He came to Baden at nine o’clock, and I asked him to brief me 
on the Turkish national debt. While he was explaining to me the 
status of the dette publique [public debt], I worked out the finan- 
cial scheme. 

We spend twenty million Turkish pounds to straighten out the 
T urkish finances. Of that sum we give two millions in exchange 
for Palestine, this amount being based on the capitalization of its 
present revenue of eighty thousand Turkish pounds per annum. 
With the remaining 18 millions we free Turkey from the Euro- 
pean Control Commission. The bond-holders of Classes A, B, C, 
and D will be induced by direct privileges we shall grant them 
— increased rate of interest, extension of the amortization period, 
etc. — to agree to the abolition of the Commission. 


Reichenfeld was surprised at this plan which I immediately 
elaborated with all details and foreseeable eventualities, and he 
asked me what financier had worked it out. I wrapped myself in 
mysterious silence. 

Today I brought Newlinsky his ticket for Constantinople. The 
expedition is costing me quite a bit. Newlinsky also asked me to 
take along some fruit for the Turkish court. He has even made 
out an order which I was supposed to have filled at the Hotel 
Sacher: strawberries, peaches, grapes, asparagus — all imported 
from France. The basket cost seventy guilders — and yet luckily 
there were only half the quantity of grapes to be had, only six 
peaches instead of twenty-four, and only one bunch of asparagus. 
I took all there was. Ultra posse nemo tenetur [no one can be 
required to do more]. 

My poor Hechler was less demanding when we travelled to- 

June 17 

On the Orient Express, six o’clock in the morning, outside 

Yesterday’s portion of the trip was extremely interesting. When 
Newlinsky got on at Budapest at 2 A.M., he told me that several 
pashas were on the train — particularly Ziad Pasha, head of the 
Turkish delegation at the Moscow coronation. 

Later yesterday morning Newlinsky introduced me to Ziad, 
Karatheodory, and Tewfik Pasha, the Ambassador at Belgrade. 
Afterwards he briefed Ziad Pasha, the most important of these 
Excellencies, on the purpose of my trip to Constantinople. Ziad 
immediately became interested in the matter, and we only 
awaited the moment when we should be alone in order to let 
him in further on the secret. 

Ziad Pasha is a small, elegant, graceful, Parisianized Turk, 
who despite his small stature knows how to give himself an air 
of due respect. There is a serious and bold look in his dark eyes; 


his features are fine and sharp, his nose curved, and the short, 
pointed beard as well as his thick hair are black and on the veme 
of turning grey. 

Karatheodory is white-bearded, fat, smart, full of fun, speaks a 
brilliant French; reads, when not chatting, a new History of Rus- 
sia; tells wonders about the riches of the Moscow coronation— 
and at train stations he doesn’t think twice about eating the na- 
tive fruits and washing them down with the local water. 

Tewfik is a young pasha, speaks of the Neue Freie Presse with 
admiration, quotes passages from old editorials. 

In the afternoon, when Karatheodory had left the smoking- 
room of the dining car and only Ziad, Newlinsky, and I were 
there, I set forth my plan to Ziad who listened earnestly and in- 

He said. I can see that you speak without ulterior motives.” 
(For I had declared that we wished to acquire Palestine as a com- 
pletely independent country, and if we could not get it as such, 
we would go to Argentina.) 

“You come right out with your idea,” said Ziad, “but I must 
tell you that no one is likely even to have pourparlers [parleys] 
with you if you demand an independent Palestine. The benefits 
in money and press support which you promise us are very great, 
and I would say that your proposal is a very favorable one; but it 
is against our principles to sell any territory.” 

I replied: “That has occurred in history countless times.” 

Newlinsky interjected that only recently England had relin- 
quished Heligoland to Germany. 

Ziad persisted: “Under no circumstances will you get Palestine 
as an independent country; maybe as a vassal state.” 

I replied that this would be a bit of hypocrisy from the start, 
for, after all, vassals constantly think of nothing but how to be- 
come independent as soon as possible. 

The conversation went on until we got to Zaribrod. There the 
Bulgarian minister, Natchowitch, was waiting for Newlinsky, 
having come to meet him there. 


I in turn was met by a delegation of Sofia Zionists. I had tele- 
graphed them the day before yesterday that I would be passing 

"o gentlemen asked me how my Zionist work was coming 
aiona. I told them as much as I could. Then I had to leave them 
in order to eat with Newlinsky and Natchowitch in the dining 
car. Natchowitch made a special point of requesting that on the 
occasion of his next resignation from office the Neue Freie Presse 
refrain from devoting any flattering post-mortem to him, because 
otherwise he would be regarded as too much of an Austrian 
favorite in Bulgaria, which is at present Russophile; this would 
hamper his activities in behalf of Austria. 

In Sofia a touching scene awaited me. Beside the track on 
which our train pulled in there was a crowd of people— who had 
come on my account. I had completely forgotten that I was actu- 
ally responsible for this myself. 

There were men, women, and children, Sephardim, Ashkena- 
zim, mere boys and old men with white beards. At their head 
stood Dr. Ruben Bierer. A boy handed me a wreath of roses and 
carnations — Bierer made a speech in German. 1 hen Caleb read 
off a French speech, and in conclusion he kissed my hand, despite 
my resistance. In this and subsequent addresses I was hailed in 
extravagant terms as Leader, as the Heart of Israel, etc. I think 
I stood there completely dumbfounded, and the passengers on 
the Orient Express stared at the odd spectacle in astonishment. 

Afterwards I stood on the carriage steps a while longer and 
surveyed the crowd. The most varied types. An old man with a 
fur cap looked like my grandfather, Simon Herzl. 

I kissed Bierer farewell. They all pressed about me to shake 
my hand. People cried “leshonoh haboh birusholayim [Next 
year in Jerusalem].” The train started moving. Hat-waving, emo- 
tion. I myself was quite touched, particularly by the story of a 
Rumanian who had told me his troubles. After completing 
his military service he had been obliged to emigrate, because he 
was denied his civil rights. 

Newlinsky and Ziad were less struck with the demonstration 


than I had expected them to be. Or were they not showing how 
much they had been impressed? Newlinsky, for his part, had 
been met by the Bulgarian church dignitary Gregory, to whom 
he had likewise telegraphed his arrival in advance— possibly so 
that I might take note of his (N’s) reputation in Bulgaria. 

* * * 

In the evening Newlinsky and I sat by ourselves in the dining 
car, and I outlined for him the financial plan based on the 20 
million pounds — of which two millions would be earmarked as 
an immediate advance for the cession of Palestine, and 18 mil- 
lions for the freeing of the Turkish government from the Control 

Newlinsky objected violently. He said he had already told 
Ziad that I was proposing the liberation from the Control Com- 
mission in the following form: 

One third we pay in cash. For the second third we take the 
responsibility (or rather, if we become a vassal state, this third 
is credited against our tribute). On the remaining third we pay 
interest from the revenues taken away from the present Commis- 
sion and assigned to us. 

Newlinsky thinks we could not possibly dare to offer the Sultan 
20 million pounds for the land of Palestine. That was its mere 
commercial value, so to speak; but we would have to pay a pre- 
tium affectionis [premium]. However, we could perhaps stipu- 
late several additional concessions and thus facilitate our pay- 
ments — e.g., an electric-power monopoly for all of Turkey, etc. 
But this triple division, he said, must definitely be maintained. 

# # * 

I have slept on this and think that Newlinsky is right. I can 
even derive a fresh advantage from this turn in the affair. I can, 
and shall, say in Constantinople that the conditions must remain 
absolutely secret because I have to familiarize my Committee 
with everything first. In this way I shall prevent the possibility 

of Montagu or E. Rothschild making protests against my pro- 

But if I come to London strengthened by my conversation with 
the Sultan, I shall carry through whatever I wish. 

If necessary, I shall establish contact with Barnato. 

# # # 

Bierer told me at Sofia that Edmond Rothschild sent his repre- 
sentative to Constantinople a few days ago in order to offer the 
Sultan money for permission to continue the colonization. 

Might this be a chess move against me? 

June 1 8 , Constantinople 

Newlinsky is extremely valuable to our cause. His skill and 
devotion are beyond all praise. He will have to be given a very 
extraordinary reward. 

We arrived in Constantinople yesterday afternoon. At the sta- 
tion we were met by Baron B. Popper of Vienna as well as by 
two local journalists who are at Newlinsky’s disposal. The pashas 
who had been on the same train and had put on their formal at- 
tire even before our arrival, so as to be able to go to the Sultan 
right away, were met by a crowd of people. 

We drove through this astonishingly beautiful, dirty city. Daz- 
zling sunshine, colorful poverty, dilapidated buildings. From a 
window of the Hotel Royal our view extends over the Golden 
Horn. The houses on the slopes are situated among greenery, and 
it looks like grass growing between stones — as if nature were 
slowly recapturing this crumbling city. 

* * * 

Newlinsky has a fine reputation and much influence here. He 
is on the same good terms with many prominent Turks as he is 
with our traveling companions, Ziad and Karatheodory. 

As soon as he had changed his clothes, he drove to Yildiz Kiosk. 
I accompanied him in the carriage. The street life is strangely 


poverty-ridden and gay. The latticed harem-like windows present 
a charming mystery. Behind them, disappointment presumably 
awaits the intruder. 

A wonderful view of the Bosporus from the white palace of 
Dolma Bagjehl 

* * # 

After Newlinsky got out at Yildiz, I rode and strolled by myself 
through the bumpy streets of Pera and down to the old bridge. 

* # * 

Newlinsky returned late and in a bad humor. Izzet Bey, the 
First Secretary of the Sultan, had displayed a bluntly negative at- 
titude toward our project. “Too many commissions are being 
promised in this matter!” he said; and Newlinsky thinks that the 
man who has already taken some preliminary steps here has gone 
about it clumsily. We will have to make amends for this, and it 
may not be easy. 

Another difficulty: the Sultan apparently is ill. Newlinsky was 
not received. What ails the Sultan cannot be learned. Baron 
Popper heard from his sister that Dr. Nothnagel of Vienna was 
asked whether he could come here. It would be a terrible contre- 
temps [mishap] if this were to wreck my audience. 

* # # 

After dinner we went to the open-air concert hall of Pera where 
a visiting Italian light-opera company was performing. During 
the first intermission we ran into Djawid (or Djewid) Bey, the 
son of the present Grand Vizier. I was introduced and immedi- 
ately plunged medias in res [into the midst of things]. We sat on 
a garden bench, the operetta tunes sounded distantly from the 
arena stage as I acquainted the still youthful State Councillor 
with the project. 

His objections were: the status of the Holy Places. Jerusalem, 
he said, must definitely remain under Turkish administration. 
It would run counter to the most sacred feelings of the people if 


Jerusalem were ceded. I promised a far-reaching extra-territorial- 
ity. The Holy Places of the civilized world must belong to no 
one, but to everyone. In the end, I believe, we shall have to agree 
to Jerusalem’s remaining in its present status. 

Djawid Bey further inquired what the relationship between the 
Jewish State and Turkey would be. Much like Ziad’s question 
about vassalage. 

I said that I would see complete success only in independence, 
but we would at any rate discuss a status like that of Egypt or 
Bulgaria, that is, a tributary relationship. 

Finally, Djawid asked about the form of the future govern- 

“An aristocratic republic,” I said. 

Djawid protested vigorously: “Just don’t mention the word 
‘republic’ to the Sultan! People here are frightened to death of 
it. They are afraid that this revolutionary form of government 
will spread from one province to another like a contagion.” 

I explained to him in a few words that I had in mind a form 
of government like that of Venice. 

At length I begged him to be present at the audience which 
his father, Khalil Rifat Pasha, the Grand Vizier, is to grant me. 

The young Excellency promised me this, and he wishes to help 
us with advice and action in other ways, too. In reply to his ques- 
tion concerning the proposals which I planned to make, I said 
that I could communicate the details only to the Sultan. 

June 18 

Newlinsky told me today that Russia has gained the upper 
hand in Yildiz Kiosk. The position of Turkey was not consid- 
ered to be in danger as long as the friendship with Russia lasted. 
Izzet, he said, was leaning toward Russia. Whatever I told the 
Grand Vizier would be submitted to Russia. 

Therefore we agreed that I would speak with Yakovlev, the 
influential dragoman of the Russian Embassy, before I went to 
see the Grand Vizier. 


I immediately wrote to Yakovlev asking him for an appoint- 
ment, which he promptly gave me for one o’clock. Evidently 
their attention has already been drawn to my arrival by the news- 
papers and by gossip in diplomatic circles. 

June 19 

Yesterday was a hectic day— with an unfavorable ending. 

My first call was on the Russian dragoman Yakovlev. He lives 
in the consulate at Pera. A building run down in Turkish fashion. 
In the courtyard, Kavasses and seedy-looking servants. An un- 
kempt maid received my card and took it to Yakovlev, who was 
still at table, to judge from the clatter of dishes in the adjoining 
room. Yakovlev had some cigarettes brought out to me. Ten 
minutes later he appeared— gaunt, tall, dark-haired, with a nar- 
row face, a scraggly beard, and small, slit-like eyes. 

His manner was likeable. 

I briefly told him the purpose of my visit, but in order to pre- 
pare him for the shock, I took the precaution of speaking at first 
only of colonization. I asked him to take note of the fact that I 
was calling at the Russian Embassy before talking with the Turk- 
ish government. I said it was my intention and hope to obtain an 
introduction to the Czar through a member of the latter’s family 
(by whom I meant the Prince of Wales, but without naming him). 

By way of reply Yakovlev gave me an account of his experiences 
when he was Consul at Jerusalem. The Jews he met there inspired 
him with little sympathy, although he treated them benevolently 
and, if they were Russians, accorded them all the privileges of 
Russian citizens. He said they behaved deceitfully toward the 
Consulate, tried to evade the consular taxes they owed, and 
claimed to be Turks or Russians, whichever suited their con- 

To this I remarked that considering the persecutions to which 
my people had been subjected for many centuries, it was no won- 
der if they displayed moral defects. He agreed. 

Then I went into my plan more deeply, saying that it was not 


a matter of colonization on a small but on a large scale. \v e 
wanted the territory as an autonomous one. 

He listened with growing attention and sympathy, and thought 
it was a great, fine, humanitarian plan. 

I said: “Je crois que cette idee doit etre sympathique d tous 
les honnetes gens [I believe this idea ought to appeal to all decent 

In conclusion he remarked that the project would require 
many decades. I would probably not live to see its fruition, but 
he wished me every success and was glad to have made my ac- 
quaintance. He wished me strength and good health to carry out 
the task, and then I took my leave. 

As we were saying good-bye he advised me to call on the local 
Russian charge d’affaires, and he accompanied me to the stairway. 
Then, as though to make amends for his previous disparaging re- 
marks, he said: “You have among your people perhaps twenty 
per cent who are not much good ethically, but that is what one 
finds among other peoples, too.” 

“Yes,” I said, “but in our case they are counted double, so that 
one could believe it was forty per cent.” 

* * * 

From Yakovlev I drove to the Sublime Porte, where I had al- 
ready been announced. My dragoman sat on the coach box next 
to the red-fezzed coachman. 

A drive through winding, filthy streets to Stambul. The Su- 
blime Porte is a decaying, old, dirty, imposing building, hum- 
ming with the most remarkable activity. The soldiers on guard 
duty stand on small pedestals in the entrance halls. 

Poor devils squat on the ground. Countless officials and serv- 
ants run up and down. 

My first call was on His Excellency, Khair Eddin Bey, Secre- 
tary-General to the Grand Vizier. I am writing down by ear the 
names of all the functionaries. I don’t know whether correctly. 

I learned only today that the son of the Grand Vizier is not 
named Djawid, but Djewad Bey. 


Khair Eddin is a man of about thirty years, nice looking with 
smooth, pale cheeks, a handsome black beard, and prominent 
ears. At every word he gives a smile that is friendly and astonished 
at the same time. After a few minutes we were called to the 
Grand Vizier. We crossed a vestibule and several ante chambers 
In a large salon, with his back to the wall, was His Highness the 
Grand Vizier, Khalil Rifat Pasha. He rose at my entrance’and 
gave me his hand. He is a tall, stooped old man with a white beard 
and a wrinkled, withered face. On the desk in front of him lay 
two sets of religious beads. 

He sat down and motioned me to an armchair next to him - 
facing us, beyond the large desk, Khair Eddin took a seat as in- 

After handing me a cigarette, the Grand Vizier inquired about 
my arrival, the traveling weather, the probable duration of my 

Then he paid a few compliments to the Neue Freie Presse. 

Khair Eddin translated the banalities with amiable seriousness, 
I replied with other salaams: the N. Fr. Pr. had always had 
friendly sentiments toward Turkey and would always be happy 
when it could report something favorable about the Empire. At 
times, perhaps, we were insufficiently informed about the facts; 
but we desired nothing better than always to report the truth. 

The Grand Vizier wanted me to know that our correspondent 
could call at any time and he would be told everything. 

I thanked him for this assurance. 

Then I had the interpreter ask His Highness whether he knew 
the purpose of my trip. 

No, came back his reply, and as he spoke his half-closed eyes 
kept glancing downward at the edge of the table or at his large 
hands which were toying with the beads. 

So I presented my proposal to Khair Eddin to have it con- 
veyed to the Grand Vizier. 

The Grand Vizier listened imperturbably. He asked questions 
such as this: “Palestine is large. What part of it do you have in 


I had the interpreter answer: “ That will have to be weighed 
against the benefits we offer. For more land we shall make greater 

His Highness inquired about the terms. 

I begged pardon for not going into detail. I said I could state 
the scope of our proposals only to His Majesty. Should they be 
accepted in principle, Sir Samuel Montagu would submit our 
financial program. 

Khalil Rifat Pasha made long pauses during the conversation, 
while he ticked off his beads between his fingers, one by one, as 
though he had to take time for reflection between every word. 

I was left with the impression that he is not only averse to this 
project, but actually distrusts it. 

During our conversation there was a constant stream of offi- 
cials and servants, bowing low, bringing messages and documents, 
and then backing out of the room. 

Following the appearance of another solemn old man, Khalil 
Rifat had the interpreter indicate to me that the conference was 
at an end. He half rose and gave me his hand. 

In the ante-chamber I asked Khair Eddin, who had a friendly 
smile on his face, whether the Grand Vizier had taken it amiss 
that I had kept silent on the terms for the present. 

“No,” said the smiler, “he is a philosopher and can only be 
pleased that you fulfill your obligations as he fulfills his. It is 
quite all right with him if you establish direct contact with his 
exalted master.” 

Khair Eddin also showed me a magnificent view of the Bos- 
porus and the distant Dolma Bagjeh; then he gave my hand a 
long and cheerful squeeze. 

* * * 

Down many corridors, past guards, servants, idlers, and offi- 
cials, I was taken to the Foreign Office and to Nuri Bey. 

He is a russet-haired, elegant, intelligent, cultured Armenian 
who has lived in Paris for a long time and is quite Parisianized. 
A few foreign diplomats came and went. The talk happened to 


be about two women who had fallen into the hands of brigands 
somewhere and were to be released in return for ransom. An at- 
tach^ of some embassy begged Nuri Bey to defer all non-urgent 
matters because he didn’t want to tackle anything new before 
going on his vacation. One could tell that absolutely nothing 
seemed urgent to him. 

When we were alone, I told Nuri Bey what I wanted. His eyes 
lit up. He got the point right away. 

“C’est superbe [That’s splendid],” he said when I told him— 
as I had told the Grand Vizier previously — that we wanted to 
liberate Turkey from the Debt Control Commission. Then there 
would be the means to carry out all the needed reorganization. 
Nuri was delighted and sold on it. But he had grave doubts re- 
garding the Holy Places. Who is to administer them? “That can 
be arranged,” I remarked; “just consider that we are the sole 
purchasers of an article that is worthless to everyone else and 
unproductive — and purchasers at a stiff price.” 

Thereupon Nuri Bey took me to Davout Efendi, who is a Jew, 
but also First Dragoman and thus the Foreign Minister’s right- 
hand man, regarded as the most influential person in the Foreign 

I recognized his high position by the low salaams of those who 
enter. The officials deposit the documents at his feet, so that he 
always has to stoop and therefore is less comfortably served. He 
works seated in an armchair, with no table in front of him, and 
as he writes he holds the paper in his hand unsupported. 

He is a tall, fat man with a short, grey beard. His eyeglasses are 
perched on a curved, fleshy nose in front of bulging eyes. 

He understood me at once. But he was visibly afraid. He saw 
the tremendous benefits to Turkey, but as a Jew he must impose 
the utmost reserve upon himself. 

There would be enormous difficulties, he said; in fact, he 
thought the matter impracticable. Soon he was speaking to me 
like a brother, with earnestness and concern. He said I should 
have someone else introduce me to the Foreign Minister, but he 
accompanied this refusal with an amiable glance that begged my 

forgiveness. I am supposed to come and see him again before my 

The Jews are doing well in Turkey, he said, and they are good, 
loyal patriots. 

As though by way of illustrating this, when he walked with 
me through an outer corridor, the two guards on the pedestals 
presented arms to him, clattering and rattling. 

I also saw Nishan Efendi, the Chief of the Press Bureau, in his 
little office where a few editors were manufacturing the public 
opinion of Turkey out of European newspaper reports. 

Nishan complained about the editorials in the N. Fr. Pr. and 
about Goluchowski’s latest speech. 

# * * 

In the evening Newlinsky returned from Yildiz Kiosk with a 
long face and bad news. 

He ordered only half a bottle of champagne — en signe de deuil 
[as a sign of mourning] — and told me in two words: “Nothing 
doing. The great lord won’t hear of itl” 

I took the blow stout-heartedly. 

“The Sultan said: ‘If Mr. Herzl is as much your friend as you 
are mine, then advise him not to take another step in this matter. 
I cannot sell even a foot of land, for it does not belong to me, 
but to my people. My people have won this empire by fighting 
for it with their blood and have fertilized it with their blood. 
We will again cover it with our blood before we allow it to be 
wrested away from us. The men of two of my regiments from 
Syria and Palestine let themselves be killed one by one at Plevna. 
Not one of them yielded; they all gave their lives on that battle- 
field. The Turkish Empire belongs not to me, but to the Turkish 
people. I cannot give away any part of it. Let the Jews save their 
billions. When my Empire is partitioned, they may get Palestine 
for nothing. But only our corpse will be divided. I will not agree 
to vivisection.’ ” 

Then they spoke of other things. Newlinsky advised him to let 
the young Turks participate in the government. 


The Sultan said ironically: “A constitution, then? As far as I 
know, Poland’s constitution did not keep your fatherland from 
being partitioned." 

* # # 

I was touched and shaken by the truly lofty words of the Sul- 
tan, although for the time being they dashed all my hopes. There 
is a tragic beauty in this fatalism which will bear death and dis- 
memberment, yet will fight to the last breath, even if only 
through passive resistance. 

June 19 

Newlinsky showed himself pleasantly surprised at my not be- 
traying my disappointment through a fit of depression. I imme- 
diately tried to think of other moves, and I hit upon the follow- 
ing, which I asked Newlinsky to take care of: We will endeavor 
to give the Sultan’s circle “proof of our devotion” right from the 

Newlinsky was to do his utmost through Izzet Bey and directly 
to get the Sultan to receive me after all. I want to planter un 
jalon [drive in a stake] at least. I will present our proposal to 
the Sultan, tout en m’inclinant respectueusement devant sa vo- 
lontd [while respectfully bowing to his wishes]. He should know 
that whenever he sees fit to fall back on this resource, the Jews 
will be ready to place their financial power at his disposal for the 
straightening out of Turkey’s finances. 

June 19 

The selamlik, Friday. 

On this sunny day we drove out to Yildiz Kiosk. En route, 
troops in full-dress uniform. The Bosporus gleamed. 

At Yildiz, in front of the guest pavilion, we were received by 
two adjutants of the Sultan in gala uniform. Within less than 
an hour the most magnificent images rushed past us: The white 
Yildiz Mosque in the sunlight; over on the other side, the blue 


Bosporus; in the distance, the islands in a haze. Troops came 
marching up. Sturdy, sinewy, sun-tanned fellows, full of energy, 
“hardship-defying,” splendid battalions. On the right, cavalry 
regiments came riding down the hill, their red pennants aflutter. 
In front of us, up the hill, zouaves with their green-and-red tur- 
bans were marching along at a smart goose-step. The buglers 
held their horns to their lips, ready to blow. 

Pashas in gala uniform came driving or riding toward us. 

Worshippers in the most colorful costumes were filing into the 
fore-court of the mosque. 

A riot of color. Each moment brought fresh gorgeous hues. 

Small boys in officers’ uniforms, the sons of pashas, made their 
appearance with droll grandezza [grandeur]. 

At last came the Court. First, the Sultan’s sons and other 
princes. They mounted their horses at the foot of the Yildiz hill 
and there in imposing line-up awaited the appearance of the 
Caliph. Among the ranks of the princes were two grey-bearded 
officers, their military tutors. 

The Chief Eunuch, a large, fat castratus, moved past majesti- 

Three closed royal equipages with heavily veiled ladies of the 

Next a double line of palace officers came down the hill at a 
ceremonious pace. And then the Sultan’s carriage, a half-closed 
landau with outriders, flanked by a thick, walking hedge of 
guards and officers. 

In the carriage sat the Sultan; facing him, Ghazi Osman Pasha. 

From the minaret, a muezzin called to prayer in a clear voice. 
Between calls, military music. 

The troops hailed the Caliph with two loud shouts. 

He is a slight, sickly man with a large hooked nose and a me- 
dium-sized beard which looks as though it had been dyed brown. 
He gave the Turkish salute with a flourish close to his mouth. 

As he passed the terrace on which we were standing, he sharply 
stared at Newlinsky and me. 

Then he drove in behind the railings of the mosque, left the 


carriage at the protruding angle of the left wing, and slowly 
ascended the steps. 7 

Cheering. He saluted again and entered the mosque toward 
which all the soldiers of his guard now turned their faces 

The service lasted about twenty minutes. In the courtyard of 
the mosque the pilgrims spread out prayer rugs and knelt or 
crouched on them. 

The soldiers in the burning sun were given water 

After his devotions, the Sultan reappeared and boarded an 
open two-horse carriage, which he drove himself. 

In the courtyard, a low-bowing lane of pashas and generals 

The princes mounted their horses again. 

When the Sultan passed us the second time, he stared at me 
(whom he could identify at Newlinsky’s side) with a steely look 

A bustle of officers scurrying up the hill behind the carriage' 

Then this picture of fairy-tale splendor faded away. 

* # # 

After the selamlik I saw the whirling dervishes in the mosque 
on the Rue de Pera. 

One little boy among the old gaunt “fanatics,” with their apa- 
thetic yet sly look, who perform the solemn, grotesque dance rou- 

Homespun music, snuffled prayers, a walk-around like a sort 
of chaine anglaise in a quadrille, with low bows; then the dizzy, 
senseless whirling. After throwing off their colored cloaks, they 
continue in white garments d la Loie Fuller, the left palm turned 
toward the ground, the right turned up. 

* * * 

In the afternoon, at the Sweet Waters of Europe with Mar- 
gueritte, the favorite of the Grand Vizier. 

Margueritte offered me his services. He claims he can get any- 
thing he pleases from the Grand Vizier. He said he would shortly 
receive a concession for the oil-wells of Alexandretta. He told me 
the story of Baron Popper’s abortive loan. The latter had wanted 


to handle the loan of three million Turkish pounds which was 
later made by the Ottoman Bank. He had already concluded 
everything and enlisted the interest of Izzet, Tahsin, the Sheik of 
the Palace, and a few other people. The Grand Vizier accepts no 
gifts, but P. was going to present the Vizier’s wife with a neck- 
lace or something like that. 

The embassies abroad were instructed to support Popper. Then 
it turned out that the bank whose representative P. claimed to be 
stated that it did not know him. 

That created ill-will against him here — parbleu!— without, 
however, compromising him permanently. Margueritte said that 
Popper was now competing for the Alexandretta-Damascus rail- 
road concession, which would draw off the Asiatic traffic from the 
Suez Canal. 

Margueritte further informed me that late last night Newlinsky 
had sent him a request in my name — without having informed 
me of it — to drop the matter which I had presented to him. 

Margueritte promised me to interest Djewad Bey, the Grand 
Vizier’s son, in my cause. 

With Djewad, he said, it was possible to “speak openly.” 

June 20 

Each morning at breakfast we hold a council of war in our 
parlor with its long green damask sofa. Today I proposed to 
Newlinsky that we hold out the prospect of an initial transaction 
to the people at the Palace and the Porte. I would try to induce 
them to take a small loan of one or two million, since in my opin- 
ion this would not compromise our future plan. The money 
would be thrown into a bottomless well, but with it we would 
gain a firm footing and become popular. 

I begged Newlinsky to do everything possible to get the Sultan 
to receive me. If I return home without an audience, with a 
“No,” people will take everything for a dream. 

At present, of course, no one dares mention me to the Sultan, 
after the formal refusal which he gave Newlinsky in the presence 
of Miinir Pasha, Izzet Bey, etc. 


Izzet Bey, however, advises the following: the Jews should ac- 
quire some other territory and then offer it to Turkey as a trade 
(with additional payment). 

I immediately thought of Cyprus. 

Izzet’s idea is good, and it shows that he is thinking with us 
and for us. 

He declines a personal share in it. But he has his family in 
Arabia, numbering — 1500, for whom something would have to 
be done. 

June 21 

Yesterday afternoon I saw Nuri Bey again, just after New- 
linski had left him. I waited for Newlinski in the carriage out- 
side the Sublime Porte. A hot afternoon. 

After an hour Newlinski appeared. He had discussed our matter 
with the Grand Vizier and Nuri Bey. The Grand Vizier is against 
it, Nuri Bey all fire and flame for it. 

Nuri Bey received me very cordially. Then he took me from 
the room, in which there were visitors, to a private room next 
door and there spoke to me quite openly. He said he was com- 
pletely on our side, but unfortunately the large number of 
wooden heads here must be taken into account. 

He acted a bit coquettish about his European education and 
intelligence and said complacently: “Among these blind people 
I am a one-eyed man.” 

He really is of a much higher intelligence than most of the 

This is what he advises: The Jews ought to buy up the Turkish 
issues and put their own people on the Commission of Bond- 
holders* This Commission, according to him, has great influ- 
ence and steps in whenever there is a crisis. 

He has also communicated this idea to Newlinski, as I found 
out later. Newlinski opposed it immediately, because this would 
make the Jews just as detested here as the Commission is at 

• In English in the original. 


Newlinski even tempers my singing of Nuri’s praises by re- 
marking! "It would be proof of his intelligence if he were giving 
this advice only to compromise the Jewish cause.” 

Nuri promised me his fullest support, particularly if we pro- 
ceeded against the Ottoman Bank, which is here held responsi- 
ble for the financial troubles. 

* * * 

Then with Davout Efendi, in my view the most irreproach- 
able of the functionaries I have met thus far. I am proud of the 
fact that he is a Jew. The Sultan has no more loyal official. At 
heart he is with us, but he must be careful not to show it. 

He considers it possible that we shall reach our goal one day, 
when Turkey “sera dans la deche, et si vous dorez la pilule [is 
completely broke, and if you sugar-coat the pill]” — that is, es- 
tablish our State as a vassal state. 

He promised me to be on hand when I visit Tewfik, the For- 
eign Minister, today. Only, it must appear as if we did not know 
each other. 

# # # 

Last evening Newlinski informed me that Izzet Bey would 
receive me today. 

June 21 

I am writing Davout Efendi that for the time being he should 
not speak with his Minister about the matter. The moment is 
not auspicious. 

* * * 

Yesterday the Sultan told Newlinski that he would not receive 
me as a journalist, because following Bacher’s interview, the 
N. Fr. Pr. had made a violent personal attack on him. 

Yesterday morning I drove with Newlinski to Yildiz Kiosk in 
order to see Izzet Bey. It had been agreed in advance that the 
conversation must consist only of polite nothings. 


At half-past nine we were driving along the familiar route 
which is bordered by colorful scenes of the poverty-stricken life 
in the Orient, past the Dolma Bagjeh, where the blue Bosporus 
lies shimmering, and up the hill to Yildiz. 

We entered the palace courtyard where repair work on the 
buildings is going on. 

Izzet Bey happened to be standing in the courtyard. We 
greeted him and went to the building where his office is located. 
It looks rather shabby. The individual offices look like beach 
cabins. Even the room of Izzet Bey, the all-powerful, is small and 
paltry. Izzet’s desk, a smaller one for his secretary, a few arm- 
chairs, and a curtained four-poster (in case he has to spend the 
night there on continuous duty): that is all. But a window faces 
the wide, laughing beauty of the Bosporus, overlooking the white 
minarets of the selamlik mosque as far as the hazy Princes Islands. 

Another man waiting for Izzet Bey was a Jewish jeweller who 
had brought a silver pendulum-clock ordered by the Sultan. This 
clock is a reward for the army doctor who, a few days previously, 
had operated on the Sultan’s boil. 

Izzet Bey came in and, after I had been introduced to him, took 
care of the jeweller. 

Izzet Bey is a man in his forties, of medium height and slight 
build. His wrinkled, tired, but intelligent face is almost ugly. 
Large nose, sparse, semi-long, dark beard, intelligent eyes. 

I spoke the prearranged banalities. I did not wish to leave 
without having made the acquaintance of one of the most out- 
standing men of this great country. I should be very pleased if I 
succeeded, through my newspaper, in imparting to others the 
favorable impressions I was carrying away from Constantinople. 
I planned to write a series of articles about the political circles 
of Turkey, and would be glad if I could be of some use. 

Izzet Bey smiled at all this very affably and was “delighted to 
have made your acquaintance” when, after a quarter of an hour, 
I took leave of him. 

Newlinski had forewarned me that all the servants must be 
given baksheesh. Izzet’s servant in the second-floor corridor took 

two mejidiyes, the servant on the ground floor R2L 

cane, one mejidiye. But at the Yildiz exit the thin ^ h ' ld “I 
cal. There stood two gatekeepers. As I reach J ' ^ 
both held out their hands, side by side and I H p0cket - 
layed the donation for a few seconds in order to ?'• ' bentel 7 *• 

joyment of the symbolic spectacle of these baksheesh? m,e "- 
court gate. Each got a mejidiye. Unites at the 

Then we drove along the Bosporus out toward Bebek 
daydreaming harem-castles. The sun was burning hot bn, ' * 
tie breeze came from the Bosporus. 8 ’ Dut a 8 €n - 

Only then did Newlinski tell me what h.H 
the day before (Saturday) at the Porte and the PahceTu 
felt constrained to keep this from me so that I might nofn, ! 
even .^slightest unintentional allusion to i, in m/convetsat 

The Grand Vizier, he said, was opposed to the proposal I had 
made. (Marguentte, the Grand Viziers confidant, had told me 
the contrary. Who was lying? Could it be that the Grand Vizier 
was only giving Newlinski diplomatic double-talk because he 
wanted to keep me guessing? 

Newlinski begged the Grand Vizier, even though he was op- 
posed to it himself, at least not to say anything about it to the 
Sultan. For the Grand Vizier is not supposed to know that the 
Sultan is against it. Everybody here has the servile habit of con- 
firming the Sultan in whatever he already desires, and of boldly 
opposing whatever he is already against. 

At Yildiz Kiosk, according to what Newlinski observed on Sat- 
urday, the disposition toward me had improved somewhat. The 
Sultan at least permitted Newlinski to speak of me. Newlinski 
had told the Sultan on Saturday that I had thought his first re- 
fusal sublime and had admired it greatly. He said I was a friend 
of T urkey and wished to be of service to the Sultan. The Sultan 
ought to receive me. 

The Caliph declined to do this. He could not and would not 
receive me as a journalist after the experience he had had with 
Bacher and the N. Fr. Pr. A few months after Bacher’s audience 


our paper had published the most malicious attack on his person 
that had ever appeared in the press— including the English and 
Armenian papers. The Sultan complained about this to the Aus- 
trian ambassador, Calice, and expressly regretted that the latter 
had introduced Bacher to him. 

On the other hand, he could and would receive me as a friend 
— after I had rendered him a service. The service he asks of me 
is this: For one thing, I am to influence the European press (in 
London, Paris, Berlin, and Vienna) to handle the Armenian 
question in a spirit more friendly to the Turks; for another, I 
am to induce the Armenian leaders directly to submit to him, 
whereupon he will make all sorts of concessions to them. 

In his talk with Newlinski the Sultan used a poetic locution: 
“To me all my peoples are like children I might have had by 
different wives. They are my children, all of them; and even 

though they have differences of opinion among themselves 

with me they can have none.” 

I immediately told Newlinski that I was ready a me mettre en 
campagne [to start my campaign]. Let them give me a pragmatic 
presentation of the Armenian situation: which persons in Lon- 
don are to be brought round, what newspapers to be won over, 
etc. Of course, my efforts would be greatly facilitated if the Sultan 
were to receive me. 

Newlinski said: “He will receive you afterwards and confer a 
high decoration on you.” 

I answered: “I don’t need a decoration. All I want now is an 
audience with him. Planter le premier jalon [drive in the first 
stake] — that is our only task now.” 

We carried on this conversation in the garden caf£ at Babek 
on the Bosporus. We were sitting under the shade of a tree, in 
the great noon day heat. 

* * * 

Afterwards we rode up the hill to Madame Gropler, a remark- 
able, dear old invalid lady. Hers is a Polish emigrant’s house 
where for the last forty years all exiled politicians, every itinerant 


artist and diplomat en rupture d’ ennui officiel [escaping fr ora 
difficulties with the government] have been in and out. 

A Polish violinist, the nephew of our hostess, played to us after 
the meal. There also appeared His Excellency Reshid Bey, son 
of the famous Reshid Pasha and grandson of Fuad Pasha. 

Reshid is a fat, intelligent man, still young, who used to be 
attached to the embassy in Vienna. His two little boys, whom 
he had brought along, speak German and sweetly sang German 
songs for us. 

After lunch Newlinski had spoken about my project with 
Reshid, who is in the Sultan’s good graces. Reshid’s reaction to 
it was sympathetic; and when, before leaving, I stood with him 
on the terrace for a few minutes, he promised me his support. 

# # # 

In the afternoon I attended a training session of the fire bri- 
gade, to which Count Sz£ch£nyi, an easy-going old gentleman, 
who here holds the rank of a pasha, had invited me very urgently. 

The firemen are fine, sturdy specimens from Anatolia. It is 
easy to understand that the master of such troops, which don’t 
need to get any pay and yet gladly serve, will not soon, if ever, 
regard his situation as lost. 

Unfortunately, the great worries caused by my political efforts 
have made me half blind to the beauty of the place, the wonders 
of its history, and the colorfulness of the figures that are con- 
stantly before my eyes. At the firemen’s exhibition, too, there 
were groups of people by the side of the road on the slopes of 
the hill, women squatting about in their mysterious garb, and 
much else that ordinarily would have been a feast for my eyes. 

* # # 

In the dilapidated graveyards, tombstones many centuries old 
on which people sit or hang out their clotheslines. 

In the evening, Newlinski returned from Yildiz Kiosk tired 
and upset. Bad news had come in from various parts of the Em- 

HERZL 389 

pire. Bloodshed m Crete; the Druse (in the Lebanon?) have ex 
terminated an entire battalion of regulars, i.e., killed them off 
one by one; and recently Armenians broke in across rh. d - 
border and massacred three hundred Mohammedans <USSian 
The Sultan would like to make peace with the Armenians at 
any cost. He lakes a gloomy view of the future and said to New 
linski: Cest une croisade deguisee contre la Turquie lit 
crusade in disguise against Turkey].” ^ *■ 1 1S a 

This magnanimous melancho'y prince of decline reminds me 
of Boabdil el Chico whom Heme wrote about * 

Thehm of Vildiz is perhaps the “mountain of the last Caliph’s 

After sundown I sailed up the Bosporus on a small yacht, in the 
direction of Buyukdere. 

The veils of evening slowly draped themselves around the beau- 
tiful, white, proud castles where the harem wives dwell, the wid- 

ows of former sultans and the widows of the present one For he 
does not live with them. 

Newlinski, whose diplomatic acumen and finesse I admire more 
and more, thinks that first of all I ought to have some position in 
the palace from which I personally-without using anyone as a 
go-between, for it might look as though he were bought-could 
keep reiterating the proposal of the Jews. 

That is an excellent idea. 

Every hour I press Newlinski to get me that audience with the 

ultan so that my London friends may believe that I was here. 

the Sultan had said yes, he need not have received me. I 
would have left town and got things started. 

Since he is saying no, it is indispensable that he receive me, so 

at my riends may realize que tout n’est pas rompu [that all is 
not lost yet]. L 

* Translator’s Note: Cf. Heine’s poem, Der Mohrenkonig. 


June 23 

Nothin'* much happened yesterday. TaU Margueritte spoke 

th Grand Vizier and told him that I wanted to do him the 
service of interviewing him. Khalil Rifat Pasha sent me word 
that he would receive me. 

I thereupon wired Benedikt that I was going to talk general 
politics with the Grand Vizier and would telegraph the whole 
interview but on condition that the editorial comment would 
acknowledge the amiability with which I was received here. 

Benedikt wired back: “Shall do everything you wish.” 

That was what I expected. 

* * * 

Newlinski is an uncommonly interesting man to whom peo- 
ple in Vienna are doing a grave injustice. The better I get to 
know him, the more his character appeals to me. If he had had 
enough money, he would have become one of the finest grand- 
seigneurs and a diplomat with a name in world history. He is a 
warped man, but very sensitive and full of noble impulses. He is 
an unhappy Pole and often says: “Since I cannot shape the pol- 
icy of my nation, I don’t care a rap for anything. I go on artist’s 
tours in politics, like a piano virtuoso — that is all. 

It is hard not to be touched by this noble Polish melancholia. 

He is much more cultivated than most aristocrats; he has a 
feeling for art and a sense of tact. I intended to use him only as 
an instrument, and I have come to the point where I esteem and 
love him. He is obliging but proud, crafty and yet sincere, too, 
and his unmistakable gentlemanly qualities are detrimental to 
his reputation only because he moves among the bourgeoisie. He 
is the most interesting figure I have had to deal with since I ha\e 
carried on the Jewish cause. 

June 24 

Yesterday I had that interview with the Grand Vizier for the 
N. Fr. Pr. It lasted an hour and a half. Haireddin Bey again "as 


the smiling interpreter. He said cheerfully: “It 
a couple of hundred dead.” 

was nothing— just 

I sat by the window in the sunshine and sweated while I wrote 
on my knees. The sunlight fell on the paper, too, and blinded 
me. It was very tiring. 

An Oriental touch: As we were crossing the bridge over the 
Golden Horn, a beggar boy kept pestering me even after I had 
given him something. I asked Tak£ Margueritte to get him to 
leave me in peace. He simply spat in the poor boy’s face. 

Half an hour later we were at the hotel. Newlinski was writing, 
and suddenly he said to Tak£ in a gruff tone of voice: “Sonnez 

And Tak<§ obediently rang. The beggar boy was avenged. 

Newlinski, to whom I had related the scene at the bridge 
later mocked Tak£ further by saying: "lei on regoit des crachats, 
el on les rend [Here one is spat on, and one spits on others].” 

* * * 

Newlinski spent the whole afternoon yesterday with Izzet and 
Nuri Bey at the palace. I am reported to have made a most fa- 
vorable impression on both of them. Izzet said that I was an 
"inspire [inspired man],” which is the highest praise among the 
Moslems, and Nuri called me an homme hors ligne [a swell per- 

* * # 

Of course, the main thing, my reception by the Sultan, has 
proved unattainable. 

It is, at any rate, a tremendous thing; because SzdcWnyi Pasha, 
for example, at whose house we had lunch yesterday, has not 
spoken with the Sultan in ten years, although he never misses a 

selamhk and will shortly be promoted by the Sultan to the rank 
of marshal. 


June 25 

Yesterday the Sultan sent me word that I should not leave to- 
day; he would probably have something to say to me before my 
departure. This is a success — though an uncertain one. 

Yesterday I telegraphed the N. Fr. Pr. a rather long entrefilet 
[notice], presenting the local, undeniably critical situation in a 
manner friendly to the government. 

Then, in the afternoon, I sailed on a small yacht to Biiyiikdere, 
to see the Austrian ambassador, Baron Cal ice. 

He received me more graciously than he probably would have 
if I had turned to him in the first place. 

Calice is a well-preserved man in his late sixties. Bald head, 
large nose, moustache, a rather grand manner, not inconsiderable 
loquacity. From time to time in his stream of words he suddenly 
remembers what an exalted person he really is — et alors il se 
reprend [and then he checks himself]. 

We sat in the beautiful big salon of the embassy’s summer 
residence at Biiyiikdere. Through the large windows one’s eyes 
lovingly embrace the rosy and blue beauty of the Bosporus. 

Calice expounded to me in detail his understanding of the 
situation. He spoke approximately in the style of the diplomats 
in Gregor Samarow’s novels. He “presented the situation on a 
chess board.” Anyone who knew the game, he said, looking up 
meaningfully, would understand the importance of this piece or 

Russia’s influence was great because of her geographical posi- 
tion. England had lost her position here, because the Turks saw 
that she did not force the issue of the Dardanelles, not even after 
her threat. On the other hand, the Bosporus was open to Russia. 
Added to that was the present complexion of Bulgaria which 
has become Russianized. 

As for Turkey’s position, Calice considers it rather serious— 
but the vitality of this Empire has already been demonstrated 
so often that it will perhaps continue to exist. Of course . . • 
the many rebellions, the lack of finances, etc. He hopes that Tur- 


mtuuuR HERZL 393 


key will find a way on, again, but he is not sure. He present. ,h 
Armenian question in a way fundamentally different (. u 
of the Turks who always falsify the facts. Now Tcourte th 
don', want any foreign intervention, they are going 

thing themselves, reforms, etc. But once the emergency is n 2 ‘ 
they no longer think of that. ° ^ 

There could be no question of a croisade deguisee [crusade in 
disguise], rather of a crusade of the crescent," for the Tur£ 
were persecuting the Christians. 

Austria, he said, was as always, observing a policy of preserv- 
,ng Turkey He praised my proposal for friendly counsel which 
Goluchowski was to give the Armenians as a patriotic one 
On the whole, a barren conversation 

Later we dined at Pe, ala's on the shore of the Bosporus A 
wonderful evening by the sea. 

We ailed back , 0 Constantinople in the moonlight. An in- 
effably delightful night. 

Tak6 Margueritte was drunk. 

June 25 

Sent off the Grand Vizier interview to Vienna today by a 
passenger on the Orient Express. 

In the evening Newlinski came from the Palace where it ap- 
pears, people are already very favorably disposed toward me. 
Ihey are taking to the Jewish idea. 

Right now they seem to be in a very bad fix in regard to 
money. However, the matter would have to be presented in 
some other form. Sauver les apparences [Save face]! 

Izzet (through whom, of course, the Sultan speaks) or the Sul- 
tan (through whom Izzet speaks) would be willing enough to 
yield Palestine if the proper formula could be found for the 
transaction. Precisely because things are going badly for them 
ney must not sell any land, Newlinski reports; but he observes 

at my idea is making good progress. 

In a few months’ time, the people in Yildiz Kiosk will perhaps 


be ripe for it. L’idee les travaille visiblement [it is plain to see 
that the idea agitates them]. 

Nuri Bey, too, is very sympathetic toward our cause. Today he 
said that we should endeavor to win over the Czar. 

# # # 

Bad news again today from Anatolia. 

New massacres at Van. 

June 26 

Another selamlik. Exactly the same spectacle as a week ago. 

Newlinski says he is convinced that the Turks are willing to 
give us Palestine. He says it is just like when a man has a hunch 
that a woman is willing to surrender; in such a situation one 
may not even be able to say as yet what this hunch is based on. 

“I say she’s a whore — I don’t know why; I just feel sure,” he 
said in his broken Polish-German. 

# # * 

After the selamlik I drove to Therapia, while Newlinski was 
received by the Sultan. 

In the evening, after my return, he gave me an account of his 

The Sultan began to speak about me of his own accord. He 
expressed his thanks for the article I had telegraphed to the 
N. Fr. Pr. 

Then he brought up the subject of Palestine. To begin with, 
he reproached Newlinski for having submitted the matter in a 
thoughtless way. As someone acquainted with the local situation, 
Newlinski should have known that Palestine could never be 
given up in the proposed form of a purchase. But according to 
what he — the Sultan — had heard, Mr. Herzl’s friends were think- 
ing of a possible exchange. 

This idea of an exchange, which originated with Izzet Bey, 
seems to have been presented by Izzet to the Sultan as coining 


from us. Izzet also was the interpreter at Newlinski’s audience 

Newlinski did not know immediately what to say to this, and 
referred the Sultan to the information which I would be able to 
give. He said it was my most ardent desire to be received by 
His Majesty. 

To that the Sultan replied: “I shall see. In any case, I shall 
receive Mr. Herzl — sooner or later.” 

Newlinski pointed out that I have to speak with my friends in 
London early in July. The Sultan repeated: “I shall see.” 

It is possible, then, that I shall be received after all. 

The Sultan then made Newlinski a further and rather surpris- 
ing disclosure: he had already been sounded out by a Great 
Power as to his attitude toward my proposal. 

Which Great Power that was Newlinski was unable to ask. 
(Here I must make a parenthetical remark on my own behalf: 

I have already accomplished a thing or two after all, if my plan, 
which quite a few people have called crazy, is already the subject 
of diplomatic steps among the Great Powers. Poor Friedrich 
Schiff! Poor Moritz Benediktl) 

The Sultan then asked: “Do the Jews have to have Palestine at 
all costs? Couldn’t they settle in some other province?” 

Newlinski answered: “Palestine is their cradle; that is where 
they wish to return.” 

The Sultan rejoined: “But Palestine is the cradle of other re- 
ligions as well.” 

Thereupon Newlinski said: 

“If the Jews cannot get Palestine, they will simply have to go 
to Argentina.” 

Following this the Sultan continued talking about me with 
Izzet in Turkish. Newlinski caught only the repeated recurrence 

of my name. Izzet seems to have spoken about me in friendly 

Then the Sultan put another question to Newlinski: “How 
many Jews are there in Salonica?” 

Newlinski didn’t know. Neither do I. 


Does he perhaps want to let us have the region around Sa- 
lon ica? 

Next the Sultan discussed the general situation. He said that 
the day before yesterday the Powers had made an unjust joint 
protest against the Van atrocities, when it was actually the Mos- 
lems who had been massacred by the Armenians at Van. 

He also spoke about the financial situation which is anything 
but rosy. 

Newlinski concludes: “It’s a whore!” 

June 27 

Newlinski tells me stories of Yildiz Kiosk. Dreams play a great 
part there. There is Lufti Aga, the Sultan’s chamberlain and a 
great dreamer. Lufti Aga is around the Sultan all day, waits on 
him personally, has great influence. If Lufti Aga says: I have 
dreamed such and such, it makes an impression on the Sultan. If 
Lufti Aga were to say one day: I dreamt that the Jews are com- 
ing to Palestine, this would be worth more than the “steps” taken 
by the entire diplomatic corps. 

It sounds like a fairy-tale, but I have absolute confidence in 

When the reconciliation with the Prince of Bulgaria took 
place, Lufti Aga’s dreams played a great part. He does not dream 
gratis. The Prince of Bulgaria didn’t immediately understand 
why this chamberlain should receive a gift of 20,000 francs. But 
Ferdinand owed his appointment as a mushir to a dream. 

* * * 

Diplomatic gossip. 

I had told Calice that Sz£ch£nyi Pasha would probably go to 
Vienna with a holograph letter from the Sultan. Calice gave a 
superior smile and said: “C’est de la menue monnaie [That’s 
small change].” 

However, at yesterday’s selamlik he stepped up to Szech&iyi 
and said: I am told by Dr. Herzl that you are to get a mission 

wxv 397 

to our Emperor”— when I had told him this onlv c j 

Sz&htayi, who had already seen himself as a m “LrsM)' 
as a reward for putting out Constaminopolitan conflagrations 
over many years, is quite beside himself now. He is afraif of | os 
mg his leave, his mushirship, and his “mission,” because r a li 
will be jealous and work against it. lce 

Idea for London. 

1 must make the matter palatable to the English lords of finance 
in the following form: 

"Convinced that the Jewish Question can be solved onlv ter 
ritorially, we are forming a Society for the acquisition of an 

autonomous country for those Jews who cannot assimilate in 
their present places of residence.” 

This formu'a will unite Zionists and assimilationists. Both 
Edmond R. and Lord Rothschild can subscribe to it. 

June 27 

Nurt Bey, the most intelligent mind in the Foreign Office 
and very popular with the Sultan, has, it appears, made a favor- 
able report to the Sultan on my proposal. Nun Bey is all for 

my idea. Perhaps the noticeable change in the Sultan’s attitude 
can be traced back to Nuri’s report. 

Izzet Bey was a bit annoyed— but not at me— because Nuri 
had made this report behind his back. 

Incidentally, Izzet and Nuri are friends. 

June 28 

Yesterday morning, as the ultimate insight of my wisdom, 
I said to Newlinski with reluctance and secret shame: 

If the Sultan won’t receive me, he should at least give me a 
v isi e token that, after listening to my proposal and rejecting 
it, he still wants to remain en coquetterie [on flirting terms] with 
me. A high decoration would be suitable for that. But I implore 


you not to take me for a decoration hunter. I have never given 
a hoot for decorations, and I don’t give a hoot now. But for my 
people in London I badly need a sign of favor from the Sultan.” 

Newlinski immediately wrote this to Izzet Bey; but no reply 
came in the course of the day. 

Instead, in the afternoon there came a message from the 
Master of Ceremonies, Munir Pasha, informing me that today 
I would be shown the Sultan’s castles and treasures by an adju- 


At that moment there arose a slight ill feeling between New- 
linski and me. 

I said I was a bit disappointed. Thereupon Newlinski made 
a point of emphasizing the honor of this invitation. But I said: 
“Je ne suis pas assez fabricant de chocolat pour etre touchd jus- 
qu’aux larmes par cette faveur [I am not enough of a chocolate 
manufacturer to be moved to tears by this favor]. 

Newlinski disagreed with this, a bit irritated, saying that he 
himself was very receptive to such attentions and grateful for 

However, in the course of the evening, I tried to erase this 
disagreeable impression. 

Later the Greek Constantinides called, an obsequious journal- 
ist for whom Newlinski obtained a decoration today. 

The sycophantic Greek wore his brand-new ribbon in his but- 
tonhole and kissed Newlinski’s hand. 

For my benefit, Newlinski evinced a perceptible satisfaction. 

# # * 

Tonight we are leaving for Sofia. 

This trip is costing me about three thousand francs. 

The fonds perdu [irrecoverable expenses] are increasing. 

June 28 

At the Jardins des Petits Champs at Pera, which is situated in 
an old Turkish cemetery, a visiting Italian light-opera company is 


performing. The star is the singer Morosini— pretty, graceful 
dissolute, Newlinski had repeatedly spoken of asking her to sup- 
per. It never worked out. He calls her “la Morosina.” Of these 
ten days during which we manipulated a bit of world history— 
for this very attempt to found a Jewish State will live in the 

memories of men, even if the plan remains a dream of these 

colorful and serious days the name of la Morosina will surely 
stick in our memory, precisely because it remained only a word 
Every day Newlinski would tell his henchmen, the fat Danusso 
the comical Roumanian Tak£ Margueritte, and the fawning 
Greek Constantinides: “Invitez-moi la Morosina [Invite la Moro & 
sina for me].” 

There was something inimitably grand-seignorial about it. 

I loved the view over the Golden Horn from our hotel win- 
dows. Whistler-like dusk and nights aglow with lights, wonderful 
rosy morning mists; the thick violet and grey-blue splendor of 
the evening vapors. The big ships disappearing in the fog and 
then emerging again. On moonlit nights, light powdery veils. 
Today it is sunny. The heights over there— Eyub, I believe— 
stretch between two sheets of blue. Above, the delicate sky; 
below, the oily waters on which the silver strokes of oars flash. 

# * * 

One can understand the greed with which the whole world 
eyes Constantinople. 

Everyone wants it — and this is the best guarantee for the con- 
tinued existence of Turkey. 

None of the pirates will let any of the others enjoy this beauty 
— and so perhaps it will remain unplundered. 

June 29, Sofia 

Yesterday afternoon, accompanied by the Sultan’s adjutant, 
I saw the treasures of Eski Serai and the Bosporus palaces of 
Dolma Bagjeh and Beylerbey. 

The adjutant spoke little French, but had enormous respect 

«*. w. 


for me; to each question he replied, “Oui, Monsieur [Yes, Sirl ” 
and then switched to Excellency; “Oui, rnon Excellence [Yes 
Your Excellency]!” 

The castles are magnificent. 

The baths at Beylerbey, a sultry Oriental dream. 

The Sultan’s caique, in which we traveled, was rowed by eight 
of the Caliph’s sturdy boatmen; the helmsman, squatting cross- 
legged in the stern, wore a frock-coat. 

* # # 

When I got back to the Hotel Royal from this hot but beauti- 
ful trip, Newlinski, who was writing letters in his underwear 
said to me: “He sends you that!” and handed me a box contain- 
ing the Commander’s Cross of the Mejidiye Order. 

* * * 

We then took our leave of the edundi exercitus [eating army] 
Danusso, Margueritte, and Constantinides, and left by rail. 

On the train Newlinski related the following: 

“The Sultan told me he would have given you a decoration 
even if I hadn’t asked for it. But he could not receive you on this 
visit, because your plan hadn’t remained secret and several per- 
sons had even made reports about it — namely, the Grand Vizier, 
Nuri Bey, Davout Efendi, and Djawid Bey. Under such circum- 
stances the audience would no longer have had an intimate char- 
acter; and since the Sultan is obliged to reject your proposal in 
its present form, he did not care to talk about it at all. But he 
did tell me: ‘The Jews are intelligent; they will find some accept- 
able formula. From this we may gather that the Sultan merely 
wants to sauver les apparences [save face], and I believe that in 
the end he will accept. He seems to have in mind some form of 
trade; in any case, in diplomatic dealings one must not discuss 
the heart of the matter too plainly. Often people negotiate for 
a long time and dodge the main issue. Izzet Bey seems to be 
working for you; that is the impression I have. 

The Grand Vizier submitted an unfavorable report, saying 


that he did not regard the plan as seriously meant, but as fantasy 
Nuri Bey also made a report and only stressed those aspects that 
militate against it, although in our presence he acted so cordially 
Nuri Bey had probably learned that the Grand Vizier would op- 
pose the plan, and he wanted to be on the safe side. But it will 
be easy to win him over again as soon as the wind veers. The most 
intelligent report was written by Davout Efendi. He gave a clear 
analysis of the whole plan and added that as a Jew he could 
counsel neither for nor against it. Djawid Bey, the son of the 
Grand Vizier, in his report categorically declared himself in favor 
of the plan, but on the stupid grounds that the Jews were such 
good subjects of His Majesty that one could only welcome the 
immigration of more of them. 

The Sultan takes this last view and mentioned a report by 
the Governor of Salonica to the effect that the Salonican Jews 
emigrated as soon as they had got some money. I explained this 
to the Sultan by saying that, after all, the Jews had no real home 
and that it was precisely a matter of obtaining a foyer [homel 
for them. 

The Sultan now expects you to help him in the Armenian 
matter. Moreover, he wishes you to procure for him a loan based 
on a lien on the revenue from the light-houses. For that purpose 
he is sending you the contract with Collas. The revenue is 45,000 
Turkish pounds annually. The loan is supposed to amount to 
two million pounds.” 

* # # 

We were on our way to Sofia. En route we discussed the next 
steps. Bismarck is to be interested in the cause. Newlinski has 
connections with him as well as with the Roman Curia which, 
after all, we must also approach. 

# * * 

On the train Newlinski again told me a lot of stories about 
court, diplomatic, and government circles. I have long since felt 
intuitively that the great of the earth are composed only of the 


respect we have for them. Every little anecdote confirms me in 
this assumption. E.g., what Newlinski tells me about Petrow 
the Bulgarian Minister of War. To this man the Sultan once 
promised a horse, and because it has not materialized so far 
Petrow is quite furious. Every week he writes to the Bulgarian 
envoy at Stambul: “Where is my horse?” 

And he declares he will not give orders to shoot at the Mace- 
donian rebels, because he has not received the horse. 

When Prince Ferdinand was visiting the Sultan, the latter 
distributed gifts among the Bulgarian ministers. They compared 
the boxes etc., and were incensed when one present had less 
value than another. 

June 30 

At the station in Sofia I was met by two gentlemen from the 
Zionist Society, who had been informed by telephone from 
Philippopolis that I was just passing through there. 

Sensation in the city; hats and caps were thrown in the air 
everywhere. I had to request that there be no welcoming parade. 

At the Zionist Society, speeches. Afterwards I had to go to the 
synagogue, where hundreds were awaiting me. 

I warned against demonstrations and advised calm behavior 
so as not to arouse popular passions against the Jews. 

After I had spoken in German and French, my words were 
repeated in Bulgarian and Spaniolic. 

I stood on the altar platform. When I was not quite sure how 
to face the congregation without turning my back to the Holy 
of Holies, someone cried: “It’s all right for you to turn your back 
to the Ark, you are holier than the Torah.” 

Several wanted to kiss my hand. 


* # # 

In the evening, dined with Minister Natchevitch. I mentioned 
the grievance of the local Jews, whose synagogue grounds are 
to be expropriated. On this site the synagogue has stood for 500 

The liberated Bulgarians are more intolerant than the Turks 

Natchevitch promised to take care of the matter favorably. 

July 1 

Baden-bei-Wien, at my parents’ house. 

Even the last day on the train with Newlinski was full of 
stimulation. He is a rare, unusual person of great gifts. 

He had the following idea. It ought to be suggested to the 
Sultan that he take charge of the Zionist movement and proclaim 
to the Jews that he would throw Palestine open to them as a 
principality, under his suzerainty, with its own laws, army, etc. 
In return, the Jews would have to pay a tribute of about a mil- 
lion pounds each year. This tribute could then be immediately 
mortgaged against a loan (which we would raise). 

I consider this idea excellent. I had thought of something 
similar in Constantinople, but didn’t speak about it. For that is 
an acceptable proposition, and up to now I was allowed only to 
make unacceptable ones, because I am not sure whether the 
Londoners won’t leave me in the lurch at the last moment. 

Now I am taking this proposal to London where I am already 
expected with some impatience. 

Newlinski proposes further that Bismarck be interested in the 
Jewish cause through his friend Sidney Whitman. Whitman is 
to be called from London to meet Newlinski at Carlsbad, and 
from there go to Friedrichsruh. All this at my expense. Whitman 
will be doing Newlinski a friendly turn, of course, but we shall 
have to reimburse him largement [generously] for his expenses. 

Bismarck should then write the Sultan a letter containing the 
proposal which Newlinski made on the train. The Sultan will 
receive me, issue the call to the Jews, which I will spread all over 
the world — and the thing is done. 

Newlinski says: “Si vous arrivez a pacifier les Armeniens, si 
vous faites I’emprunt de 2 millions de livres sur les phares, et si 
nous avons la lettre de Bismarck — nous enlevons la chose en 


huit jours [If you succeed in pacifying the Armenians, if y OU 
make a loan of two million pounds on the light-houses, and if 
we have Bismarck’s letter — we will carry the thing off in a week]!” 

* # # 

We took cordial leave of each other in Vienna. I promised 
Newlinski my friendship for life. 

If it is through him that we obtain Palestine, we shall give him 
a fine estate in Galicia as an honorific recompense. 

July 2 

Last night I spoke with the Armenian Alawerdow in my par- 
ents’ apartment. Mr. Klatschko served as interpreter. 

I offered the Armenians my services as a conciliator. Alawer- 
dow did not dare to speak out, because he is a Russian and afraid 
of his government. Also, he didn’t seem to trust me. We finally 
agreed that he will announce me in London as a friend of the 
Armenians and act as a pacifier in his circle. 

* * * 

I spoke with Reichenfeld of the Union Bank about the two- 
million loan. He wasn’t sure; one would have to see, ask ques- 
tions, talk it over. I refused to make further inquiries. 

* * * 

Hechler telegraphed me from Karlsruhe yesterday that an au- 
dience had been promised. Therefore I am leaving for Karlsruhe 
today in order to obtain a conference with the Kaiser through 
the Grand Duke. 

July 2 

On the Orient Express, on the way to Karlsruhe. 

All these days I have forgotten to note down a splendid mes- 
sage which Bismarck sent to the Sultan via Whitman-Newlinski. 


The Sultan had sent Bismarck via Newlinski-Whitman a wired 
request for advice on his present difficulties. Bismarck replied: 
“Fermete, pus sc laisser intimider, et loyaute eclair ee aux traites 
[Firmness, a refusal to be intimidated, and enlightened loyalty 
to treaties].” 

Loyaute eclairee is absolutely delightful. 

# # * 

Newlinski said a number of times: “When I hear Bismarck 
talking about politics, I feel like a musician who is listening to 
Rubinstein’s playing.” 

* * # 

At the station this morning I was a bit upset by Schnirer, the 
president of the Vienna Zionist Association, whom, like Landau, 
I had asked to see me before my departure. 

When I outlined the favorable results of Constantinople, and 
especially when I mentioned the decoration, his face darkened. 

I immediately took the opportunity to tell him that I wanted 
to induce Edmond Rothschild to join the movement by resigning 
my leadership. For, I said, there are Yids and there are Jews. 
The Yids will be in no mood to support the cause, for fear of 
thereby lending me personally a helping hand. 

July 3 

On the train, bound for Brussels. 

Yesterday Hechler met me at the station in Karlsruhe. The 
Grand Duke had gone to Freiburg and requested me to join him 
there, that is, at St. Blasien. 

Since I don’t need the Grand Duke at the moment, I had 
Hechler wire him that I was pressed for time, being expected 
in London, and could I have permission to report to him on my 
way back. The Sultan, I added, appeared to be well disposed 
toward our project. 


J ul Y 5> London 

Once again in London. This time fine weather* and 


thing enchanting. 

The approach, incidentally, was bad. On the crossing from 
Ostend to Dover we ran into some ugly waves. I had wished for 
bad weather in order to test my will-power. Sure enough one 
by one all the passengers had got sea-sick by the time we ap- 
proached Dover. I, too, had a slight touch of faintness, and I 
don’t know how my psychological experiment would have turned 
out if the thing had lasted a quarter of an hour longer. 

I arrived here a bit depressed and found other depressing 
things awaiting me. 

Goldsmid excused himself. He can’t get away from Cardiff 
tomorrow on account of a batallion inspection. 

Montagu invited me by letter to come and see him— but he 
said he had to leave in the evening (yesterday). I wrote him I 
could not come immediately, but begged him to sacrifice his 
Sunday for me, because I had brought along from Constanti- 
nople the presque-certitude [near certainty] that we would regain 
Palestine. Despite this, Sir Samuel Montagu went away and 
merely gave me an appointment for tomorrow at his office. I 
don’t know whether I shall even go there. I am preparing myself 
for his complete elimination from my plan, although this is cer- 
tain to do me harm in Constantinople where I have already men- 
tioned his name. 

The Rev. Singer came to see me in the evening. I stirred him 
up a bit. In fact, I shall first have to light a fire under everybody 

* * * 

This morning was better. I put the finishing touches on my 
speech for the Maccabeans and in the course of the forenoon 
sent it to Sylvie d’Avigdor, bit by bit, to be translated. 

# In English in the original. 


Lucien Wolf of the Daily Graphic came to interview me. 

During the past few days all the local papers have started to 
make a noise. 

Singer said yesterday that I should ask Lord Rothschild for 
an interview. I rejected this as something beneath my dignity. 
Singer said: Lord Rothschild is a patron. A patron has been 

defined by an English writer as follows: ‘One who looks with 
unconcern on a man struggling for life in the water, and when 
he has reached ground, encumbers him with help.’ * 

When you have triumphed in the Jewish cause, he will invite 
y 0U — together with other lions — to dinner.” 

I said: “So a dinner at Rothschild’s is the victor’s prize! Moi, 
je m’en fous [Me, I don’t give a damn about it], if you know that 

So today, hearing about the stir that is starting in the news- 
papers, I am asking myself with amusement whether this is 
already enough for that Rothschild invitation. 

Then I went to see our correspondent, Schidrowitz. If I can- 
not have the superos [top men] of Jewish finance for the light- 
house loan which the Sultan desires, I shall move Acheron. 

I promised Schidrowitz a commission for procuring this loan. 
But even if he made money on it, I said, the truth must be made 
known at all times and to everybody — namely, that I am not mak- 
ing anything on these transactions and am carrying them out only 
as entree en matiere [means of entry] in order to do the Sultan 
a favor with a view to the Jewish cause. 

July 5 

At noon, Lucien Wolf of the Daily Graphic came to interview 
me, after an interview with Zangwill, concerning me, had already 
appeared in today’s Sunday Times. 

During lunch, Wolf took notes for his story. 

In the afternoon there came Claude Montefiore and Frederic 
Mocatta of the Anglo-Jewish Association. I had requested Monte- 

* Translator's Note: Dr. Samuel Johnson in a letter to Lord Chesterfield (1755)- 


fiore to postpone the meeting of their Executive Committee 
it conflicted with tomorrow’s Maccabean banquet. I said I wanted 
to consolidate all the Jewish committees into a single big organ 
ization; and lest anyone believe that I wanted to promote myself 
in this way, I offered, in return for the acceptance of my simply 
formulated program, to resign the leadership of the movement 

I stated the program as follows: 

“The Society of Jews sets itself the task of acquiring, under 
international law, a territory for those Jews who are unable to 

The gentlemen asked for time to think this over, and I natur- 
ally acceded. However, I said that I did not want to take into the 
Society the associations as such, but simply the outstanding indi- 

It was an exhausting battle of words. Mocatta, who had not 
read my book, brought up all the old arguments. 

Montefiore said with gravity that I was demanding a revolu- 
tion in all the ideas he had held up to now. 

July 6 

Finished the speech for the Maccabeans tant bien que mal 
[after a fashion], tired as I am. 

I wrote to Montefiore and Mocatta that I accepted the pro- 
posal, advanced in the course of yesterday’s discussion, to make 

the Society of Jews, in the beginning, a societe d’ etudes [study 

(To such a body I would not, of course, make available the 
connections I have already acquired. My resources for action I 
would give only to a committee geared for action.) 

* * * 

A few hours later Mocatta answered that he considered the 

o e plan unacceptable, and the Jewish State neither possible 
nor desirable. v 

The funny part of it is that I had not even sent for Mocatta, 


but only for Montefiore. Mocatta came along with Montefiore as 
Antonin Proust once went along with Spuller to call on Casimir- 
pfrier, when the latter had been asked to form a cabinet. Casimir- 
p^rier thereupon took Proust as well into the cabinet, because he 
had happened along. 

Mocatta impressed me somewhat like an officious second at 
a duel. 

Schidrowitz came in order to worm out of me what the loan 
to the Sultan was to be based on. 

Because I am afraid that he would peddle it around as a 
“deal” and offer it to every Tom, Dick, and Harry, thus com- 
promising me in Constantinople, I didn’t tell him anything. It 
is true, it would be excellent for the project if I could make the 
light-house loan through bankers of the second rank, through 
the Africanders like Bamato, etc., because I could control them 
better than the Rothschilds, Montagus, etc. But I cannot risk 
letting myself be compromised by Schidrowitz’s business treat- 
ment. I’d rather not have the loan raised at all. 

J ul Y7 

Last evening, the Maccabean Dinner. 

I hadn’t been able to get Miss d’Avigdor’s translation type- 
written until yesterday afternoon. 

At five o’clock I received the clean copy and read it through 
with the Rev. Singer’s aid. I learned English, as it were, an hour 
before the meeting. I jotted down the pronunciation of the words 
between the lines. 

The banquet had a very festive character. To the toast pro- 
posed by Chairman Singer I replied in German and in French, 
which caused Zangwill to say jokingly that I was like the new 
periodical Cosmopolis, which appears in German, French, and 

Afterwards we moved to the auditorium, and I courageously 
read off my speech. 

It was a very great success. There followed a debate with the 
old arguments which I rebutted with the familiar material. With 


the exception of two almost impolite people — the political econo- 
mist Levy or Leve, and a Russian whose name I did not catch- 
even the opponents spoke respectfully. 

L. Wolf moved the appointment of a study commission, to be 
composed of Maccabeans and others, for an examination of my 

This elicited a debate, which only once again strengthened my 
antipathy to organizational claptrap. 

July 7 

Colonel Goldsmid telegraphed he would be here on Thursday. 

# * # 

Schidrowitz telegraphs he cannot undertake the transaction 
the way I proposed it. 

* * * 

Nordau wrote yesterday about Zadoc Kahn’s visit. Zadoc came 

to complain because — as he and Edmond Rothschild surmise- 
due to my publication the Turkish authorities in Palestine are 
giving the recent arrivals among the colonists a hard time and 
have even destroyed the latest colony. 

At the same time, Nordau, in a manner indicative of his cool- 
ing, excused himself for his absence from today’s Maccabean 

I immediately telegraphed Zadoc Kahn:* Have just arrived 
from Constantinople. Your apprehensions unjustified. Sultan 
displayed much good will. If subordinates commit acts of bru- 
tality I am authorized to complain directly to him. Give details 
Hotel Albemarle. 


To Newlinski I wired: 

Lighthouse and Armenian affairs effectively launched. But 
everything hopeless if it proves true that Turkish authorities 

• In French in the original. 


in Palestine are forcibly deporting newly arrived colonists. Please 
inquire Constantinople immediately. Report results here. Re- 
gards, Theodor. 

July 8 

I am already very tired. 

Yesterday I got the Armenian matter started with Lucien 
Wolf. I asked him to initiate a little press campaign for the 
cooling of tempers in the Armenian question. 

* * # 

Then I drove to the House of Commons to see Montagu. 

The Gothic stone carvings and the activity in the waiting hall 
interested me greatly. 

At the sight of these imposing parliamentary trappings — after 
all, externals have a dramatic effect — I experienced a touch of 
dizziness such as I had felt that time in the ante-chamber of the 
Grand Duke of Baden. At the same time I began to understand 
why the English Jews should cling to a country in which they 
can enter this house as masters. 

Montagu appeared and led me into a charming little confer- 
ence room with Gothic windows which looked out on a Gothic 

I recounted for him the practical results, from the Grand 
Duke to the Sultan. 

He was greatly surprised and soon regained his enthusiasm. 
A splendid old fellow. 

His first and foremost misgiving was that the Sultan, once he 
had been paid the Jewish tribute-loan, would kick the Jewish 
immigrants around. 

The violent sound of a bell signal summoned Montagu to 
a vote on the tea tax. During his ten minutes’ absence, the solu- 
tion of this difficulty occurred to me. 

We accept a tribute of one million pounds, on which a loan of 
20 millions is to be raised. We pay the tribute and the loan in 


For the first years, 100,000 pounds tribute, and a loan of two 
millions on that. Gradually, as the immigration proceeds the 
tribute increases together with new portions of the Jewish loan 
based on it, until the entire amount is paid up and there are 
so many Jews in Palestine, accompanied by Jewish militarv 
power, that one need no longer fear that the Turks will attempt 
to get a stranglehold on them. 

I then drove with Montagu to his house. On the way he told 
me that we must try to win over Edmond Rothschild without 

Further, he told me in confidence, yesterday evening, that the 
Hirsch Foundation had at its disposal a “liquid” sum, the actual 
amount of which no one had any idea of. It is ten million pounds 

If we win over the Hirsch Association for our plan and obtain 
something like five million pounds, this could assure the tribute 
for the first few years of immigration. 

* # # 

A Jewish mass meeting is to be called for me here on Sunday. 
Montagu, in whose constituency— the East End— the meeting 

is to take place, thinks it would be premature to address this 

I am still reserving my decision on this. Flectere si nequeo 
superos Acheronta movebo [If I cannot bend the powers above, 

I will move the lower world]. 

July 8 

Received a letter of thanks from Zadoc Kahn, which I am 
answering as follows: 

Reverend Grand Rabbi:* 

I am making an immediate demarche — if the word does not 
seem to you too diplomatic and " puissant ” — to Constantinople. 

• la French in the original. 


I shall let you know the result, maybe in person, next week in 

My plan, scornfully referred to as a dream, has been taking on 
the shape of reality for some time. 

I have already achieved astonishing results— astonishing even 
to me. It is imperative that Edmond Rothschild be with us. In 
order to obtain his assistance, I am offering to withdraw com- 
pletely from the leadership of the movement, in order to dispel 
any suspicion of personal ambition. Let him accept my program 
and undertake to continue the work that is already started, and 
I shall give my word of honor to occupy myself with the matter 
only as a soldier in the ranks. 

Together with Sir Samuel Montagu and Colonel Goldsmid 
I shall endeavor to find the form in which we could offer Edmond 
Rothschild the presidency of the Society of Jews — and later some 
other title. 

All this is absolutely confidential — and important, believe me. 

I shall supply you with proof of this. Please prepare Rothschild. 

Very sincerely yours, 

J u ty 9 

I slept on this letter to Zadoc Kahn and then didn’t send it off. 
As Newlinski says, “Let ’em simmer!” 

Yesterday I spoke with Alfred Cohen and asked him to get 
me an introduction to Salisbury through Lord Rothschild. I 
said I wanted to do Lord Salisbury’s policy the favor of settling 
the Armenian question and thus restoring the lost English influ- 
ence in Constantinople. 

Alfred Cohen is a pleasant, intelligent gentleman. He took 
down a sort of protocol in which the facts are set down elegantly 
and clearly for Lord Rothschild. He plans to discuss it with 
Rothschild while riding horseback today. 


July 10 

Goldsmid is here. 

After luncheon we talked in his smoking room which is half 
in the basement. His house in Princes Square is a bit quaint 
The Goldsmid-d’Avigdors are one of the best Jewish families 
and the house contains beautiful mementoes. 

Goldsmid seemed cooler than he did that time in Cardiff— 
or was I more easily satisfied in the early days? 

Nevertheless, I stirred him up with an account of my results 
up to date. But what he liked best of all, unless I am mistaken 
was my word that I would withdraw from the leadership of the 
movement if Edmond Rothschild joined it. By this I want to 
show the latter that I do not care about my personal leadership. 
Goldsmid pointed out that he could not play any prominent 
part as long as he was on full pay* Incompatibility, etc. Still, 
I could see that he agreed in principle. 

I requested him to introduce me to Arthur Cohen, Queen’s 
Counsel, as the latter is a friend of the Duke of Argyll, who is 
important on the Armenian Committee. 

I also asked him to get the Prince of Wales to give me an intro- 
duction to the Czar. 

July 10 

Paid the publisher David Nutt 19 pounds and a few shillings 
for the English edition. He has sold only 160 copies. 

Had to send 300 francs to Paris, too, a few days ago, to Nordau, 
for the French translation. 

July 11 

The Russian journalist Rapoport (from Novosti ) came to 
interview me. 

As we talked it turned out that he has connections with the 
Armenian Committees, particularly with Nazarbek, the leader 
of the Hindjakists. Rapoport indicated to me that he suspected the 

# In English in the original. 

Armenian revolutionaries were being supported with money by 

the English government. 

I asked him to put me in touch with Nazarbek. I want to 
make it clear to this revolutionary that the Armenians should 
now make their peace with the Sultan, without prejudice to 
their later claims when Turkey is partitioned. 

# # * 

Wrote to Newlinski, telling him that Montagu and Goldsmid 
agree to the idea of a vassal state. I also outlined for him the 
plan of a graduated immigration loan, beginning with a tribute 
of 100,000 pounds sterling — that is, a loan of two millions as 
earnest— and rising up to a million annually — which would 
bring the total loan to 20 millions. 

Also informed him of the steps I have taken in the Armenian 
affair to date. 

Luncheon at Montagu’s. Also present were Colonel Goldsmid 
and a Polish Jew, Landau, who lives here. The latter has an ag- 
gressively sharp mind, but seems to have influence in local Jew^ 
ish circles and also is a member of the Hirsch Committee. 

After the meal, a short practical debate. I explained to the 
three what the record is so far, and that we want to induce Bis- 
marck to write to the Sultan and launch the idea of vassal status. 

Montagu laid down three conditions for his public adhesion: 

1) The consent of the Great Powers. 

2) That the Hirsch Fund give us its liquid capital, that is, 
ten million pounds. 

3) That a Rothschild, which means Edmond, join the Com- 

Landau proposed the formation of a secret committee rvhich 
would come out into the open as soon as the matter were assured. 

Goldsmid said, pointing to me: “He is more than any com- 
mittee ." * 

He pledged himself to write a letter of recommendation to 
Edmond Rothschild. 

* In English in the original. 


All three voiced apprehension with regard to tomorrow’s East 
End meeting. They said it was premature and meant incitement 
of the masses. 

I said that I did not want a demagogic movement, but if worst 
came to worst — if the aristocrats proved too aristocratic— I 
would set the masses in motion, too. 

July 12 

Last night at the Rev. Singer’s. Lucien Wolf and Solomon 
also present. The discussion dragged pitifully and kept repeating 
itself. 0 

The greatest zeal for organization and ability was displayed 
by the painter Solomon. Lucien Wolf would have liked to 
“learn details about the Sultan,” but he is a very fine young 
fellow, too. Rev. Singer is not sure whether he would not weaken 
his position if he participated in the Society of Jews. 

Finally we did agree to form an enquiring or watching com- 
mittee*— namely, from among those Maccabeans who last Mon- 
day had spoken in favor of my plan. 

The name of the committee should not be “Society of Jews’ — 
Rev. Singer said this name was " colourless ” *— but a name 
that would in some way express a relationship to Palestine. 

All these people, no matter how decent and likeable they may 
be, by their vacillation make me the leader! 

Letter to the Grand Duke of Baden: 

Your Royal Highness: 

Unfortunately I w'as not fated to make use of your kind per- 
mission to come to St. Blasien when I arrived at Karlsruhe after 
our Royal Highness had departed. Meetings which had been 
arranged for months were awaiting me here in London. 

, 1 < . )U ’. ® wever > I could report on important developments in 
e Jewis cause in which Your Royal Highness is taking such 
gracious interest. Notable advances in Constantinople as well 

In English in the original. 


as here in London may be registered. Tomorrow I am leaving 
for Paris, and from there I plan to go to Austria at the end of 
the week. May I now again ask for the great favor of being re- 
ceived by Your Royal Highness on Monday the 20th or Tuesday 
the 21st of this month for the purpose of rendering my report to 
you? If you will kindly state the place where I am to make my 
appearance, your answer will reach me at Paris, Hotel Castille, 
rue Cambon. 

Permit me, Your Royal Highness, this expression of my re- 
spectful devotion. 

Dr. Theodor Herzl. 

J ul y 13 

Yesterday noon I went to Westboume Park Chapel with an 
introduction from Rev. Singer to hear the “non-conformist” 
preacher Dr. Clifford. I listened to the soporific last part of his 
sermon in which with passionate gestures and in an oratorical 
voice he served up hoary platitudes. 

The audience was hypnotized — mass psychology — and after- 
wards the collection plate went around. 

On the way out I spoke with Clifford and told him that I had 
come for the reconciliation of the Armenians. 

He sent me to Mr. Atkin. 

Then I took the Underground to Shepherd’s Bush to see the 
Armenian revolutionary, Nazarbek. When I arrived at his house, 
he had just left for the Underground with Georg Brandes. 

The house is noisy, second-rate, middle-class elegance, and from 
time to time wild Armenian faces appear in the crack of the door. 
They are refugees who find shelter here. 

The Russian Rapoport had introduced me. Together with 
him and Mme. Nazarbek I waited in the living-room for the man 
of the house. I said that I had not had my lunch yet, whereupon 
the woman with an unfriendly expression had a piece of meat 
brought out to me. 

Nazarbek came home. The head of a genius, the way they are 


fixed up in the Quartier Latin. Black, tangled serpentine locks, 
black beard, pale face. 

He mistrusts the Sultan and would like to have guarantees 
before he submits. His political ideas are confused, his acquaint- 
ance with the European situation downright childish. He said: 
Austria is building fortifications on the Black Seal 

And, as it seems, his word is obeyed by the poor people in 
Armenia who are being massacred. He lives in London, not un- 

I asked whether he knew who was finally benefitting from all 
this unrest, Russia or England? 

He replied that he did not care; he was revolting only against 
the Turks. 

The woman kept interrupting us, speaking in Armenian and 
evidently against me. She has a wicked look; and who knows 
how much she is to blame for the bloodshed. Or is it the evil look 
of the frightened, the persecuted? 

I promised I would try to get the Sultan to stop the massacres 
and new arrests, as a token of his good will. But he would hardly 
release the prisoners in advance, as Nazarbek desired. I explained 
to him in vain that, after all, the revolutionaries could watch 
the course of the peace negotiations without disarming, with 
their guns at their feet. 

# # * 

In the evening, my mass meeting in the East End, at the Work- 
ingmen’s Club. 

Posters in English and Yiddish on the walls; the Yiddish text 
stated erroneously that I had spoken with the Sultan. 

The workingmen s clubhouse was full. People crowded into 
every corner. A stage served as the platform from which I spoke 
extemporaneously. I had merely jotted down a few catchwords on 

a piece of paper. I talked for an hour in the frightful heat. Great 

Succeeding speakers eulogized me. One of them, Ish-Kishor, 


compared me to Moses, Columbus, etc. The chairman. Chief 
Rabbi Gaster, made a fiery speech. 

Finally, I thanked them with a few words in which I pro- 
tested against their effusiveness. 

Great jubilation, hat-waving, hurrahs that followed me out 
into the street. 

Now it really depends only on myself whether I shall become 
the leader of the masses; but I don’t want to be, if in some way 
I can buy the Rothschilds at the price of my resignation from 
the movement. 

# * * 

In the East End propaganda committees are springing up 
spontaneously. Program: The Jewish Statel 
Party leaders: Rabbinowicz, Ish-Kishor, de Haas, and others — 
fine, enthusiastic people! 

July 14 

Last night I did the most stupid or the most clever thing I 
have yet done in this matter. 

The Hovevei Zion Society had invited me to their “Head- 
quarters Tent.” This is being held out in the East End, at the 
Spanish synagogue at Bevis Marks. I came late; the discussion had 
been going on for an hour and a half 

(Continued at Folkestone, July 15 ) 
and I had been its subject before my arrival — as young de Haas, 
who had been waiting for me at the gateway, informed me. The 
Hovevei Zion want to offer to join in with me if I pledge myself 
not to attack them again. 

My entrance was greeted with friendly drumming on the 
tables, and as usual I was given the place of honor. On the other 
side of Chairman Prag sat Goldsmid, looking a bit gloomy. 

They read lengthy reports about a settlement which is to be 
founded and is to cost I don’t know how many hundreds of 
pounds: so-and-so-many oxen, so-and-so-many horses, seeds, tim- 
ber, etc. 


The question was asked whether the colonists were protected 
and it was answered in the negative. 

I tied onto that when my project came up for discussion I 
said I wanted only the kind of colonization that we could pro- 
tect with our own Jewish army. I had to oppose infiltration I 
would not interfere with the efforts of the Zionist societies, but 
Edmond Rothschild’s sport must cease at all costs. Let him sub- 
ordinate himself to the national cause and then I would not only 
be prepared to give him the highest position, but also pay for his 
assumption of leadership with my own resignation. 

A storm ensued. 

Dr. Hirsch spoke against me at great length. 

Rabbinowicz, my friend from the East End, declared that no 
Hovev Zion could ever come out in opposition to Edmond Roth- 
schild. He hoped that Jewish history would not have to record 
any strife between Edmond Rothschild and myself. 

Ish-Kishor asked Colonel Goldsmid up to what point a Hovev 
could go along with me unofficially. 

Goldsmid gave an evasive answer, saying that naturally he 
could dictate no one’s actions outside the Hovevei Zion. 

I got up and said: 

“I shall formulate Mr. Ish-Kishor’s question more precisely. 
He means: does the Colonel regard my secret steps to be in any 
way practical and to be taken seriously?” 

The Colonel said haltingly: "Well* ... if Dr. Herzl— I 
mean if the people to whom he spoke— if they are not acting in 

ad faith, then Dr. Herzl has already achieved a remarkable 

I then declared that I could not abandon my stand on infiltra- 
tion even if I thereby lost the support of all the Hovevei Zion 
societies, which are now under a central organization. 

• ^ e ^f u P on chairman, Mr. Prag, adjourned the meeting 
with a dry, curt “Good-bye, Dr. Herzl!” * 

Goldsmid drew me aside and told me that in the afternoon, 
at the Queen s garden-party, he had not been able to get to the 

# In English in the original. 


Prince of Wales and therefore had been unable to do anything in 
the matter of an introduction. 

Accordingly, now as previously, it will be left for me to do 
everything by myself. 

In the street I immediately took Rabbinowicz by the arm and 
said: “Organize the East End for me!” 

Then I drove with Herbert Bentwich, who is devoted to me 
to the House of Parliament, where I wanted to speak with 
Stevenson about the Armenian problem. 

Bentwich called my attention to my mistake: I had been 
too brusque; I should not have told the Headquarters Tent that 
they had bungled things, but should have praised their ideas and 
past achievements as exemplary. 

He was right. And yet I immediately had the feeling that in 
addition to having been frank, my attitude could have been wise, 
despite its momentary bad effect. 

Folkestone, July 15 

As I was packing my things at the hotel yesterday morning, 

I was surprised by a visit from Ish-Kishor. He is the poor Rus- 
sian-Jewish teacher whose speech in the Jewish jargon at the 
East End meeting had moved me deeply and carried away the 
other listeners. 

As I sat on the platform of the workingmen’s stage on Sunday 
I experienced strange sensations. I saw and heard my legend 
being born. The people are sentimental; the masses do not see 
clearly. I believe that even now they no longer have a clear image 
of me. A light fog is beginning to rise around me, and it may per- 
haps become the cloud in which I shall walk. 

But even if they no longer see my features distinctly, still they 
divine that I mean very well by them, and that I am the man 
of the little people. 

Of course, they would probably show the same affection to 
some clever deceiver and impostor as they do to me, in whom 
they are not deceived. 


This is perhaps the most interesting thing I am recording in 
these notebooks — the way my legend is being born. 

And while I was listening, on that people’s tribunal, to the 
emphatic words and the cheering of my adherents, I inwardly 
resolved quite firmly to become ever worthier of their trust and 
their affection. 

# * # 

Ish-Kishor, then, came yesterday to offer me the formation of 
an organization which would recognize me as its head. A hundred 
men would join together in the East End, recruit comrades in 
all countries, and carry on agitation for the Jewish State. 

This I accepted; and when de Haas, who wishes to be my 
“honorary secretary ” * came, I proposed that they name this as- 
sociation The Knights of Palestine * However, I said that I 
would have to remain outside its ranks, because I must not belong 
to any propagandizing organization. 

# # # 

De Haas understood my position and explained it to Ish- 
Kishor: I intended to unite the poor in order to put pressure 
on the lukewarm and hesitant rich. 

When I went to Montagu later to ask him to get the Armenian 
matter rolling for me with Stevenson, the Vice-President of the 
Anglo-Armenian Committees, I could tell from his at-your-serv- 
ice manner the effect of my success in the East End. 

* # # 

I am satisfied with the result of my trip to London. 

The conditional promise of Montagu and Goldsmid to join 
in with us if Edmond Rothschild and the Hirsch Fund partici- 
pate and the Sultan enters into positive negotiations, suffices 
me for the present. 

# In English in the original. 


July 1 6 , Boulogne-sur-mer 

Nevertheless, it should not be forgotten that both Montagu 
and Goldsmid declined to preside at the East End meeting. Nor 
did either of them attend the banquet of the Maccabean Club. 

But I need them — consequently 

July 17 

In Paris again. 

It was in one of the rooms I am now occupying at the Hotel 
Castille that I wrote The Jewish State (in the form of the Address 
to the Rothschilds). 

Telegrams from Newlinski were waiting for me. 

One of them reads: * 

Sidney Whitman has just arrived, wants to undertake mission. 
How much can I offer him in addition to traveling expenses? 
Kind regards, Newlinski. 

The second one:* 

Special request: buy two sets of mantel clocks, two silver 
candlesticks, first quality, half a meter or more in height, massive, 
renaissance style, one Oriental or Moorish style, each two or 
three thousand francs cash. I need them urgently for His Majesty 
himself. Unobtainable here. In any case, come see me at Carlsbad. 
Prince of no use at moment. 


The third: 

Would be good if you came to discuss everything again. Day 
after tomorrow Whitman returning from Herbert.** Reply about 
sets, have to wire Constantinople whether obtainable. Regards, 

* # * 

That business with the mantel sets I don’t quite understand. 
Why am I to get them, of all things? In any case, I am in no 

# In French in the original. 

From here on in French in the original. 


position to pay for them out of my pocket. I wired back he should 
indicate whether I should suggest to my friends that they make 
the Sultan a present of two sumptuous sets. If not, to whom 
should it be sent C.O.D. I told him that I could not spare Whit- 
man any more than his expenses. But if he participated, our fu- 
ture gratitude would be all the greater. 

* * * 

Talked with Bernard Lazare. Excellent type of a fine, clever 
French Jew. 

# * * 

Nordau has fresh scruples: it would be an internal Russo- 
Jewish affair, etc. 

I told him, as well as Lazare, that I intend to purchase the 
enrollment of Edmond Rothschild and the Hirsch Fund by my 
own withdrawal. This seemed the right thing to both of them. 

July 18 

Nordau said yesterday: “The story goes that they entered into 
conversations with you in Constantinople. Didn’t the people 
ask, whom are we talking to? who has the money?” 

I said: “I have made the connection, that is all. I had a right 
to make reference to Montagu. And, incidentally, this is where 
my tremendous risk lay. Montagu had merely declared to me, 
in absolute privacy, his conditional willingness to join in with 
me. I ran the risk of his telling me, on my return: that was only 
smoking-room talk, not serious. However, he has stuck to his 
word even now; and so today I am covered.” 

* * * 

Yesterday afternoon the likeable Bernard Lazare brought me 

Mr. Meyerson of the Agence Havas and of the local Zionist asso- 


Nordau and the sculptor Beer joined us later. This gathering 
of intellectually notable men in my own room and on my own 
ground once again gave me a distinct feeling of what enormous 
progress my idea has made. 

Meyerson raised many, all too many, objections, particularly 
with regard to the ability of Jews to become farmers. 

I finally begged him: “Ne me faites done pas tant de miseres. 
Nous ne pouvous pas prevoir I’avenir. Marchons, et nous ver- 
rons [Don’t make me mountains with your mole hills. We can’t 
foresee the future. Let us go forward and we shall see].” 

That mollified him. He took it upon himself to go to Edmond 
Rothschild and tell him that I was prepared to call on him. I 
did not hide from the gentlemen the fact that this was one of 
the greatest sacrifices I was making for the Jewish cause. For 
Edmond Rothschild’s treatment of Nordau has soured me on 
him. As for Albert Rothschild’s parcheschkat toward me in Vi- 
enna, I kept silent about that. 

I asked Meyerson to formulate my standpoint clearly: I am 
demanding the unification of all Zionist groups, particularly 
of the Hirsch Fund and of Edmond Rothschild. The latter need 
declare his adherence only conditionally. When I have completed 
the diplomatic side of the whole matter, the gentlemen desig- 
nated by me are to take over its direction. For my part, I shall 
give my word of honor to abstain from assuming the leadership 
of the masses. I do not want a demagogic movement, although 
in case of need I am prepared to create one. The consequences, 
to be sure, could be serious. 

But if my program is accepted, I shall withdraw completely 
from the leadership of the movement. 

* * * 

In the evening, had some beer with Schiff. I reminded him 
of last year. He said: Well, so perhaps I was wrong. 

Actually, he is still quite obdurate and uncomprehending. 


July 18 

Telegram from St. Blasien, dated July 17: 

Grand Duke unable to receive you at time stated. Requests 
you to present matter in writing. 

Secret Cabinet. 

July i 9 

Yesterday I delivered the “Address to the Rothschilds.” 

Thus everything I proposed to do comes to pass, even though 
at another time and in another way, and the goal will undoubt- 
edly be attained, although I myself shall hardly live to see it. 

Yesterday morning I visited Leven in his appartement de bour- 
geois cossu [upper-middle class apartment]. Leven treats the 
Jewish question rather nonchalantly. He’s not badly off. While 
we were talking, Meyerson was announced. He had come from 
“Baron Edmond” to invite Leven and me to a conference at 
which he was also going to be present. Time: one-thirty p.m. 

At half past one I was in the rue Laffitte. The attendant took 
my card and ushered me into the first waiting room, for general 
visitors who have business with this banking house. A few min- 
utes later I was shown into another wood-panelled reception 
room where Meyerson was already waiting and where he pre- 
pared me for the fact that the Baron was a human being like 

I was not surprised at this piece of information. 

After we had been waiting for about ten minutes, a door 
opened and Leven came in, followed by a tall, slim man in his 
orties. I had thought he was much older. He looks like an 
a gmg youth, his movements are quick and yet shy, and he has 
f r ° wn k earc * on t ^ le verge of turning grey, a long nose, 
an o enshely large mouth. He wore a red necktie and a 
white waistcoat which flapped about his thin body. 

asked him to what extent he was acquainted with my plan, 
ereupon he began to spout: he had heard about me as a new 


Bernard I’hermite — and lost himself all over the map in a refu- 
tation of my program, of which he had no exact knowledge. 

After five minutes I interrupted him, saying: “You don’t know 
what it is all about. Let me explain it to you first.” 

He stopped in bewilderment. 

I began: “A colony is a little state, a state is a big colony. You 
want to build a small state, I, a big colony.” 

And once again, as so many times previously, I unfolded the 
entire plan. He listened at times with surprise; at a few points 
I read admiration in his eyes. 

However, he has no faith in the promises of the Turks. And 
even if he did believe in them, he still would not engage in such 
an undertaking. He thinks it would be impossible to keep the 
influx of the masses into Palestine under control. The first to 
arrive would be 150,000 shnorrers [beggars] who would have to 
be fed. He didn’t feel equal to it, but perhaps I would be. He 
could not undertake such a responsibility. There might be mis- 

“Are there none now?” I interjected. “Isn’t anti-Semitism a 
permanent mishap with loss of honor, life, and property?” 

The adherence of the Londoners is not enough for him. Sir 
S. Montagu wanted to stand behind him, that he could well 
understand. But as for Colonel Goldsmid, in a letter he had just 
received Goldsmid had represented my undertaking as downright 

This news staggered me greatly. I should never have expected 
this from Goldsmid. If he is against me, why didn’t he tell me 
so with military candor, why did he leave me confident and on 
that Hovevei Zion evening expressly assure me of his sympathy 
in my undertaking, provided that I was not being led astray in 

Colonel Goldsmid will no longer be counted upon. 

Mr. Leven nodded pleasantly to every word “the Baron” said; 
Meyerson, too, agreed with everything. 

After two hours of this battle of words, I picked up my um- 
brella from the floor and rose: 


“By way of concluding this conversation, which has been a 
serious one and which we have not carried on for our entertain- 
ment, I say to you: By what do I recognize the power of an idea? 
By the fact that a man commits himself when he says Yes and 
commits himself also when he says No.” 

The Baron made a very uncomfortable face, indeed, an angry 

I added: “You were the keystone of the entire combination. 
If you refuse, everything I have fashioned so far will fall to pieces. 
I shall then be obliged to do it in a different way. I shall start 
a mass agitation, and that way it will be even harder to keep the 
masses under control. I was going to turn the direction of the 
whole project over to you, the philanthropic Zionist, and with- 
draw. Once the affair with the Sultan had been straightened out, 
you could have made public or kept secret as much of it as you 
pleased. The regulation of mass immigration is a matter for the 
government. If, e.g., a “run” were to set in, unfavorable reports 
about housing or the employment situation could be published, 
which would slow down the torrent. All these are details of ad- 
ministration. You think that it would be a misfortune to operate 
with such masses. Reflect whether the misfortune will not be 
greater if I am forced to set the masses in motion by unplanned 

This is precisely what I wanted to avoid. I have shown my 
good intentions, and that I am no intransigeant entete [obstinate 
cuss]. You are not willing — I have done my share.” 

Then I took my leave. We both declared that we were 
delighted to have made each other’s acquaintance, and then I 

Rothschild detained the other two by their coat buttons; I 
think, he had asked them there for his protection, in case I 
turned out to be an anarchist. 

A half-hour later Meyerson came to my hotel with a sweet- 
and-sour expression. Was he under unofficial orders from the 
Baron when he advised me to start on a small scale, and obtain 
small concessions in Turkey for Edm. R.’s colonies? Then, he 

said the Baron might gradually show himself more favorably dis- 
posed toward my plans. 

V General impression: Edmond is a decent, good-natured, faint- 
hearted man, who absolutely fails to understand the matter and 
would like to stop it, the way a coward tries to stop necessary 
surgery. I believe he is now aghast at having got himself involved 
with Palestine, and perhaps he will run to Alphonse and say: 
“You were right; I should have gone in for racing horses rather 

than resettling Jews.” 

And the fate of many millions is to hang on such men! 

# * # 

To Newlinski I telegraphed: 

Edmond R. is making difficulties which are threatening to have 
repercussions in London. He first wanted small concessions for 
which he would presumably offer small counter-services. 

July 20 , Paris 

Addendum to Rothschild conversation. 

Actually, I have noted down very little on the preceding pages 
about this talk which was one of the most important I have had. 

I had to combat feelings of listlessness yesterday. When I think 
how easy and obvious the whole thing will appear to people once 
it is accomplished and against what idiotic obstacles I get sick 
fighting and wearing myself out 

Among other things, Edmond R. said, piqued: “I didn’t need 
you to come along and tell me that we now have machines at 
our disposal.” 

I answered: “I had no intention of instructing you.” 

At another point in the conversation he said: 

Et qu’est-ce que vous me demandez [and what do you want 
me to do]?” 

I answered brusquely: “Pardon, vous ne m’avez pas compris. 
Je ne vous demande rien du tout. Je vous invite seulement de 
donner votre adhdsion sous condition [I beg your pardon, you 


did not understand me. I want nothing at all from you. I am 
inviting you only to give your conditional adherence].” 

Leven and Meyerson, as I said, quite agreed with him. 

Ils abondaient dans le sens indiqud par lui [they echoed what- 
ever line he took], they obligingly provided him with arguments. 
When Edmond said that there would be no curbing the masses, 
Meyerson said darkly: “Yes, just like what happened on the 
Chodinko plain.” 

Leven even had the presumption to declare that up till now I 
had not achieved anything. 

Twice Edmond R. said: “II ne faut pas avoir les yeux plus gros 
que le ventre [one mustn’t have eyes bigger than one’s stomach].” 
That, I believe, is the extent of his philosophical insight. 

July 20 , Paris 

I am writing de Haas in London that they should begin to 
organize the masses. This will be the reply to the Chodinko argu- 

July 21 

On the train past Jaxtzell, on the way to Carlsbad where New- 
linski has urgently summoned me. 

Another addendum to the Rothschild conversation: 

I mentioned the fact that I was being aided by three people 
whose traveling expenses I was paying: a diplomat (Newlinski), 
a journalist (Sidney Whitman), and an English clergyman 
(Hechler). I did not give him their names. I said that the clergy- 
man was not expecting any reward but that if success comes we 
would have to buy the diplomat a fine estate and give the jour- 
nalist some decent compensation. When I said this, Rothschild 
gave Leven a very sly look which was intended to mean “Aha!” 

July 21 

Talked with Nordau and Beer yesterday and told them the 
answer I had found to Rothschild’s objection: the organization 


of our masses, without delay. Our people will be organized be- 
fore their departure, and not merely upon their arrival. No one 
will be allowed to enter without a certificate of departure. 

Nordau expressed his complete agreement with me and even 
wishes to join the Paris Committee, as I put it, “as Chief of the 
Movement in France.” He demurred a little against the title 
“Chief,” but accepted the post. 

# # # 

In the afternoon I spoke in the club rooms of the Russian 
Jewish students, out in the Gobelins quarter. B. Lazare was pres- 
ent, also three Jewish female students from Russia. The room was 
packed. I made the speech with which I am familiar by now, 
but was not in good form. 

I spoke with forbearance of the moneyed Jews who are in no 
hurry, and concluded with the words: “Je ne vous dis pas encore: 
marchons — je dis seulement: la jeunesse, debout! [I am not 
saying to you as yet, ‘Forward march!’ All I am saying is, ‘Youth, 
to your feet!]” 

I called on them to start organizing the cadres. 

* * * 

Et nous voila repartis de Paris [And here we are, leaving Paris 

Never has this charming city so enchanted me as on this part- 

When shall I see Paris again? 

fc wL